Chapter 11
• Emotion
• Stress
• Health
1
Emotion
(Branches)
Thoughts and
explanations
(Gardener)
Culture & experience & expression of emotion
(Root &Trunk)
Biological
capacity for emotion
2
Think about these Issues
• Are emotions and cognitions two separate
processes that often conflict with each
other, or are they inextricably
connected?
• Can we control our emotion?
• Is thinking always rational and emotion
irrational?
3
Face & Emotion
Paul Ekman
• Neurocultural Theory
• 1-Universal neurophysiology in the facial
muscles
• 2-Culture-specific variations in the expression
of emotion
• Seven Universal Facial Expressions of Emotion
• Anger, happiness, fear, surprise, disgust,
sadness, and contempt
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Emotion
• Elements of Emotion
• 1-Physiological changes in the face, brain,
and body
• 2-Cognitive processes such as
interpretations of events
• 3-Cultural influences that shape the
experience and expression of emotion
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(1)
The Physiology of
Emotion
(Face, Hormones, Brain)
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Visual Cliff Studies
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Visual Cliff Studies
• 75% of the babies crossed the cliff when
their mothers put on a happy, reassuring
expression.
• Not a single one crossed when their
mothers showed an expression of fear.
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Facial Feedback
• Facial expressions affect the sympathetic
nervous system.
• A smile sends a message to the brain and
positive emotions increase
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Hormones and Emotion
• You perceive the sensory stimulus.
• The adrenal gland sends two hormones:
epinephrine and norepinephrine.
• They activate the sympathetic nervous system.
• That produces a state of arousal or alertness that
provides the body with the energy to act (the
pupils dilate, the heart beats faster, and breathing
speeds up).
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Detecting Emotion
Lie Detectors
• It measures several of the arousal responses
that accompany emotion, such as breathing,
blood pressure, and perspiration.
• The polygraph cannot distinguish between
anxiety, irritation, or guilt; all appear as
arousal.
• An innocent person might respond with
heightened tension to the accusations.
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The Brain and Emotion
Left Hemisphere
• Important for the
expression of positive
emotion
• Damage to the L.H.
leads to loss of the
capacity of joy.
• Activation in the L.H.
leads to tendencies to
approach other people.
Right Hemisphere
• Important for the
expression of negative
emotion
• Damage to the R.H. may
make people euphoric.
• Activation in the R.H.
leads to tendencies to
withdraw from people.
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Amygdala
• Is a small structure in the limbic system
• Is responsible for evaluating sensory
information & determines its importance
• Makes initial decision to approach or
withdraw from situation
• Its initial response may be overridden by
a more accurate appraisal by the
cerebral cortex
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The Brain’s Shortcut for Emotions
• We feel some emotions before we think.
• Some neural pathways involved in emotion bypass
the cortical areas involved in thinking.
• One such pathway runs from the eye or ear via the
thalamus to the amygdala, the emotional control
center.
• This shortcut enables a quick, precognitive
emotional response before the intellect intervenes.
• The cortex can override the decision of the
amygdala to react.
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(2)
Thoughts & Emotion
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Theories of Emotion
1- James-Lang Theory
2- Cannon-Bard Theory
3- Schachter’s Two-Factor Theory
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James-Lang Theory
Stimulus
(Sight of Oncoming Car)
Arousal
(Pounding Heart)
Emotion
(Fear)
21
Cannon-Bard Theory
Stimulus
(Sight of oncoming Car)
Arousal + Emotion
(Pounding Heart)
(Fear)
22
Schachter’s
Two-Factor Theory
Stimulus
(Sight of oncoming Car)
Arousal
Cognitive Label
(Pounding Heart)
(“I’m afraid”)
Emotion
(Fear)
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Two-factor Theory of Emotion
Stanley Schachter & Jerome Singer
•
•
•
•
1962
Emotion depends on 2 factors:
1- Physiological arousal
2- The cognitive interpretation of that
arousal
• Unless you can interpret, explain, and label
the bodily changes, you will not feel a true
emotion.
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Mental Development
• Infants
• Adults
• Cognition is basic.
• Do not feel shame
• Cerebral cortex is
not fully developed.
• Cognitive appraisals
are basic.
• Emotions are not
complex.
• Cognition is complex.
• Cerebral cortex is
developed.
• Cognitive appraisals
& emotions are
complex.
• Emergence of selfconsciousness
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Anger
A short madness
Or
Makes any coward brave???
26
Anybody can become angry, that is easy; but
to be angry with the right person, and to the
right degree, and at the right time, and for
the right purpose, and in the right way, that
is not within everybody’s power and is not
easy.
(Aristotle)
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Anger
• Chronic hostility is linked to heart disease.
• Anger makes you react more assertively.
• Anger leads to talking things over with the
offender.
• Societies that value their interdependence
consider anger as a threat to group
harmony.
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Catharsis
Hypothesis
Venting anger can be
temporarily calming
if it doesn’t leave us
with guilty feelings
Catharsis fails to cleanse
one’s rage.
Anger breeds more
anger.
