Vincent A Ssembatya
1. A
dramatic crisis
2. Leadership turnover
3. Stage of life-cycle
4. Age of the organization
5. Size of organization
6. Strength of current culturedian Institute of
Technology Madras
Assumptions:
1. Change involves not only learning something
new but unlearning something that is
integrated into an individual’s self / social
system
2. No change unless there is motivation to
change
3. Most adult changes involve
attitudes/values/self concept and can be
painful and threateningMan
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Organizational changes effected through individual
changes in key members
Change is a multistage cycle and all stages must be
planned and negotiated
Management of change is not necessarily only rational
management but also emotional management of
peopleInstitute of Technology Madras
Individual resistance
1. • Habit
2. • Security
3. • Economic factors
4. • Fear of the unknown
5. • Selective information processing
Organizational resistance
1. • Structural inertia
2. • Limited focus of change
3. • Group inertia
4. • Threat to expertise
5. • Threat to established power relationships
6. • Threat to established resource allocations
1. Education
and communication
2. Participation
3. Facilitation and support
4. Negotiation
5. Manipulation and cooptation
6. Coercion
The Task of Managing Change
The obvious is not necessarily unambiguous.
The making of changes in a planned and managed or
systematic fashion.
The aim is to more effectively implement new methods and
systems in an ongoing organization. The changes to be
managed lie within and are controlled by the organization.
However, these internal changes might have been triggered by
events originating outside the organization.
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The task of managing change also includes
managing its impact on people. For many
managers, this aspect of the task of managing
change is complicated by the fact that they have
to help their people cope with change and the
managers also face their own coping challenges.
The Change Process as
“Unfreezing, Changing and Refreezing”
The process of change has been characterized as having
three basic stages: unfreezing, changing, and refreezing.
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Management Science II Dr. Sanga
Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Empirical-Rational
People are rational and will follow their self-interest — once it is revealed to them.
Change is based on the communication of information and the proffering of incentives.
 Normative-Reeducative
People are social beings and will adhere to cultural norms and values. Change is based
on redefining and reinterpreting existing norms and values, and developing
commitments to new ones.
 Power-Coercive
People are basically compliant and will generally do what they are told or can be made
to do. Change is based on the exercise of authority and the imposition of sanctions.
 Environmental-Adaptive
People oppose loss and disruption but they adapt readily to new circumstances. Change
is based on building a new organization and gradually transferring people from the old
one to the new one.
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Generally speaking, there is no single
change strategy. You can adopt a general or
what is called a "grand strategy" but, for any
given initiative, you are best served by some
mix of strategies.

Which of the preceding strategies to use in
your mix of strategies is a decision affected by
a number of factors. Some of the more
important ones follow.

Scope and Scale.
This can vary from the minor ―tweaking of a process within a unit to the
complete transformation of the entire organization. The larger the scope and
scale, the more likely a broad mix of strategies will be required with PowerCoercive playing a central role.
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Degree of Resistance.
Strong resistance argues for a coupling of Power-Coercive and EnvironmentalAdaptive strategies. Weak resistance or concurrence argues for a combination
of Empirical-Rational and Normative- Reeducative strategies.
 Target Population
Large populations argue for a mix of all four strategies, something for everyone
so to speak.
 The Stakes.
High stakes argue for a mix of all four strategies. When the stakes are high,
nothing can be left to chance.
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The Time Frame.
Short time frames argue for a Power-Coercive strategy. Longer time frames
argue for a mix of Empirical-Rational, Normative-Reeducative, and
Environmental-Adaptive strategies.
Expertise.
Having available adequate expertise at making change argues for some mix of
the strategies outlined above. Not having it available argues for reliance on the
power-coercive strategy.
Dependency.
This is a classic double-edged sword. If the organization is dependent on its
people, management's ability to command or demand is limited.
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Conversely, if people are dependent upon the organization, their ability to
oppose or resist is limited. (Mutual dependency almost always signals a
requirement for some level of negotiation.)
Managed the same way you’d manage anything
else of a turbulent, messy, chaotic nature, that is,
you don’t really manage it, you grapple with it.
It’s as much a matter of leadership ability as it is
one of management skill.
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The first thing to do is jump in. You can’t do anything
about it from the outside.
A clear sense of mission or purpose is essential. The
simpler the mission statement the better.
Build a team. ―Lone wolves have their uses, but
managing change isn’t one of them. On the other hand, the
right kind of lone wolf makes an excellent temporary team
leader.
