Introduction to Sociology
Test: Thursday April 5th, 2011
Introduction to Sociology

What is sociology?
–
The study of society & social behavior

Seeks to understand how people interact & influence
one another
–
Focus on groups rather than individuals
Introduction to Sociology

What is sociology?
–
Analysis is of a social fact (more men than women hold management
positions despite equal opportunities)


Something external & persuasive to social actors(men & women)
Two types
–
Material: tangible, more apparent (pregnancy prevents promotion)
– Non-material: intangible, more profound (golf)
 Provide 1. General enlightenment
2. Challenge of popular misconceptions
3. Identification for social problems
4. Solutions to social problems
Introduction to Sociology

What is sociology?
–
To effectively analyze a social fact sociologists must adopt:
 1. Sociological Perspective/Imagination
–
Looking beyond commonly held beliefs to the hidden
meaning behind human actions
– Seeing the connection between the larger world & our
personal lives
Introduction to Sociology

What is sociology?
–
True/False (explain your response)
 More US students are killed in school shootings now
than 10-15 years ago.
 It is more dangerous to walk near topless bars than fast
food restaurants.
 Most people on welfare are lazy & looking for a handout.
They could work if they wanted to.
Introduction to Sociology

What is sociology?
–
True/False (explain your response)

More US students are killed in school shootings now than 10-15 years
ago.
–
–

It is more dangerous to walk near topless bars than fast food
restaurants.
–

False: National School Safety Center Study
Media & Headlines would have us believe otherwise
False: Private security at topless bars curb potential crime
Most people on welfare are lazy & looking for a handout. They could
work if they wanted to
–
False: 80% of the people on welfare are too young to work, too old to work,
or work at least half the year (Henslin, 2008)
Introduction to Sociology

What is sociology?
–
Application:


1. Why do drug dealers (social actor) live with their
mothers (social fact)?
2. With the crime rate (social actor) in the US growing
exponentially during the 70s and 80s, and experts
saying things were going to get much worse in the
1990s and beyond, the crime rates dropped dramatically
(social fact). Why?
–
Choose one of the above questions and apply sociological
imagination and perspective (not the internet) to identify
an answer. Responses should be a minimum of 1/2 page.
Introduction to Sociology

Where/When/Why did the study of society
develop?
–
1700s & 1800s were a time of radical revolutions
–

What were some radical revolutions of that time period?
Encouraged curiosity of social life & human interaction
Introduction to Sociology

Where/When/Why did the study of society
develop?
–
Three Events



Industrial Revolution
– People flocked to cities creating modern urbanization problems
– Instead of working for themselves people worked for employers
Political Revolution
– American (1776) &French (1789) created cultural, political, &
economic chaos
Enlightenment
– Revolution in science to make the world a better place
Introduction to Sociology

Where/When/Why did the study of society
develop?
–
Fathers of Sociology

Auguste Comte (1798-1857): “Father of Sociology”
First person to use the term “sociology”
– Soc. would reform society making it a better place to live
–
Introduction to Sociology

Where/When/Why did the study of society
develop?
–
Fathers of Sociology

Herbert Spencer (1820-1903): applied Darwin’s theory
of survival of the fittest to society (Social Darwinism)
–
Society is an organism
– Natural law is social law
 Who liked this theory? Why?
Introduction to Sociology

Where/When/Why did the study of society
develop?
–
Fathers of Sociology

Karl Marx: believed the world was made up of class
struggles between working class & capitalist class
–
Capitalism is so bad that revolution is unavoidable
Introduction to Sociology

Where/When/Why did the study of society
develop?
–
Fathers of Sociology

Max Weber: focused on groups within society rather
than society as a whole
–
Verstehen: understand feelings & motivations of human behavior
– Catholics, Protestants, & emergence of capitalism
Introduction to Sociology

Where/When/Why did the study of society
develop?
–
Fathers of Sociology

Emile Durkheim: conducted the first sociological
experiment
Introduction to Sociology

The first sociological experiment
–
List 3-5 reasons why a person might seriously
consider suicide.
Introduction to Sociology

