Motivation and Emotion
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Motivation
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Introductory Psychology Concepts : Motivation
Motivation:
The process by which activities are started, directed,
and sustained to fulfill both physical and psychological
needs.
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Introductory Psychology Concepts : Motivation
Instinct Approach to Motivation: Actions Motivated By
Innate Behavior Patterns
Instincts: Inborn patterns of behavior that are biologically
determined rather than learned.
• People and animals are born preprogrammed with sets of
behaviors essential to their survival.
• Instincts provide the energy that channels behavior in
appropriate directions.
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Introductory Psychology Concepts : Motivation
Drive Reduction Theories: Hunger Motivates Action To
Find Food To Reduce Hunger.
Drive: motivational tension, or arousal, that energizes
behavior to fulfill a need.
• Primary drives:
Related to biological needs of the body, or the species as a
whole (hunger, thirst, sleep, sex).
• Secondary drives:
Behavior fulfills no obvious biological need (people have
strong needs to achieve academically and professionally).
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Introductory Psychology Concepts : Motivation
Homeostasis: Underlying Primary Drives and the
Body’s Tendency to Maintain a Steady Internal State.
With Homeostasis, a series
of feedback loops is used to
regulate body functions,
similar to the way a
thermostat controls the air
temperature in a room.
When body temperature
becomes too high, the
blood vessels expand, and
we sweat as our bodies try
to lower the temperature.
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Introductory Psychology Concepts : Motivation
Types of Needs
Maslow’s Hierarchy
Before more sophisticated,
higher-order needs can be
met, certain primary needs
must be satisfied (Maslow, 1987).
Motivation progresses up the
pyramid from the broadest,
most fundamental biological
needs to higher-order needs.
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Eating Disorders
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Anorexia Nervosa
Weight loss of at least 15% of ideal weight.
A severe eating disorder in which people may refuse to eat while
denying that their behavior and appearance are unusual.
Despite looking
skeleton-like to
others, people with
the weight disorder
anorexia nervosa see
themselves as
overweight.
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Bulimia Nervosa
The cycle of bingeing and purging.
A disorder in which a
person binges on
incredibly large
portions of food and
later may attempt to
purge the food
through vomiting or
the use of laxatives.
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Bulimia Nervosa – video (playtime 2.36)
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Causes of Eating Disorders
Biological Factors
A chemical imbalance in the hypothalamus or pituitary gland, perhaps
brought on by genetic factors.
Societal Pressures
Society’s valuation of slenderness and the parallel notion that obesity
is undesirable.
Mood Disorders
(Bulimic) food cravings are often triggered by stress and negative
mood, bingeing temporarily reduces a negative emotional state.
Family Environment
Disorder resulting from overly demanding parents or other family
problems.
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Treatment of Eating Disorders
Treatment is difficult and may take years, but with professional
help, about half of all anorexic and bulimic patients fully recover.
(Becker et al., 1999; Westin et al., 20004)
Others are able to eat more normally but maintain their
preoccupation with food and weight.
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Sexuality
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Introductory Psychology Concepts: Sexuality
Sexuality: Physical and Psychological Perspective
Sex is often described as a biological reproductive motive,
yet people usually do not have sex to conceive children.
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Evolution shaped our physiology so that sex feels good
Periodically, having sex for pleasure leads to childbirth,
through which our genes are passed on.
People engage in sex to:
Reproduce
Obtain and give sensual pleasure
Express love
Foster intimacy
Fulfill one’s “duty”
Conform to peer pressure, and a host of other reasons.
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Introductory Psychology Concepts: Sexuality
Female Sex Organs
Ovary
Uterus
Cervix
Bladder
Pubic bone
Vagina
Urethra
Anus
Clitoris
Female
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Introductory Psychology Concepts: Sexuality
Male Sex Organs
Large intestine
Bladder
Seminal vesicle
Pubic bone
Ejaculatory duct
Vas deferens
Prostate
Urethra
Anus
Penis
Testis
Scrotum
Glans
Male
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Introductory Psychology Concepts: Sexuality
Psychological Side of Sexuality
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•
•
Sexual arousal typically begins with desire and a sexual
stimulus that is perceived positively (Walen & Roth, 1987).
Sexual fantasy is an important component of many people’s
lives, studies indicate that men sexually fantasize more than
women (Martinez & Raul, 2000).
Psychological factors can not only trigger sexual arousal but
also inhibit it. Stress, fatigue, and anger at one’s partner can
lead to temporary arousal problems.
Sexual dysfunction refers to chronic, impaired sexual
functioning that distresses a person. It may result from injuries,
diseases, and drug effects, some causes are psychological.
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Gender
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Introductory Psychology Concepts: Sexuality
Psychological Side of Sexuality
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Gender: The psychological experience of being male of
female.
Gender Roles: Typical behaviors which people learn that
belong to males and females as dictated by their cultural
norms.
Gender Typing: Process by which people learn
appropriate gender roles within their cultures.
Gender Identity: One’s view of oneself as male of female.
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Introductory Psychology Concepts: Sexuality
Gender: Perception of Being Male or Female
Although there is a good deal of overlap between the
concepts of sex and gender, they are not the same.
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Sex typically refers to sexual anatomy and sexual behavior
Gender refers to the sense of maleness or femaleness related
to our membership in a given society.