Maintain a flat organizational team structure and rely on
minimal and informal reporting requirements.
Pick people with relevant skills and high energy levels.
You’ll need both.
Toss out the rulebook. Change, by definition, calls for a
configured response, not adherence to prefigured routines.
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Shift to an action-feedback model. Plan and act in short intervals. Do your
analysis on the fly. No lengthy up-front studies, please.
Set flexible priorities. You must have the ability to drop what you’re doing and
tend to something more important.
Treat everything as a temporary measure. Don’t ―lock in until the last minute,
and then insist on the right to change your mind.
Ask for volunteers. You’ll be surprised at who shows up. You’ll be pleasantly
surprised by what they can do.
Find a good boss or team leader and stay out of his or her way.
Give the team members whatever they ask for — except authority. They’ll
generally ask only for what they really need in the way of resources. If they start
asking for authority, that’s a signal they’re headed toward some kind of powerbased confrontation and that spells trouble. Nip it in the bud!
Concentrate dispersed knowledge. Start and maintain an issues logbook. Let
anyone go anywhere and talk to anyone about anything. Keep the communications
barriers low, widely spaced, and easily hurdled. Initially, if things look chaotic,
relax — they are.
References Fred Nickols http://www.nickols.us/change.pdf Distance Consulting
LLC
Forces For Change
1. • Nature of the workforce
2. • Technology
3. • Economic shocks
4. • Competition
5. • Social Trends
6. • World Politics
1.
Unfreezing the status quo
 creation of motivation to change
 Present behavior/ attitudes must be disconfirmed
 Discomfort/ disconfirmation will lead to anxiety to motivate a
change
 Create psychological safety for change
2.
Moving to a new state
 Developing new attitudes and behavior
 Identification with a role model, mentor or
friend
 Scanning the environment for information
specially relative to one’s particular problem
3. Refreezing the change
 Stabilizing the changes
 Allow testing of new attitudes and behavior
 Team training better than individual training
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Action research: change process based on systematic
collection of data and then selection of a change
action based on what analyzed data indicate.
Organizational development: change process built on
humanistic-democratic values, to improve
organizational effectiveness and employee well-being.
Sensitivity training: training groups to change behavior
through unstructured group interaction
Survey feedback: use of questionnaires to identify
discrepancies among member perceptions
Process consultation: a consultant helps client
understand process events and identify processes for
improvement
Planning
 Phasing
 Processes
 Strategies
Monitoring
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Implementation team
Minimum control
Review and feedback
Dissemination of information
Action
1. Adaptation (dealing with consequence of change)
2. Support
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Assessing An Organization’s Propensity To Change
Pattern breaking
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5.
Freeing the system from redundant structures, processes or functions
Experimenting
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6.
Training
Resources
Generate new patterns of systems in keeping with desired future state
Vision
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Reflecting the desired future state or pattern around which organization is to be
reformed
Management Science II Dr. Sangamithra
Bonding and attuning
Building individual and organizational cohesiveness to move the
organization towards the envisioned state.
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Changes in existing hierarchy, authority and power relationships
Constraints
Cost
Speed
Employee skills and organizational structure
Transformation: Managing Human Resources Aligning
employees with change efforts
Tasks
Roles
Teams
HRD systems (salary, incentives, performance appraisal)
nagement Science II Dr. Sangamithra
PERFORMANCE INDICATORS - OECD indicators
The quality of students and their performance
1) Quality of students on admission
Marks on admission.
2) Social origin of students. This indicator is important in obtaining a profile of the level of social
diversity and thus, to some extent, of the cultural diversity of the institution’s student body.
3) The proportion of students from outside the natural catchment area. This indicator is an
excellent gauge of the attractiveness of an institution and, therefore, of its perceived quality.
4) Admission rates. The relation between the number of students actually enrolled in a particular
university programme and the number of enrolment applicants for the same programme is a
good indication of the selectivity of the latter and, thus, of the quality of enrolled students. A
direct relation is generally apparent between rates of admission and retention or graduation
rates.
5) Enrolment rates. In the case of university programmes with a numerous clausus, or controlled
admissions procedures, a good indication of the quality of an institution is its ability to attract
students to whom it formally offers admission. The enrolment rate: the ratio between the number
of students enrolled and the number of places formally offered, is a sound guide to quality and
attractiveness.
6) Retention rate in the first year.
7) Measures for the integration and
supervision of new students.
8) The graduation rate.
9) Average time to graduation.
10) Rate of transfer to employment after
graduation.
11) Proportion of teachers actively engaged
in research.