The first sociological experiment
–
Why is the rate of suicide higher in California
higher than it is in Minnesota?
Introduction to Sociology

The first sociological experiment
–
Prior to Durkheim’s study, suicide was believed to
be solely a individual/psychosocial/internal

Using sociological perspective & imagination Durkheim
concluded there are four types of suicide, based on
social forces
Introduction to Sociology

The first sociological experiment
–
–
–
1. Altruistic: motivated by self sacrifice for person,
group, or cause (more common in tight communities i.e. Japan)
2. Fatalistic: miserable situation with no hope of
getting out (i.e. to slaves suicide could be an escape)
3. Egoistic: High occurrence in those who are
socially isolated (murder suicide, typically violent) unmarried, less
constrained by social norms & goals
–
4. Anomic: Created through difficulty with any
amount of change (conflict of societal & individual goals)

Social groups are affected by these factors at different
rates
Introduction to Sociology

The first sociological experiment
–
Revolutionary findings created an opening for
various sociological perspectives to gain credibility


Human behavior cannot be understood individually
Examine social forces that affect people’s lives
Introduction to Sociology

Modern Sociological Theories
–
Three main perspectives


Each presents a slightly different image of society &
focuses on different aspects of social life
Certain consequences result from using a particular
model
Introduction to Sociology

Modern Sociological Theories
–
Functionalism (Macro)

Society is composed of structures and every structure
has a function
–
Parallel between living body and society
 Manifest: intended function/action
 Latent: unintended and positive outcome
 Dysfunction: unintended and negative
 Example: School
Introduction to Sociology

Modern Sociological Theories
–
Conflict Theory (Macro)


Opposite of functionalism
Focus on negatives that arise as a result of divisions
Poverty, drug use, race etc.
– Conflict between the haves & have nots
– Conflict will ultimately lead to social change

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yyMLgOoUWpw&NR=1
Introduction to Sociology

Modern Sociological Theories
–
Symbolic Interactionism (Micro Perspective)

Interaction between people that take place through the
use of symbols
Introduction to Sociology

Modern Sociological Theories
–
Mead’s Theory of Development of Self


Not born with mind
Mind is something developed
–
Three Stages
Introduction to Sociology

Modern Sociological Theories
–
Mead’s Theory of Development of Self

3 Stages
–
1. Imitative
 Very early childhood
 Infant is not a social being
 Primarily aware of its own existence
 Can imitate symbols around with no attached
meaning
 Example: Nephew imitating animal noises with no
attached meaning
Introduction to Sociology

Modern Sociological Theories
–
Mead’s Theory of Development of Self

3 Stages
–
2. Play
 Attached meaning to symbols
 Significant aspect of development
 Can anticipate behaviors and becomes aware of
expectations
 Dogs and cats are at this level
 Example: Nephew recognizing image of animal a
attaching correct sound
Introduction to Sociology

Modern Sociological Theories
–
Mead’s Theory of Development of Self

3 Stages
–
3. Game
 Person becomes expert at symbolic
language/communication
 Awareness of broader social expectations
 This is when you are human and have a human mind
 Example: Freshman football player
Introduction to Sociology

Modern Sociological Theories
–
C.H. Cooley’s Looking Glass Self

How you are is based on how you think other people
see you
–
Three Stages
 Take people surrounding you, and objectively
view/assess yourself
 Imagine their judgment of you (is this good or bad)
 Determine if you appear the way you want (change
behavior depending on how you think you appear)
 Example: Yesterday’s class
Introduction to Sociology

Modern Sociological Theories
–
Goffman’s Dramaturgy Theory


When you are in the presence of another person you are
acting
Growing up is simply learning how to act
–
You do not have a self, self arises from the situation
– You are a collection of characters that you play
 Example: living in Bigfork
Introduction to Sociology

Modern Sociological Theories
–
Exchange Theory—George Homans

Everything is a mathematical process, awards and
punishments are solutions to the process
–
Governs your actions
 Everyone is self centered, every action is done for self
reward (not everyone has the same award system)
 Donald Trump and Mother Theresa have different
reward system
 Example: Mr. Salzer as a child
Introduction to Sociology