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Introductory Psychology Concepts: Sexuality
Gender: Psychological Aspect of Being Male or Female
Men and women differ in how positively they view their own
abilities and how they estimate the probability of their future
success.
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In general, women evaluate themselves more harshly than
men do.
Content of men’s and women’s speech differs, with women’s
speech being more precise. Speech patterns lead others to
view them as more tentative, less assertive.
Women’s and men’s nonverbal behavior differs in several
significant respects. In conversation with opposite sex, women
look at their partner significantly more while listening than
while speaking.
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Introductory Psychology Concepts: Sexuality
Gender Typing: Process in Which People Learn their
Cultural Appropriate Gender Role
Starting from the moment of birth, with blue blankets for
boys and pink ones for girls, most parents and other adults
provide environments that differ according to gender.
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Differences in environment and activity based on gender are
described as socialization, the process by which an individual
learns the rules and norms of appropriate behavior.
According to Sandra Bem (1998), socialization produces a
gender schema, a mental framework that organizes and
guides a child’s understanding of information relevant to
gender.
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Introductory Psychology Concepts: Sexuality
Gender Identity
Gender identity: The sense of “femaleness” or “maleness”
that becomes a central aspect of one’s personal identity.
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Most children develop a basic gender identity between the
ages of 2 and 3 and can label themselves and others as being
either a boy or a girl.
Gender constancy is the understanding that being male or
female is a permanent part of person, developing at age 6 or 7.
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Introductory Psychology Concepts: Sexuality
Gender Stereotyping
As gender identity develops, children acquire sex-role
stereotypes--beliefs about the characteristics and behaviors
that are appropriate for boys and girls to possess.
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Every group, including family and cultural groups, has norms
for expected and accepted gender behavior.
Parents, siblings, friends, the mass media, and other
socializing agents convey these norms as we grow up.
As we internalize these norms, they become part of our
identity (Martin & Ruble, 2004).
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Introductory Psychology Concepts: Sexuality
Gender Stereotyping: Positive and Negative Aspects
Stereotyping can be either negative or positive, but in either
case stereotyping is inherently harmful for three reasons:
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1) Stereotypes reduce our ability to treat members of a gender
as individuals.
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2) Stereotypes lead to narrow expectations for gender
behavior.
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3) Stereotypes lead to faulty attributions, the theory that
people tend to look for explanations for specific behavior
based on gender stereotypes.
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Gender Roles
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Introductory Psychology Concepts: Gender Roles
Culture’s Expectation: For Male and Female Behavior
Gender-role socialization provides us with gender schemas,
organized mental structures that contain our understanding
of the attributes and behaviors that are appropriate and
expected for males and females
(Bem, 1981).
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Introductory Psychology Concepts: Gender Roles
Theories of Children Learning Gender Roles
Social-learning theory:
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Gender differences are learned through a society’s division of
labor and the social roles established for men and women.
Gender schema theory:
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Within a given culture, gender schemas tell us what the
typical man or woman should be like.
In Western cultures, men tend to prize attributes related to
achievement, emotional strength, athleticism. Women prize
interpersonal competencies, kindness, and helpfulness to
others
(Beyer, 1990; Marsh, 1990).
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Emotions
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Emotions: feelings that generally have both
physiological and cognitive elements that can influence
behavior.
Components of emotion
Emotions are triggered by external
or internal eliciting stimuli.
Physiological
responses
Eliciting
stimuli
Cognitive
appraisal
Instrumental
behaviors
Expressive
behaviors
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Emotions: feelings that generally have both
physiological and cognitive elements and that can
influence behavior.
Components of emotion
Emotional responses result from our
appraisal of these stimuli.
Physiological
responses
Eliciting
stimuli
Cognitive
appraisal
Instrumental
behaviors
Expressive
behaviors
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Emotions: feelings that generally have both
physiological and cognitive elements and that can
influence behavior.
Components of emotion
Our bodies respond
physiologically to our appraisals.
Physiological
responses
Eliciting
stimuli
Cognitive
appraisal
Instrumental
behaviors
Expressive
behaviors
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Emotions: feelings that generally have both
physiological and cognitive elements and that influence
behavior.
Components of emotion
Emotions include behavior tendencies:
+ Expressive (smiling, crying)
+ Instrumental (fighting back in self-defense)
Physiological
responses
Eliciting
stimuli
Cognitive
appraisal
Instrumental
behaviors
Expressive
behaviors
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Theories of Emotion
The James-Lange Theory
Our bodily reactions determine the subjective emotion we experience.
The Cannon-Bard Theory
The subjective experiences of emotion and physiological arousal do not
cause one another, but instead are independent responses to an emotionarousing situation.
The Schacter-Singer Theory
Emotions are determined jointly by a nonspecific kind of physiological
arousal and its interpretation, based on environmental cues.
Schacter’s Two-Factor Theory
The intensity of physiological arousal tells us how strongly we are feeling
something, but situational cues give us the information we need to label the
arousal and tell ourselves what we are feeling.
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Facial Feedback Hypothesis
According to the facial feedback hypothesis, feedback from the facial muscles
to the brain plays a key role in determining the nature and intensity of
emotions that we experience. (Adelmann & Zajonc, 1989).
Holding a pencil in the teeth activates the muscles used in smiling, and thus evokes
more pleasant feelings than holding the pencil in one’s lips.
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Language of the Face – video (playtime 4.59)
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Introductory Psychology Concepts