Prisons and Jails Mr. Whitaker Vocabulary Congregate System A 1900’s prison system developed in New York were inmates stayed in separate cells during the night but worked together in the daytime . Consolidation A corrections model in which the inmates who pose the highest security risk are housed in a single facility to separate them from the general prison population. Dispersion A corrections model in which high-risk inmates are spread throughout the general prison population. Jail A facility, usually operated by county government, used to hold persons awaiting trial or those who have been found guilty of misdemeanors. Vocabulary Lockdown A disciplinary action taken by prison officials in which all inmates are ordered to their quarters. Maximum Security Prison A correctional institution designed and organized to control and discipline dangerous felons, as well as prevent escape, with intense supervision, cement walls, and electronic, barbed wire fences. Medical Model A model of corrections in which the psychological and biological roots of an inmate’s criminal behavior are identified and treated. Medium-Security Prison A correctional institution that houses less dangerous inmates and therefore uses less restrictive measures to avoid violence and escapes. Vocabulary Minimum-Security Prison A correctional institution designed to allow inmates, most of whom pose low security risks, a great deal of freedom of movement and contact with the outside world. Penitentiary An early form of correctional facility that emphasized separating inmates from society and from each other. Pretrial Detainees Individuals who cannot post bail after arrest and are therefore forced to spend the time prior to their trials in jail. Private Prisons Correctional facilities operated by private corporations instead of the government. Vocabulary Separate Confinement A nineteenth-century penitentiary system in which inmates were kept separate from each other at all times. Time Served The period of time a person denied bail has spent in jail prior to his or her trial. Warden The prison official who is ultimately responsible for the organization and performance of a correctional facility. Questions for You What are some sights and sounds of a jail or prison? Should a jail or prison provide a harsh or rehabilitating environment for its inmates? Is solitary confinement humane or in humane? Why or Why not? Do you think jails or prisons deter people to do crime in the U.S.? Short History of American Prisons Colonial History Walnut Street Prison: The First Penitentiary Pennsylvania (1776) passed a law that offenders were to be reformed treatment and discipline rather than being beaten or executed. The Pennsylvania System a. Two prisons included: 1. Western Penitentiary near Pittsburgh. 2. Eastern Penitentiary in Cherry Hill. Practiced separate confinement. Consisted of back-toback cells facing both inward and outward. The New York System Initially run like Walnut Street. Found that solitary confinement led to sickness, insanity and suicide. Solitary confinement was abandoned in 1822. The New York System In 1831, the congregate system was started. a. Inmates worked and ate together. b. Silence was enforced by guards. The Reformers and the Progressives Rehabilitation became a new tool. Elmira Reformatory rewarded good behavior with early release. Progressives believed that crime was caused by: a. Social b. Economic c. Biological factors. Medical Model held that institutions should offer a variety of treatments and programs to cure inmates. The Reassertion of Punishment 1. In 1974, Martinson published his work critical of rehabilitation. 2. Martinson’s work and a rise in the crime rate helped create a gettough philosophy towards crime. Do you think the role of the prisons should be more rehabilitative or punishment? The Origins of Prisons Activity Age of Torture The Reformers Building Ideals 19th Century Activity Continued What is a pillory and how was it used? What is a prison hulk? What is a Panopticon prison and who invented it? In five sentences, explain how the Quakers influenced prison reform. Briefly explain architectural and disciplinary ideals in the earliest prisons. How did prison design change in the 19th century? The Prison Population Bomb A. According to Blumstein of Carnegie Mellon University much of the growth of prison populations is due to the enhancement and stricter enforcement of drug laws. Four Factors of Increased Populations in Prisons Increased probability of incarceration is greater than twenty years ago. Inmates serving more time for each crime: Federal prison growth: since 1995 the federal prison population has been growing at twice the rate of the states. Rising incarceration rates of women: in 1981 there were 14,000 women in prison, by 2003, the number had reached 100,102. Types of Prisons Maximum-Security Prisons Medium-Security Prisons Minimum-Security Prisons Maximum-Security Prisons They are designed with full attention to security and surveillance. Inmates lives are programmed in militaristic fashion. About one-quarter of nation’s prisons are maximum-security institutions. Maximum security facilities house approximately 16 percent of the nation’s prisoners. Medium-Security Prisons Medium security facilities hold 35 percent of prison population Commit less serious offenses and are less of a risk for escaping. More programs, more freedom of movement and more contact between inmates. Minimum-Security Prisons Minimum security facilities 49 percent of prison population. facilities often look more like college campuses than prisons. Inmates are mostly nonviolent and well behaved. Extreme freedom of movement Facility Research Project Working in pairs, your partner and you will research two facilities on the federal, local, or state level. Using your handout, you will create a one page report on each facility and create a presentation to give to the class on the facilities that you choose. What is the difference? Government Prisons and Private Prisons Using the diagram tell me: Five Reasons why privatized prisons What are three arguments against it? Five differences between Maximum Security Prisons and Medium Security Prisons Prison Administration Management Difficulties 1. Consequences of mismanagement can be severe. 2. Breakdowns in managerial control commonly preceded acts of mass violence. Prison Management Structure The management structure of prisons is similar to those of police departments. Both systems have hierarchical chain of command. Prison Management Structure Police departments have a continuity of purpose that is sometimes lacking in prison organizations. In prisons the employees are: 1. counselors trying to rehabilitate. 2. guards attempting to control. The warden or superintendent is ultimately responsible for the operation of a prison. The Emergence of Private Prisons Labor costs are less expensive for private prisons. Competitive bidding: the drive for profit pushes private prisons to pay the lowest possible price for items. Less red tape: private prisons do not have the same amounts of paperwork that slow down governmental organizations. The Function of Jails Holding those convicted of misdemeanors. Receiving/holding individuals pending: arraignment, trial, conviction or sentencing. Temporary detention of juveniles. Holding mentally ill pending transfer to mental health facility. The Function of Jails Detaining probation/parole violators or those who “jumped” bail. Houses inmates awaiting transfer to state or federal prisons. Operating community-based corrections programs. The Jail Population Pretrial Detainees (walking legal contradictions) Sentenced Jail Inmates: individuals sentenced to short terms, typically between thirty and ninety days. Other Jail Inmates: include convicted felons awaiting transfer to state or federal prisons, probation or parole violators. The End of the Line: Supermax Prisons The “Worst of the Worst” Prisoners are committed to a “supermax” because they misbehave in standard penal institutions. Held in one-person cells. Permitted out of their cells only ninety minutes a day. Marion – The First Supermax After Alcatraz was closed in 1963, the Bureau of Prisons attempted to “disperse” the worst prisoners throughout the prison system. 2. In 1983, Marion experienced a rash of violence that resulted in a total lockdown of the institution. 3. Marion left the lockdown policy in effect, creating the first “supermax.” The New Generation Supermax In the past decade, a new generation of supermax facilities has been created. These new facilities focus on technology, and security in the housing and movement of inmates. Senseless Suffering? Various groups argue that supermax prisons are cruel and unusual. So far, the courts have not forced the elimination of supermax prisons. Think-Pair-Share The article called “The End of the Line Supermax Prisons” Final Project Your partner and you will design a prison or jail You will have to design the building, rank structure, programs, security measures, daily routines, housing arrangements, and more.