What are the major aspects of your social
life?
Introduction to Sociology

Modern Sociological Theories
–
Use one of the discussed modern sociological theories
and apply it to one aspect of your social life

Possible aspects of social life:
–
Internet
 Facebook
 Myspace
 Craigslist
 YouTube
– Cellular Phones
 Texting
 Pictures
 Web access
Introduction to Sociology

Modern Sociological Theories
–
Use one of the discussed modern sociological
theories and apply it to one aspect of social life

Possible aspects of social life:
–
Entertainment
 TV
 Professional Sports
– School
– Extra Curriculars
– Work
Introduction to Sociology

Culture
–
Accumulated body of society’s existing knowledge
that has been built over time & passed from
generation to generation

The products that the people of a society create,
including: objects, beliefs, values, & behaviors
–
How did culture get here?
Introduction to Sociology

Culture
–
Created through universal three stage process

1. Externalization:
–
Any shared social experience
– Shared opinion of a phenomenon or social experience
– Agreement of shared experience
 Example: Richard Reed (Shoe Bomber) Umar Farouk
Abdulmutallab (Underpants Bomber)
Introduction to Sociology

Culture
–
Created through universal three stage process

2. Objectivation:
–
Agreement becomes social object
– Law or morale is developed
 Example: Liquid ban on flights (liquids must be 3 oz
or less & sealed in a plastic bag)/Full body scanners
Introduction to Sociology

Culture
–
Created through universal three stage process

3. Internalization:
–
Children raised with that social object
– Knowledge of the phenomenon without having to
experience it
– Over passage of time that phenomenon can be lost
 Example: How many of you knew who Richard Reed
was? How many 3rd-4thth graders are going to
remember Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab?
Introduction to Sociology

Culture
–
–
Created through universal three stage process
Examples


1. Why are food, beverages, and medicines sealed in
plastic?
1. Why are tennis shoes called “sneakers?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kKQVRWYNzNo
Introduction to Sociology

Culture
–
Created through universal three stage process

1. Why are food, beverages, and medicines sealed in
plastic?
–
Externalization
 Tylenol murders in Chicago in 1982 (drugs stores
broken into, Tylenol replaced with cyanide)
– Objectivation
 Congress passed law that everything must be safely
packaged
– Internalization
 Everything is pre-packed, class did not know why
Introduction to Sociology

Culture
–
Created through universal three stage process

2. Why do tennis shoes called “sneakers”?
–
Externalization
 Jack the Ripper
– Objectivation
 Police wore rubber sole shoes to “sneak” up and
down allies
– Internalization
 Today we call tennis shoes sneakers, class did not
know why
Introduction to Sociology

Culture
–
How do sociologist study culture?

Tonight for homework you are going to be a sociologist
and study a new culture
Introduction to Sociology

Culture
–
How sociologist study culture

Ethnocentrism
–
Belief that one’s own culture & group is superior
 Example: how did we describe the Nacirema?
Introduction to Sociology

Culture
–
How sociologist study culture

Cultural Relativism
–
Attempt to understand a culture without judging elements
as superior or inferior
 No one can be entirely successful
-Example: how did we describe the Nacirema?
Introduction to Sociology

Culture
–
How sociologist study culture

Cultural Universals
–
Features common to all cultures
 Example: Holy mouth men as to dentists
latipso as to hospital
(cooking, tool making, religion, etc.)
What are some other examples of cultural universals?
Introduction to Sociology

Culture
–
Universal Components of Culture

Language
–
Organization of written or spoken symbols into a
standardized system
– Most obvious aspect of culture
Introduction to Sociology

Culture
–
Universal Components of Culture

Values
–
Shared beliefs on behavior that is seen as desirable
 Example: American value on achievement
Introduction to Sociology

Culture
–
Universal Components of Culture

Norms
–
Created to enforce cultural values
– Shared rules that tell people how to act in specific
situations
 Expectations for behavior
 Vary in strictness for which they are enforced
Introduction to Sociology

