ETHOS, PATHOS AND LOGOS
Everything Is an
Argument
Whenever you read an
argument, see an ad or
commercial, you must ask
yourself:
 ”Is this persuasive? What are
they trying to get me to think
or do?”
http://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=etrade+baby+commer
cials+ground+to+crib&view=detail&mid=0AF4C62077DE1E5B
17650AF4C62077DE1E5B1765&first=0
THERE ARE SEVERAL
WAYS TO APPEAL TO AN
AUDIENCE.
AMONG THEM ARE
APPEALS TO ETHOS,
PATHOS AND LOGOS.
ETHOS
Again, three methods of
persuasion are…
 ethos
 pathos
 logos
ETHOS
 -- a person’s credibility with a
given audience.
 It can mean sincerity,
authority, expertise,
faithfulness, or any adjective
that describes someone you
can trust to do the right thing.
 Ethos appeals to your sense of
values and beliefs.
Ethos:
 Ethos is related to the English word
“ethics” and refers to the
trustworthiness of the speaker/writer.
 When we believe that the speaker does
not intend to do us harm, we are more
willing to listen to what s/he has to
say.
 When a judge comments on legal
precedent, audiences listen because it
is the job of a judge to know the nature
of past legal cases.
Example
 George Foreman and his Grilling Machine
 Boxer
 Fitness
 Preacher, too!
What is “the call to action”?
http://www.youtube.com/w
atch?v=YSbCnWe6e1o&nor
edirect=1
A commercial which
emphasizes the
trustworthiness,
patriotism and loyalty
of a certain group you
should be a part of….
Apply it to The Crucible:
p. 1106 – Rev. Hale :
A reverend using his position
of authority to persuade:
 “No, no. Now let me instruct
you. We cannot look to
superstition in this, The Devil
is precise; the marks of his
presence are definite as
stone, and I must tell you all
that I shall not proceed
unless you are prepared to
believe me if I should find no
bruise of hell upon her.”
PATHOS
PATHOS
•Pathos appeals rely on
emotions and feelings to
persuade the audience
•They are often direct,
simple, and very powerful
Pathos:
 Pathos is related to the words
pathetic, sympathy and empathy.
 Whenever you accept a claim
based on how it makes you feel
without fully analyzing the
rationale behind the claim, you
are acting on pathos- emotions:
love, fear, patriotism, guilt, hate,
joy etc.
Pathos: Moving you to ACTION
 Appeals to pathos touch an
emotional nerve and often
compel people to not only
listen, but to also take the
next step and act in the
world.
Where do you notice PATHOS appeals?
“America's older citizens
have rightly been called
the "greatest
generation." It is
morally unacceptable
that the people that
built this country -- our
senior citizens -- should
suffer hunger in a land
of plenty, which they
helped to create.”
-from America’s Second Harvest
program
What is the “call to action” which
is implied?
“America's older citizens
have rightly been called
the "greatest
generation." It is
morally unacceptable
that the people that
built this country -- our
senior citizens -- should
suffer hunger in a land
of plenty, which they
helped to create.”
-from America’s Second Harvest
program
What is “the call to action”?
 http://www.youtube.co
m/watch?v=9gspElv1yv
c
A commercial
which, hands
down, is probably
the best “pathos”
appeal out there to
date:
Apply it to The Crucible:
p. 1099 Abigail to John
Proctor
A young woman tries to convince
the man she loves that he loves her
still:
 “ I look for John Proctor that
took me from my sleep and
put knowledge in my
heart!...And now you bid me
tear the light out of my eyes?
I will not, I cannot! You loved
me, John Proctor, and
whatever sin it is, you love
me yet! John, pity me, pity
me!”
LOGOS
LOGOS:
 Appeals rely on the
audience’s intelligence
to persuade them.
 The more educated
the audience, the
more skeptical they
are of emotional
arguments --- they are
more receptive to
logos appeals
Logos:
 The Greek word logos is the basis for
the English word “logic.”
 Refers to any attempt to appeal to the
intellect—this looks and sounds like a
"logical argument."
