Embedded System Framework
Tasks and/or
purpose
Local
context
Group
structure
Member goals,
beliefs, and
characteristics
Social
system
Group
interaction
Cognitive and
emotional
processing
Group
decisions
and records
Subjective
member
assessments
Embedded System Framework
Ch. 3 - Juries
Trial evidence,
jury instruction
Courthouse and
presiding judge
Jury size and
decision rule
Juror beliefs,
values, and
experiences
Constitution
Social norms
Media system
Civic attitudes/
behaviors
Narrative
processing
Jury verdict
or finding
Majoritarianism,
argument
distribution,
momentum
Subjective
Assessments
of jury service
Embedded System Framework
Ch. 3 - Group decision making
Nature of issue
or problem
Group size
Time available
Attitude type
and distribution
Argument
systems
Discussion
functions and
sequencing
Valence and
content of
arguments used
Content and
quality of
decision(s)
and/or report
Embedded System Framework
Ch. 4 - Group procedures
Task complexity
and importance
Formal codes
and bylaws
Procedural expertise
and traditions
Resources available
for training/support
Designated group
longevity and mission
Procedural legal
requirements
Norms for arranging
physical space and
comm. networks
Strong reciprocity
Political culture
(democratic norms,
power relationships)
Group structure:
comm. network,
arrangement,
discussion
procedures, and
decision rule
Faithfulness of
procedural
appropriation
Discussion
functions and
sequencing
Group
development
Degree and
intensity of conflict
Procedural
knowledge,
expectations,
and preferences
Consideration
of others’ views
Quality and
representativeness
of group decision
Duration of
discussion
Confidence in
(and commitment to)
decision and group
Embedded System Framework: Ch. 5 - Group size, diversity,
creativity, information sharing, and related factors
Emphasis on
innovation and
diversity
Strength of link
between status
and expertise
Resources
devoted to training
Economic pressure
to innovate
Changing workforce
demographics
Social stratification
Anti-discrimination laws
Cultural orientations
(individualist/collectivist,
hierarchical/egalitarian)
Equality and
dynamism of
group structure
Maturity and
cohesion of group
Group size and
resources
Distribution of
expertise and
external ties
Members’ status
consciousness
and openness to
diversity, change,
and new ideas
Integration of
physical resources
Idea
generation
Information
seeking and
exchange
Attention to
group structure
and process
Originality
and quality of
decisions and/or
recommendations
Effectiveness of
coordinated action
Satisfaction with
process and
outcomes
Embedded System Framework
Ch. 6 - Teamwork
Leadership
(facilitation,
role clarification,
coordination)
Commitment
to team model
Task complexity
and task type
(coordination vs.
cooperative)
Training
and support
Leader role
established
Mutual
performance
monitoring
Authority
structure
Structural
flexibility
Backup
behavior
Stress/pressure
applied to learn
Shared
mental models
Environmental
monitoring and
adaptation
Team orientation
and mutual trust
Athletic archetype
of teamwork
Collectivist
cultural norms
Clear
communication
Team
effectiveness
Embedded System Framework
Ch. 6 - Role and status distribution
Institutionalized
role system
Status
allocation
Level of social
stratification
Conventional
role norms and
distributions
Diffuse status
characteristic
stereotypes
Role structure
(behavioral
requirements/
restrictions)
Distribution of
speaking
opportunities/
interruptions
Status system
Distribution
of attention,
influence,
and respect
Behavioral
expectations
Productivity
Distribution of
rewards/
resources
Satisfaction,
comfort, and
resentment
Embedded System Framework
Ch. 7 - Group cohesion formation
Nature of the
task and/or
task-related
conflict
Distribution of
felt and wanted
relational needs
and conflict
orientations
Individualist/
collectivist norms
Culturally salient
relational tensions
Relational
communication
and conflict
Group
cohesion
Embedded System Framework: Ch. 8 - Normative, symbolic,
and identity conflict and convergence
Task requires intraand/or inter-group
cooperation vs.
competition
Inter-group conflicts
with other local groups
Organizational
socialization practices
Institutional support
for inter-group contact
Equality of member
status relationships
Nature and strength
of group norms
Salience of different
social identities (and
primary group identity)
Confidence in one’s
independent judgment
Participants’ diverse
identities and allegiances
Pool of social identities, (including to other groups)
group archetypes, and
salient symbols or
dramatic narratives
Individualist/collectivist
cultural orientations
Socialization to
conform with/adapt
prototypical norms
Distribution and
management of
deviance (rejection,
norm adjustment)
Symbolic conflict
and convergence
Dialogue and
storytelling
Group cohesion
Subjective
assessment of
group’s qualities
Increase/reduction in
inter-group stereotypes
and prejudices
Exclusion/departure
from the group
Embedded System Framework
Ch. 9 - Group-based personal growth and learning
Cooperative vs.
competitive group task
Support for group
leadership training
Collaborative,
competitive,
or individualistic
work/reward system
Degree of ambiguity in
group structure (roles,
procedural norms)
General recognition
of non-conscious
processes
Group/social
skill
Knowledge/
understanding of
topics (health, etc.)
Group cohesion/
mutual trust
Self-disclosure
and emotional
processing
Participants’ willingness
to express emotion
and engage in conflict
Dramatic role playing
and self-expression
Awareness of
own and group’s
non-conscious
behavior
Direct confrontation
of emotional conflict
Self-esteem/
confidence
Participants’ personal
emotional/psychological
histories and health
Cultural emphasis on
personal development
Non-directive/
interpretive
group leadership
Embedded Systems Theory summary
Nature of group task
(esp. coop./competitive)
Institutional support/
training for groups
Decision rule and
discussion procedures
Rigor of discussion
Role/power relationships
Completeness of
information exchange
Leadership style/ability
Competitiveness and
equity of power/status
relations and rewards
Group maturity/flexibility
Positive/negative
social relations
Group cohesion, trust,
and commitment
Procedural
monitoring/talk
Policies toward
diversity/innovation
Distribution of member
beliefs, attitudes,
information
Symbolic expression/
Narrative processing
Socio-economic
divisions/stratification
Cultural orientations
(individualist/collectivist,
hierarchical/egalitarian)
Pool of group archetypes,
roles, social identities,
and cultural myths
Legal/constitutional
procedural requirements
Member social identities
and ties to other groups
Member mental health
(self-confidence, anxiety)
Treatment of
deviance
Quality of group
decisions/
performance
Assessment of
fairness/quality
of group process
Attitudes toward
different social
groups