Culture
–
Universal Components of Culture

Folkways
–
Do not have great moral significance attached to them
– Most are followed, but you do not have to
 Example: Don’t pick your nose
Introduction to Sociology

Culture
–
Components of Culture

Mores
–
Serious violation and is threatening to society and other
people in your life
– Serious punishment
 Example: robberies, murder, rape
Introduction to Sociology

Culture
–
Components of Culture

Laws
–
Written into a formal code
 Example: laws against murder (mores)
 Example: laws mild speeding (folkways)
Introduction to Sociology

Culture
–
Social Control

For a society to run smoothly norms must be upheld
–
Social control the enforcement of norms
– How are norms upheld?
Introduction to Sociology

Culture
–
Social Control

Internalization
–
Process by which a norm becomes a part of an
individual’s personality
– Conditions individuals to conform to societies expectations
 Example: We move on to our next class when the bell
ring
Introduction to Sociology

Culture
–
Social Control

Sanctions
–
Some people must be motivated by sanctions to follow
societies norms
– Awards or punishments to enforce conformity
 Four Types
Introduction to Sociology

Culture
–
Social Control

Sanctions
–
Positive Sanctions
 Sanction in the form of a reward
 Example: Smile, high five, thumbs up, etc
Introduction to Sociology

Culture
–
Social Control

Sanctions
–
Negative Sanctions
 Sanction in the form of a punishment or threat of a
punishment
 Example: No parking signs, prison, frown
Introduction to Sociology

Culture
–
Social Control

Sanctions
–
Formal
 Reward or punishment given by formal organization
 Example: Pay raise for job well done
Introduction to Sociology

Culture
–
Social Control

Sanctions
–
Informal
 Spontaneous expression of approval or disapproval
given by an individual or group
 Example: Compliment, cold shoulder
Introduction to Sociology

Culture
–
–
Do all cultures share the same values, norms,
and behaviors?
Does the entire population of a society share the
same values, norms, and behaviors?
Introduction to Sociology

Culture
–
Subculture


Unique cultural characteristics
Do not reject the values & practices of society
–
Separate values, norms, beliefs
– Example: Chinatown, military, doctors
Introduction to Sociology

Culture
–
Counterculture

When group rejects the values and norms of larger
society & replaces them with a new cultural pattern
–
Example: Goths, Punks, Hippies
Introduction to Sociology

Culture
–
Resistance to Change

Ethnocentrism
–

Cultural Lag
–

Belief that their own way of doing something is the best
Teacher who cannot keep up with new technology
Vested Interest
–
Manufacturing technology
Introduction to Sociology

Culture
–
Changing Values

Values, like all aspects of society change
–
What causes social change?
 Technology (www)
 Population (Demographic Transition Model)
 Diffusion (Fast Food)
 Physical Environment (Global Warming)
 Wars (Destruction of WWII)
Introduction to Sociology

Culture
–
American Culture in a state of decay?


Culture promotes what is negative
Hollywood, Pop Culture is thought to be blamed for
current state of decay
–
1. Desensitize
– 2. Normalize
– 3. Glamorize
 Functionalists believe/think the situation or state will
take care of itself
 Conflict theorists believe that until something
happens society is going to get worse and worse
Introduction to Sociology

Culture
–
American Culture in a state of decay?




http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1z8gCZ7zpsQ&featur
e=related&pvpos=7
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2bWe58yZqUA&NR=
1&feature=fvwp
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YR6BR464U3M&feat
ure=fvst
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DO_jlXjgxN8
Introduction to Sociology

Social Structure
–
Relatively stable & enduring patterns


Organize social relationships & provide the basic
framework for society
Provides society with a framework, promoting continuity
Introduction to Sociology

Social Structure
–
Components of Social Structure

Status: a position one occupies in society
–
Everyone has multiple positions that we occupy in
Introduction to Sociology

Social Structure
–
Components of Social Structure

Achieved Status
–

One you work for
 Example: Professor, CPA, CEO etc
Ascribed Status
–
One you are born with
 Example: social class, race, gender, religion, etc
Introduction to Sociology