 Everyday arguments rely heavily on
ethos and pathos, but academic
arguments rely more on logos: there
will be logical chains of reasoning
supporting all claims.
Where do you see a LOGOS
appeal?
NASA sees its mission
to explore Mars as an
endeavor to seek out
the possibility of life
on that planet.
Knowing if water was
on Mars is the first
step in this research.
LOGOS:
NASA sees its mission
to explore Mars as an
endeavor to seek out
the possibility of life
on that planet.
Knowing if water was
on Mars is the first
step in this research.
Where do you notice PATHOS
and LOGOS appeals?
The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge
provides a safe refuge for 180
species of migratory birds, serves as
a birthing ground for one of the
hemisphere's largest caribou herds
and has been home to the Gwinch'in
people for a thousand generations.
Ninety-five percent (95%) of Alaska's
North Slope is already available to
Big Oil, but these companies want it
all.
The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge
provides a safe refuge for 180
species of migratory birds,
serves as a birthing ground for
one of the hemisphere's largest
caribou herds and has been
home to the Gwinch'in people for
a thousand generations. Ninetyfive percent (95%) of Alaska's
North Slope is already available
to Big Oil, but these companies
want it all.
What is “the call to action”?
This company’s
commercials use
common sense
appeal and the
logic of saving
money:
http://www.bing.com/vide
os/search?q=allstate+com
mercials+teenage+racoon
&view=detail&mid=433CA
8CF0B34BD78A1A6433CA
8CF0B34BD78A1A6&first=
0
Apply it to The Crucible:
p. 1110 Rev. Hale to Tituba
Rev. Hale attempts to
persuade Tituba with calm,
religious logic:
 “You are God’s instrument
put in our hands to discover
the Devil’s agent among us.
You are selected, Tituba, you
are chosen to help us cleanse
our village. So speak utterly,
Tituba, turn your back on him
and face God—face God,
Tituba and God will protect
you.”
THESE APPEALS ARE
PREVALENT IN ALMOST
ALL ARGUMENTS….
ETHOS, PATHOS, LOGOS
Example of?
Call to action?
 http://www.bing.com/v
ideos/search?q=etrade
+baby+commercials&v
iew=detail&mid=DBE2
259CE505288BE307DB
E2259CE505288BE307
&first=0
Example of ?
 Rational choice theory in political science has
made much of the fact that it is seemingly
irrational to vote in a large-scale election. This is
because the probability that your single vote will
determine the outcome is generally very close to
zero, while the act of voting entails some small
but real costs. Even in a close election like Florida
in 2000, an individual’s vote would really “count”
only if the margin of victory was exactly one
vote.3
Example of?
Call to action?
 http://www.bing.com/v
ideos/search?q=pathos
+commercials&view=d
etail&mid=C330DDB22
52BBDB8F8E6C330DD
B2252BBDB8F8E6&firs
t=0
Example of ???
Hillary Clinton used a moment of brilliantly
staged emotion to win the New Hampshire
Democratic primary . . .. As she answered
questions in a diner on the morning before
the election, Mrs. Clinton's voice began to
waver and crack when she said: “It's not
easy. . . . This is very personal for me.”
Example of?
Call to action?
 http://www.myspace.c
om/video/vid/30006522
Examples of ???
"If, in my low moments, in word, deed or attitude, through
some error of temper, taste, or tone, I have caused anyone
discomfort, created pain, or revived someone's fears, that
was not my truest self. If there were occasions when my
grape turned into a raisin and my joy bell lost its
resonance, please forgive me. Charge it to my head and not
to my heart. My head--so limited in its finitude; my heart,
which is boundless in its love for the human family. I am
not a perfect servant. I am a public servant doing my best
against the odds."
(Jesse Jackson, Democratic National Convention Keynote
Address, 1984)
Example of?
Call to action?
 http://www.bing.com/v
ideos/search?q=fifty+p
ercent+more+cash+co
mmerical&mid=DE725
094A6D5FB3CBE35DE
725094A6D5FB3CBE35
&view=detail&FORM=
VIRE7