Chapter 1: The Sociological Perspective
Sociology: A Down-to-Earth
Approach 7/e
James M. Henslin
Chapter One: The Sociological Perspective
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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2005
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Chapter 1: The Sociological Perspective
Seeing the Broader Social Context

How Groups Influence People

How People are Influenced by Their Society

People Who Share a Culture

People Who Share a Territory
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Chapter 1: The Sociological Perspective
Social Location—Corners in Life

Jobs

Income

Education

Gender
 Age

Race
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Chapter 1: The Sociological Perspective
C. Wright Mills—Connection
Between History and Biography
 History—Location in Broad Stream of Events

Biography—Individual’s Specific Experiences
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Chapter 1: The Sociological Perspective
The Growing Global Context

The Global Village

Instant Communication

Sociology Studies both the Global
Network and Our Unique Experiences
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Chapter 1: The Sociological Perspective
Sociology and the Other Sciences

The Natural Sciences—Explain and Predict
Events in Natural Environment

The Social Sciences—Examine Human
Relationships
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Chapter 1: The Sociological Perspective
Sociology and the Other Sciences

Political Science—Studies How People
Govern Themselves

Economics—Studies the Production and
Distribution of Goods and Services
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Chapter 1: The Sociological Perspective
Sociology and the Other Sciences
 Anthropology—The Study of Culture

Psychology—The Study of Processes Within
Individuals

Sociology—Similarities to Other Disciplines
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Chapter 1: The Sociological Perspective
The Goal of Science

Explain Why Something Happens

Make Generalizations

Look for Patterns

Move Beyond Common Sense
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Chapter 1: The Sociological Perspective
Origins of Sociology

Tradition vs. Science

Emerged mid-1800s

Grew Out of Social Upheaval

The Scientific Method
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Chapter 1: The Sociological Perspective
Auguste Comte and Positivism

Applying the Scientific Method to Social
World

Coined the Term “Sociology”

“Armchair Philosophy”
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Chapter 1: The Sociological Perspective
Herbert Spencer—Social Darwinism

Second Founder of Sociology

Lower and Higher Forms of Society

Coined Phrase “Survival of the Fittest”
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Chapter 1: The Sociological Perspective
Karl Marx and Class Conflict

Engine of Human History is Class Conflict

The Bourgeoisie vs. The Proletariat

Marxism Not the Same as Communism
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Chapter 1: The Sociological Perspective
Durkheim and Social Integration
 Got Sociology Recognized as Separate Discipline

Studied How Social Forces Affect Behavior

Identified “Social Integration”—Degree to Which People are
Tied to Social Group
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Chapter 1: The Sociological Perspective
Max Weber and the Protestant Ethic
 Religion and the Origin of Capitalism

Religion is Central Force in Social Change

Protestant Ethic and Spirit of Capitalism
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Chapter 1: The Sociological Perspective
Values in Sociological Research

Sociology Should be Value-Free

Sociology Should be Objective

Research Should Involve Replication

Goals and Uses of Sociology
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Chapter 1: The Sociological Perspective
Verstehen and Social Facts
 Weber



Verstehen—“To Grasp by Insight”

Importance of Subjective Meanings
Durkheim

Stressed Social Facts

Explain Social Facts with Other Social Facts
How Social Facts and Verstehen Fit Together
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Chapter 1: The Sociological Perspective
Sexism in Early Sociology


Attitudes of the Time

1800s Sex Roles Rigidly Defined

Few People Educated Beyond Basics
Harriet Martineau

Published Society in America Before
Durkheim and Weber Were Born

Her Work was Ignored
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Chapter 1: The Sociological Perspective
Sociology in North America

Early History: Tension Between Social
Reform and Sociological Analysis

Jane Addams and Social Reform

W. E. B. Du Bois and Race Relations

Talcott Parsons and C. Wright Mills: Theory
vs. Reform
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Chapter 1: The Sociological Perspective
Theoretical Perspectives

Symbolic Interactionism—How People Use
Symbols

Applying Symbolic Interactionism—
Changing the Meaning of Symbols Affects
Expectations
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Chapter 1: The Sociological Perspective
Applying Symbolic
Interactionism—Examples

Emotional Satisfaction

The Love Symbol

The Meaning of Children

The Meaning of Parenthood
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Chapter 1: The Sociological Perspective
Applying Symbolic
Interactionism—Examples

Marital Roles

Perception of Alternatives

The Meaning of Divorce

Changes in the Law
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Chapter 1: The Sociological Perspective
Functional Analysis
 Society
is a Whole Unit Made Up of Interrelated
Parts that Work Together
 Functionalism,
 Robert
Structural Functionalism
Merton—Functions and Dysfunctions
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Chapter 1: The Sociological Perspective
Applying Functional Analysis

Economic Production

Socialization of Children

Care of the Sick and Elderly
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Chapter 1: The Sociological Perspective
Applying Functional Analysis

Recreation

Sexual Control

Reproduction
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Chapter 1: The Sociological Perspective
Conflict Theory

Karl Marx and Conflict Theory

Conflict Theory Today

Feminists and Conflict Theory

Applying Conflict Theory
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Chapter 1: The Sociological Perspective
Levels of Analysis
 Functionalists and Conflict Theorists—
Macro Level

Symbolic Interactionists—Micro Level
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Chapter 1: The Sociological Perspective
Trends Shaping the Future
 Sociology Full Circle: Reform vs. Research

Globalization
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Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach, 7/e