Social Structure
–
Components of Social Structure

Master Status
–
Takes priority over all other statuses
– Can & does change
 Example: teenagers master status might be athlete,
adult most likely is their occupation
Introduction to Sociology

Social Structure
–
Components of Social Structure

Who are you?
–
Zurcher’s 20 Statement Test
 List on a separate piece of paper 20 different
responses to the question “Who are you?”
Introduction to Sociology

Social Structure
–
Components of Social Structure

Who are you?
–
Zurcher’s 20 Statement Test
 A Mode: Physical Attributes (Hair color, age, etc)
 B Mode: Socially Defined (Student, Catholic, etc)
 C Mode: Styles of Behavior (Fun, easy going, etc)
 D Mode: General Information (I am human, I am
American)
Introduction to Sociology

Social Structure
–
Components of Social Structure

Who are you?
How did most students answer the “Who are you
question?”
– Why?
–
Introduction to Sociology

Social Structure
–
Components of Social Structure

Roles
–
Behaviors that accompany a status
 Bring statuses to life
 Within a single status, there are many roles to
perform
Introduction to Sociology

Social Structure
–
Components of Social Structure

Roles
–
Role Strain: One’s roles has opposing/contradicting
demands
 Example: Parent or Friend/ Rule enforcement
Introduction to Sociology

Social Structure
–
Components of Social Structure

Roles
–
Role Conflict: two different roles that oppose each other
 Example: Christian Fundamentalist and Scientist
Introduction to Sociology

Social Structure
–
Components of Social Structure

Roles
–
Role Ambiguity: Unclear roles
 Example: New job
Introduction to Sociology

Social Structure
–
Components of Social Structure

Roles
–
Role Overload: combined role demands are too much for
you
 Example: Finals week, work, babysit, etc.
Introduction to Sociology

Social Structure
–
Components of Social Structure

Roles
–
Role Over Control: obedience becomes a reflex & you fail
to think critically about what you are doing
– Problem/fear is that the role we play in life takes us over
 We put aside ethics & morality because of the reflex
of our role
>Example: McDonalds Strip Search
Introduction to Sociology

Social Structure
–
Components of Social Structure

Roles
–
Stanley Milgram asked “Could the Holocaust happen in
the United States?”
 Experiment: Teachers were to shock students for
incorrect responses
 60% of teachers shocked students to the maximum
voltage
 Men were more hesitant than women
Introduction to Sociology

Social Structure
–
Components of Social Structure

Roles
–
Philip Zimbrado asked “What makes good people turn
evil?”
 Stanford Prison Experiment
 Put good people in prison, taking on the role of
prisoners & guards
 Everyone was taken over by the roles they were
playing
 Lucifer Effect: Ignore morals & ethics because of the
role we are playing
Introduction to Sociology

Social Structure
–
Components of Social Structure

Roles
–
Abu Gharib Prison
 US soldiers subjected prisoners to severe physical &
psychological abuse
 Use of dogs to scare & bite prisoners, death threats &
sexual abuse
Introduction to Sociology

Social Structure
–
Components of Social Structure

Roles
–
McDonald’s employee forced to strip & perform sexual act
by fake cop
 Impersonated police officer told a McDonald’s
manager that one the employees had stolen a purse
 Manager’s office became a interrogation room
Introduction to Sociology

Social Structure
–
Components of Social Structure

How do good people turn evil?

http://www.ted.com/talks/philip_zimbardo_on_the_psy
chology_of_evil.html
Introduction to Sociology

Social Structure
–
Social Institutions

Not buildings or places, but structures of relationships,
values, roles, & functions
–
System of statuses, roles, values, & norms that are
organized to satisfy basic needs of society
Introduction to Sociology

Social Structure
–
Social Institutions





Family
Economy
Politics
Education
Religion
–
–
Traditional social institutions
Provide physical & emotional support for society
 How?
Introduction to Sociology

Social Structure
–
Social Institutions



Transmit knowledge
Produce goods & services
Maintain social control
–
Can you think of any other social institutions?
Introduction to Sociology

Types of Societies
–
Classified into types according to how a society
uses technology