12) The doctoral student/teacher ratio.
13) The research funding/teacher ratio.
14) Number or proportion of full-time
researchers.
15) The average research contract grant per
teacher.
16) The doctorate/teacher ratio.
17) The publications/teacher ratio.
18) Citation Index.
19) The number of patents/teacher ratio.
20) Prizes and honours.
The most widespread indicators are the
following:
21) The student/teacher ratio.
23) The technical and support staff/teacher
ratio.
24) The operating budget/student ratio.
25) The material resources/student ratio.
26) The make-up of decision-making bodies.
The presence, number and method of appointing representatives of teachers, staff,
students, graduates or socio-economic interests to the administrative board, the
senate, or study and research committees.
27) Mechanisms for the recognition of student participation.
Student participation in policy-making bodies and life of universities in general is an
aspect of their education which may be important from the standpoint of
simultaneously producing fully educated citizens and subject specialists.
28) Mechanisms for allocating budgetary resources.
Distribution of resources in accordance with the strategic development aims
adopted by university authorities. Does the institution concerned possess such
mechanisms, and is it generally responsible for its entire budgetary allocation?
29) The diversity of sources of financing.
30) Institutional planning mechanisms.
31) Rate of academic staff turnover.
32) Mechanisms for the development of inter-disciplinary programmes.
33) Institutional adaptability.
Given the increasingly rapid development of knowledge and constantly changing requirements in the area of teaching and research,
universities have to develop approaches enabling them to adapt their programme provision rapidly and efficiently. The number of
newly devised programmes, the number of programmes that are discontinued or substantially modified on an annual basis, and the
average time it takes to establish new programmes are reliable indicators of the adaptability of an institution.
34) The quality of teaching and evaluation policy.
35) The openness of universities to their surrounding environment.
Modern universities owe it to themselves to be responsive to their regional environment so as to support its social,
economic and cultural development.
This activity may be described by a certain number of indicators:
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the number of instances in which universities are involved in local joint activity;
the number of teaching staff involved in such activity;
the number of local business or industrial concerns established as a direct result of research by the university;
the number of new jobs created as a result of its research;
in the case of universities with medical faculties, the role of the university hospital network in regional health service provision;
in the case of universities with units focused on the artistic and cultural sectors, the contributions these units make to the
cultural life of the region; and the contribution of the university to adult education in the region.
36) The openness of universities to the world at large
A comprehensive list from NCHE: Include
 Space;
 Computers;
 Books;
 Library chairs;
 Etc.
TERMS OF REFERENCE
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TASK NUMBER 1: ASSESS THE LEVEL OF PREPARATION FOR THE REFORM.
TASK NO. 2: ENSURE ANY OUTSTANDING WORK FROM URAFR IS COMPLETED
TASK NUMBER 3: PLAN STRATEGIES AND ESTABLISH NECESSARY STRUCTURES FOR
IMPLEMENTATION AND COORDINATION OF THE REFORMS.
TASK NUMER 4: DEVELOP INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL COMMUNICATION STRATEGY
FOR CONTINUOUS CHANGE MANAGEMENT IN CONFORMITY WITH THE OVERALL
UNIVERSITY COMMUNICATION POLICY.
TASK NUMBER 5: DETERMINE RESOURCES REQUIRED FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF THE
REFORMS. THE SCOPE OF RESOURCES INCLUDES: HUMAN, FINANCIAL AND
INFRASTRUCTURE
TASK NUMER 6: ESTABLISH, MONITOR AND EVALUATE ACTIVITIES OF THE
SUBCOMMITTEES AND TASK FORCES THAT EXECUTE THE REFORMS.
TASK NUMBER 7: ENSURE COMPLIANCE BY UNIVERSITY UNITS IN MATTERS RELATED
TO THE REFORMS.
TASK NUMBER 8: ACT AS A CENTRE FOR MONITORING, CO-ORDINATION AND
EVALUATION OF CHANGE MANAGEMENT
TASK NUMBER 9:
ADVISE THE VICE CHANCELLOR ON ALL MATTERS RELATED TO REFORMS.
 The Quality Assurance Directorate (QAD) will be
strengthened as the repository of all CMC
documents, it will therefore act as the physical
home and face of the CMC.
 This is a transitional status with an aim of
nurturing the QAD to take up the change
management activities of the University.
of Technology Madras
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Management Science II – Dr. Sangamithra
Indian Institute of Technology Madras.
Makerere University Strategic Plan
URAFR Process Reports