Anger may provoke
retaliation.
Blowing off steam may
amplify the underlying
hostility.
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How to Handle
Anger
• Don’t suppress it.
• Don’t express it aggressively.
• Confess it and do something
about it.
• Seek reconciliation rather
than retaliation.
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Happiness
• Feel-good, do-good phenomenon
• We overestimate the long-term of emotional
impact of very bad news and underestimate our
capacity to adapt.
• Wealth is like health: Its utter absence breeds
misery, yet having it is no guarantee of happiness.
Those who value love more than money report
much higher satisfaction with life than their
money-hungry peers.
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Happiness Is Relative
• The Adaptive-Level
Principle
• Our tendency to form
judgments (of sounds,
of lights, of income) is
relative to a “neutral”
level defined by our
prior experience.
• The Relative
Deprivation Level
• The perception that
one is worse off
relative to those with
whom one compares
oneself (others’
attainment)
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Happiness is
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Having high self-esteem
Being optimistic and agreeable.
Having a satisfying social life.
Having work and leisure that engage one’s skills.
Having a meaningful religious faith.
Sleeping well and exercise.
Having a positive attitude
Helping others
Counting your blessings
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Happiness Is Not
Related to
•
•
•
•
•
Age
Parenthood
Gender
Education levels
Physical attractiveness
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Happiness
• You cannot receive joy from life itself
unless you really desire it. Life just gives
you time and space; it’s up to you to fill it.
• The only medicine that needs no
prescription , has no unpleasant taste, and
costs no money is laughter.
41
Stress
• The process by which we perceive and
respond to certain events, called
stressors, that we appraise as threatening
or challenging.
• It is not just stimulus-response
42
Positive Effects of Stressors
• It motivates us to conquer the problem.
• People emerge with stronger self-esteem.
• People emerge with deepened spirituality
and sense of purpose.
• Stress in earlier life is conducive to later
emotional resilience.
Adversity begets growth.
43
Hans Selye (1936,1976)
General Adaptation Syndrome
1- Phase 1 – Alarm Reaction
2- Phase 2 – Resistance
3- Phase 3 - exhaustion
44
What Causes Stress?
• Perceived Control
– Poverty and inequality, pessimism
• Stressful Life Events
– Catastrophes, significant life changes, daily
hassles
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Personality and How People
Respond to Stress
1- Emotions and Illness
Negative emotions affect the course of illness
Type A behavior may be a risk for heart
disease.
Depression may be a risk for heart disease.
Cynical or antagonistic hostility was found
to be related to heart disease.
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Personality and How People
Respond to Stress
1- Emotions and Illness
Emotional inhibition may decrease the
circulating white blood cells that fight
disease.
Emotion and health: a two-way street
Disease may cause emotion rather than the
opposite.
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Personality and How People
Respond to Stress
2- Optimism and Pessimism
Pessimism is associated with more illness and
slower recovery from trauma.
Optimists take better care of themselves and
have better immune functions
3- The Sense of Control
Perceiving a loss of control, we become
vulnerable to ill health.
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What Are the Effects of Stress?
•
•
•
•
Stress and Heart Disease
Stress and the Immune System
Stress and AIDS
Stress and Cancer
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The Immune System
Lymphocytes (White Cells)
B Lymphocytes
T Lymphocytes
Form in the bone
marrow and release
antibodies that fight
bacterial infections.
Form in the thymus and,
among other duties,
attack cancer cells,
viruses, and foreign
substances.
50
How Does Stress Make Us
Vulnerable to Disease?
• Stress diverts energy from the immune
system.
• It inhibits activities of its B and T
lymphocytes
• Stress does not cause diseases such as
cancer.
• It may influence the progression of cancer.
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The Immune System Can Err in
Two Ways
(1)
Responding too
strongly
It may attack the
body’s own tissues,
causing arthritis or
allergic reactions
(2)
It may underreact
Allowing a dormant
herpes virus to erupt
or cancer cells to
multiply.
52
Conditioning the Immune
System’s Suppression
Sweetened Water (Unconditioned Stimulus) +
Drug Suppressing the Immune System
Immune Suppression (Unconditioned Response)
Sweetened Water Alone (Conditioned Stimulus)
Immune Suppression (Conditioned Response)
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Conditioning the Immune
System’s Enhancement
• Placebos
• They have no biochemical effect.
• They can promote healing.
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Coping with Stress
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•
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Aerobic Exercise
Biofeedback , Relaxation, &Breathing
Social Support
Spirituality
Organization
Time Management
Self-talk
Laughter
Positive Thinking
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Ten Habits of Highly Effective Stress
Managers
1- They know how to relax.
2- They eat right and exercise often.
3- They get enough sleep.
4- They don’t worry about the
unimportant stuff.
5- They don’t get angry often.
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Ten Habits of Highly Effective Stress
Managers
6- They are organized.
7- They manage their time effectively.
8- They have and they make use of a
strong social support system.
9- They live According to their values.
10-They have a good sense of humor.
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Chapter 11 - Emotions, Stress, and Health