Development of Sociology
Separate study develops in the 1800”s
1. rapid changes and the industrial revolution
2. growth of urban population
(housing shortages, crime, pollution)
3. individual vs group
European scholars
Isidore Auguste Marie François
Xavier Comte (19 January 1798 – 5
September 1857), was a French
philosopher. He was a founder of the
discipline of sociology and of the
doctrine of positivism. He may be
regarded as the first philosopher of
science in the modern sense of the
Harriet Martineau
(12 June 1802 – 27 June 1876)
was an English social theorist
and Whig writer, often cited as
the first female sociologist.
Martineau wrote 35 books and a
multitude of essays from a
sociological, holistic, religious,
domestic, and, perhaps most
controversial, a feminine
Herbert Spencer
He was one of the principal proponents of
evolutionary theory in the mid nineteenth
century, and his reputation at the time
rivaled that of Charles Darwin. Spencer
was initially best known for developing
and applying evolutionary theory to
philosophy, psychology and the study of
society — what he called his “synthetic
Spencer is best known for coining the
concept “survival of the fittest",
Karl Marx
Emphasize the primary role
that conflict plays in the
social change and advocated
revolution to speed up the
process of change his ideas
led to the development of the
conflict perspective in
Emile Durkheim
Described society as a set of interdependent
parts, with each part serving a specific
function; believed that sociologist should
focus on observable social phenomena,
influential in developing the functionalist
perspective in sociology. Much of Durkheim's
work was concerned with how societies could
maintain their integrity and coherence in
modernity; an era in which traditional social
and religious ties are no longer assumed, and
in which new social institutions have come
into being.
Max Weber
Developed the concept of
ideal type against which the
social reality can be
measured; sociology should
should attempt to understand
the meanings that individuals
attach to their actions.
Interactionist perspective in
Sociology dept at University of Chicago
Chicago School- group interactions and the
impact of society on individual development
Practical solutions to social problems- Jane
Addams (1860-1935)
Considered a social worker
Jane Addams worked with the Civic Federation of Chicago to
address social and political problems
was a pioneer settlement worker,
founder of Hull House in Chicago,
public philosopher,
leader in woman suffrage and world peace.
Settlement house
The settlement movement was a reformist social
movement, beginning in the 1880s and peaking
around the 1920s in England and the US, with a goal
of getting the rich and poor in society to live more
closely together in an interdependent community. Its
main object was the establishment of "settlement
houses" in poor urban areas, in which volunteer
middle-class "settlement workers" would live, hoping
to share knowledge and culture with, and alleviate the
poverty of their low-income neighbors
Hull House
Addams and Starr were the first two occupants of the
house, which would later become the residence of
about twenty-five women. At its height, Hull House
was visited each week by around two thousand
people. Its facilities included a night school for
adults, kindergarten classes, clubs for older children,
a public kitchen, an art gallery, a coffeehouse, a gym,
a girls' club, a bathhouse, a book bindery, a music
school, a drama group, and a library, as well as laborrelated divisions. Her adult night school was a
forerunner of the continuing education classes offered
by many universities today.
Smith Hall
Women’s Club
Hull House
In addition to making available social services
and cultural events for the largely immigrant
population of the neighborhood, Hull House
afforded an opportunity for young social
workers to acquire training. Eventually, Hull
House became a thirteen-building settlement
complex, which included a playground and a
summer camp (known as Bowen Country
W.E.B. Dubois
Used community studies to
underscore the significance of
race in American society;
believed that sociologists
should be involved in social
reform as well as academic