FUNDAMENTALS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING Self-Disclosure Instructor: Shelby Reigstad Student: Haddish Abadi 06 November 2012 Introduction Thesis Statement Self-disclosure is a communication process that moves from the relatively shallow, non-intimate levels, to deeper and more personal levels as relationships gradually develop (Altman & Taylor 1973, cited in Floyd, 2009). Human conversation (30-40% of everyday speech) - relays information to others about one’s private experiences or personal relationships (Tamir & Jason, 2012). Definition: Self-disclosure • “The act of giving others information about oneself that one believes they do not already have” (Floyd, 2009). • “Act of revealing personal information to others. - Plays a central role in the formation and maintenance of close relationships” (Bareket & Shahar, 2011). • Personal information communicated verbally, nonverbally or written to another person (Omarzu, 2010). • Voluntary sharing a part of yourself, that is, your inner being, thoughts, & emotions with someone else. 1. Social Penetration Theory (SPT) Developed by Irwin Altman & Dalmas Taylor. Predicts that as relationships develop, communication increases in breadth and depth,” (Floyd, 2009). “As relationships develop, communication moves from relatively shallow, non-intimate levels to deeper, more personal ones,” (Altman & Taylor, 1973). Proposes that closeness occurs through a gradual process of self-disclosure (http://irchelp.org). The Johari Window The Arena : Information known by self & others. The Facade : Information known-by-self but not known-by-others. Unknown by Others The Unknown : Information not knownby-self and not knownby-others. Known by Self Known by Others The blindspot: Information known-byothers but not known-byself. ARENA (open) Unknown by Self BLINDSPOT FACADE UNKNOWN (Hidden) (Little, 2005) 2. Principles of Self-disclosure 2.1 Self-disclosure varies in breadth & depth: – Breadth: the number of topics or content areas referred to disclosure. – Depth: intensity of the discourse. (Omarzu, 2000) • Self-disclosure over time is like peeling away the layers of an onion. The Onion Analogy Giving greater depth of your private information = trust Depth : Intimacy of the topics a person selfdiscloses to another. Breadth: Range of topics that a person self-discloses to another. Greater breadth: Disclosing wide range of topics (Floyd, 2009) … Principles of Self-disclosure 2.2 Self-disclosure follows a process Closeness develops over time As people get to know to each other, they reveal more and more information about themselves. 2.3 It is intentional and truthful. It must meet two conditions: a) Deliberately share information about ourselves; b) Information is true. Intentionally giving false information about ourselves is an act of deception. (Floyd, 2009) …Principles of Self-disclosure 2.4 It is usually reciprocal. Norm of reciprocity: When we disclose things to other people, we expect them to disclose things to us in return. 2.5 It can serve many purposes. - To share information - To ask for help - To build relationship, etc. www.google.com/imgres? (Omarzu, 2000) …Principles of Self-disclosure 2.6 Self-disclosure is influenced by cultural and gender roles. Women, on average, do self-disclose more than men. (Snell et. al, 1988) Norms of the culture in which we grow up affect it. (Altman & Taylor, 1987). Americans and Europeans usually self-disclose to their friends and family. Most Asian cultures, value discretion and disclose only under limited circumstances. 3. Benefits & Risks 3.1 Benefits a) Enhancement of relationship and trust Self-disclosure maintains relationships and reinforces the trust we share with those individuals. b) Reciprocity When we disclose to other, they tend to disclose back to us. c) Emotional release, reduces stress Self-disclosure to trusted friends leads to emotional release. It can also reduce the stress of holding on to a secret. (Omarzu, 2000) 3. Benefits & Risks 3.2 Risks Rejection by the listener Due to distorted impressions: as when an HIV positive friend self-discloses he may be rejected. Reduction of one’s autonomy & personal integrity. Violation of other people’s privacy When we disclose information (gossip) to third parties. (Omarzu, 2000) Conclusion • Self-disclosure is a communication process that moves from less intimacy to a deeper one. • It is an act of giving information about oneself that you believe other people do not already have. • Self-disclosure maintains relationships and reinforces the trust we share with those individuals. • It is a communication process that is intentional and truthful. References Altman, I., & Taylor, D., (1973). Social Penetration: The development of Interpersonal Relationships, New York: NY: St. Martin’s Press. Altman, I., & Taylor, D. (1987). Communication in Interpersonal relationships. Social Penetration Theory. In M.E. Roloff & G.R. Miller (eds.), Interpersonal Processes: New directions in communication research, 257-277. Newbury Park, CA. Bareket-Bojmel, L. & G. Shahar. (2011). Emotional and Interpersonal Consequences of Self-Disclosure in a Lived, Online Interaction: Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, Vol. 30, No. 7, 2011, pp. 732-759. Floyd, K. (2009). Interpersonal Communication: The Whole Story. New York: Mc Grow Hill. Little, L. (2005) Leadership Communication and the Johari Window: Administrator, Vol. 24, Issue 3, p4-4. Omarzu, J. (2000) A Disclosure Decision Model: Determining How and When Individuals Will Self-Disclosure: Personality and Social Psychology Review, 2000, Vol. 4, No. 2, 174-185. Snell, D. W., Miller, S. R., & Belk, S. S., (1988). Development of Emotional Self-disclosure Scale. Sex Roles, Vol. 18, Nos. 1/2. Tamir, D., & P.M. Jason. (2012). Disclosing Information about the Self is Intrinsically Rewarding. Department of Psychology, Harvard University, Cambridge;. PNAS, Vol. 109. http://www.google.com/images http://www.irchelp.org/irchelp/communication-research/academic/byrne.