USING TECHNOLOGY TO
SUPPORT CAREER COUNSELING
AND PLANNING
Career Development Interventions in the 21st
Century
4th Edition
Spencer G. Niles and JoAnn Harris-Bowlsbey
Prepared By
Jennifer Del Corso
Definition of Computer-Assisted Career
Guidance System
A group of activities, delivered by
computer, designed to assist with one
or more steps of the career planning
process
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Early Systems - 1960s
Super (with IBM) - Education and Career Exploration
System (ECES)
Tiedeman (Harvard) - Information System for Vocational
Decisions (ISVD)
Katz (ETS) - System for Interactive Guidance
Information (SIGI)
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Early Systems - 1960s
Impelleteri (Penn State) - Computer Occupational
Information System (COIS)
Harris (Willowbrook High School) - Computerized
Vocational Information System (CVIS)
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Characteristics of Early Systems
Offered a prescribed sequence of activities
Based on career development theory
Stored an ongoing user record
Taught a decision-making process
Supported by external source of public or private funding
Operated on large mainframe computers
Niles/Harris-Bowlsbey. Career Development Interventions in the 21st Century, 4e
© 2013, 2009, 2005, 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
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Career Information Systems - 1970s
McKinlay (Univ. of Oregon) developed the Career
Information System (CIS).
System focused on quality databases and search strategies.
Occupational and educational information was customized by
state.
A federal agency, NOICC, encouraged development through
funding.
Niles/Harris-Bowlsbey. Career Development Interventions in the 21st Century, 4e
© 2013, 2009, 2005, 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
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Current Status of Web-Based Systems
In the early 21st century Web-based services via computers,
iPads, and smartphone have become common practice
worldwide
Web-based services include: integrated career planning
systems, virtual career centers, social networking, and mobile
phone applications
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Integrated Career Planning Systems
Various content topics into one system (e.g. an interest
inventory, searchable occupational database, searchable
national postsecondary school database, a resume writer, and
a database of job opening)
Users can use parts of the integrated career planning system
independently or together depending on their specific needs
Niles/Harris-Bowlsbey. Career Development Interventions in the 21st Century, 4e
© 2013, 2009, 2005, 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
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Virtual Career Centers
Virtual career centers are websites that bring together various
websites into an organized fashion
Advantage : free or low cost and are not subject to the licensing
agreements of other integrated career planning systems
Disadvantage: lack the capability to guide a user from one activity to
the next , unable to store assessment info, do not allow counselors
to communicate with the users via email, cell phone or notes posted
on their portfolios
Niles/Harris-Bowlsbey. Career Development Interventions in the 21st Century, 4e
© 2013, 2009, 2005, 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
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Social Networking
Newest phenomenon related to the use of technology
Web-based social networking sites allow users to create a profile and
provide as much personal and professional information as possible
from which they can socially connect or network with other
individuals (e.g. Facebook, LinkedIn, MySpace)
Public profiles are used by employers to search job applicants,
therefore information posted on one’s “wall” or profile page should be
examined to safeguard one’s image
Niles/Harris-Bowlsbey. Career Development Interventions in the 21st Century, 4e
© 2013, 2009, 2005, 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
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Mobile Phone Applications
Smart phones are now delivering career planning information
and support worldwide
Due to the screen size on the phones, career guidance
systems must be delivered in small packages
Instead of receiving formal reports, assessment results can be
sent via text.
Niles/Harris-Bowlsbey. Career Development Interventions in the 21st Century, 4e
© 2013, 2009, 2005, 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
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Computer Capabilities that Support Career
Guidance
Administering and interpreting assessment
Searching large databases
Linking (crosswalking) files
Providing standard service to all users
Monitoring the progress of the user
Delivering instruction
Linking internal resources to others on web
Niles/Harris-Bowlsbey. Career Development Interventions in the 21st Century, 4e
© 2013, 2009, 2005, 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
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Advantages of Internet Delivery of Career Information
and Interventions
Provides access from many places, 24/7.
Can serve very large and dispersed audience.
Databases can be updated frequently from one central source.
Linkages to other websites can be incorporated.
Counselor support can be provided online.
Niles/Harris-Bowlsbey. Career Development Interventions in the 21st Century, 4e
© 2013, 2009, 2005, 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
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Disadvantages of Internet Career Planning
Services
Access and operation may be slow.
Use of audio and video may not be feasible because of
bandwidth and other technical concerns.
The Internet is not a secure environment.
Niles/Harris-Bowlsbey. Career Development Interventions in the 21st Century, 4e
© 2013, 2009, 2005, 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
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Choosing a Web-Based Career Guidance
System
Theoretical base, if any
Use of assessment (online or entering scores)
Quality and comprehensiveness of databases
Ease of searches
Comprehensiveness of system content
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© 2013, 2009, 2005, 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
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Choosing a Web-Based Career Guidance
System
continued
User friendliness and appeal
Multimedia capabilities
Linkage to websites
Quality and service of vendor
Niles/Harris-Bowlsbey. Career Development Interventions in the 21st Century, 4e
© 2013, 2009, 2005, 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
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Adding High Touch to High Tech
Computer programs alone cannot effectively serve the career
planning needs of students/clients because:
•
they may have needs that are masked under the rubric of career
concerns.
•
some individuals do not profit from services provided by computer
because of their learning or personality style.
•
research indicates that the most effective career intervention is a
combination of computer and counselor.
Niles/Harris-Bowlsbey. Career Development Interventions in the 21st Century, 4e
© 2013, 2009, 2005, 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
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Counselor Competencies Needed
Detailed knowledge of the system or site
Capability to diagnose the user’s needs and capability to profit
from use of technology
Capability to motivate user to invest time
Capability to assist user to turn data into information
Capability to move user beyond information to an action plan
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© 2013, 2009, 2005, 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
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Counselor Responsibilities
Determine readiness of the client to use a computer system
effectively
Expand on the interpretation of assessment
Assist individuals to identify values that guide decision making
Provide motivation and emotional support
Suggest creative alternatives
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© 2013, 2009, 2005, 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
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The Counselor and the Computer
Counselor competencies include:
•
detailed knowledge of the content of the computer-assisted
system or websites.
•
capability to diagnose a client’s needs to determine if technologybased intervention is appropriate.
•
capability to motivate the client to invest the time.
•
capability to help the client to process the data into meaningful
information.
•
capability to move the client beyond information to an action plan.
Niles/Harris-Bowlsbey. Career Development Interventions in the 21st Century, 4e
© 2013, 2009, 2005, 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
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Counselor-Computer Models
One-to-one counseling + computer-based system or
website(s)
Group guidance + computer-based system or website(s)
Group counseling + computer-based system or website(s)
Cybercounseling + use of assigned websites
Niles/Harris-Bowlsbey. Career Development Interventions in the 21st Century, 4e
© 2013, 2009, 2005, 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
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Issues Related to Cybercounseling
Environment - lack of face-to-face contact
Problems - need to discern which can be dealt with in this
mode
Clients - need to discern who can profit from service in this
mode
Niles/Harris-Bowlsbey. Career Development Interventions in the 21st Century, 4e
© 2013, 2009, 2005, 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
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Issues Related to Cybercounseling,
continued
Security - need to protect confidentiality
Counselor training - need to identify competencies and train
for them
Supportive services - need to discern when to refer
Niles/Harris-Bowlsbey. Career Development Interventions in the 21st Century, 4e
© 2013, 2009, 2005, 2002 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
7-23