Preindustrial
– Food production done through use of human & animal labor
 Example: hunting & gathering societies
Industrial
– Mechanical production of goods
 Example: factory life
Postindustrial
– Production of information
 Example: modern day USA, Japan, Great Britain
Introduction to Sociology

Types of Societies
–
Most postindustrial societies are formal
organizations

Large group est. to accomplished specific goals
–
In capitalist societies these formal organizations are often
called bureaucracies

Ranked authority structure with specific operating rules

Example: US Government, School Districts,
Associations (fraternities, sororities)
Social Change

Collective Behavior
–
Mass amounts of
people engaging in
non-routine behaviors


Violating existing social
expectations
Not restricted to a
specific process
Social Change

Collective Behavior
– Mass Behavior
 Individuals
respond separately to common
stimulus in the same way
–
There are 5 types
Social Change

Collective Behavior
– Mass Behavior
 Rumor
– Information transmitted informally, usually from anonymous
sources
 Example: “Paul is Dead”
http://www.recmusicbeatles.com/public/files/faqs/pid.html
Source of rumor
Social Change

Collective Behavior
– Mass Behavior
 Fashion
– Accepted and expected styles of appearance and behavior
 Example: Jordan Shoes
Social Change

Collective Behavior
– Mass Behavior
 Fad
–
Enthusiastically followed by large amounts of
people for a short-term

–
Example: Goldfish swallowing in the 40s, Hula Hooping in the
50s, Tie Die in the 60s, Streaking in the 70s, video arcades in
the 80s, piercing in the 90s, Energy Drinks today
http://www.bored.com/crazyfads/40s.htm
Social Change

Collective Behavior
– Mass Behavior
 Panic
– Uncoordinated and irrational response to an immediate
threat
– Threat is real
 Example: Stock Market Crash in 1929, Y2K, Anthrax
Scare, SARs, H1N1
Social Change

Collective Behavior
– Mass Behavior
 Mass Hysteria
– Widespread contagious anxiety
 Caused by unfounded belief
 Example: War of the Worlds Radio Broadcast
Halloween 1938
–
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YTvU9j3og5k
Social Change

Collective Behavior
–
Social Movements
 Long term, rational, formal, and structured
compared to mass behavior
–
Categorized into four different types
Social Change

Collective Behavior
–
Social Movements
 1. Regressive
–
Adhere to a social tradition and either prevent change form
happening or roll back changes that have happened
 Example: Pro-life Movement (Regress against Roe vs. Wade,
Proposition 8 (Protect traditional marriage)
Social Change

Collective Behavior
–
Social Movements
 2. Reform
–

Seek to create changes in the normative structure to create a more
progressive society
 What does progressive mean?
Politically liberal
–
Example: any of the rights movements (Civil, women, gay, etc)
Social Change

Collective Behavior
–
Social Movements
 3. Revolutionary
–
Largely dissatisfied with society
– Seek radical transformation of the social structure
 Violence is acceptable way to achieve the desired effect
 Found in the extremes of the political spectrum
>Example: KKK, Black Panthers
Social Change

Collective Behavior
–
Social Movements
 4. Utopian
–
Largely dissatisfied with society
– Seek separation from the mainstream to create their own perfect
society
 Example: Jim Jones, David Koresh, The Amish
Social Change

Collective Behavior
– Crowds
 Short
lived, but play a significant role in
brining about social change
–
Example: 2003 U of M Hockey Riots
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CwNFjs
VObTg&feature=related



Limited events with lasting effects
What was the lasting effect of these riots?
Why did the students/fans do what they did?
Social Change

Collective Behavior
– Crowds
 Analysis of Crowd Behavior
– Four key impacts on individual thought and behavior
 1. Anonymity
>Less identifiable, creating a diffusion of responsibility

2. Invulnerability
>power and strength allow members to feel unharmed
Social Change

Collective Behavior
– Crowds
 Analysis of Crowd Behavior
– Four key impacts on individual thought and behavior
 3. Spontaneity
>veer away from usual norms
>emotions rule over rationality

4. Suggestibility
>open to acceptance of innovative ideas
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Introduction to Sociology