INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 2013–2014 Update Tenth Edition Joshua S. Goldstein Jon C. Pevehouse Chapter Three: Liberal and Social Theories Anti-government protester in Bahrain, 2011. 3.1 The Waning War Liberal theorists see the rules of IR as slowly evolving through time and potentially becoming more peaceful. Evolution results primarily from the gradual build-up of international organization and mutual cooperation (reciprocity) and secondarily from changes in norms and public opinion (identity). Current period is one of the least warlike in history 3.1 The Waning of War Q: With respect to warfare, __________. A) the long-term trend is that there are fewer wars but more people being killed in them B) the advances in technology lead us to fear annihilation of the world more than destruction of a city C) major wars will continue regardless of trends toward fewer wars D) today’s most serious conflicts consist mainly of skirmishing rather than all-out battles Answer: D) today’s most serious conflicts consist mainly of skirmishing rather than all-out battles True-False: Events in the post–Cold War era have continued a long-term trend toward larger wars. Answer: False 3.2 Liberal Theories Kant and Peace Liberal Institutionalism International Regimes Collective Security The Democratic Peace MyLab Media Video: Toppling Hussein. http://media.pearsoncmg.com/long/long_mpsk_vcs_1/vcs2_20_ toppling_hussein.html Please log into MyPoliSciLab with your username and password before accessing this link. Kant and Peace Liberal theories of IR try to explain how peace and cooperation are possible German philosopher Immanuel Kant Liberal Institutionalism Kant’s first answer Rational actors States could join a worldwide federation International cooperation Neoliberal approach HAPPY FAMILY Liberal theories emphasize the potential for rivalries to evolve into cooperative relationships as states recognize that achieving mutual benefits is most cost effective in the long run. For example, the U.S. and Soviet/Russian space programs began cooperating in the 1960s and continue today, with other countries. Here, astronauts from the United States, Russia, Germany, and Sweden share the International Space Station, 2006. International Regimes Set of rules, norms, and producers Can help solve collective-goods problems Intervening variables Embedded in international institutions HEALTHY REGIME International regimes are sets of rules, norms, and procedures, not always codified into institutions, that govern the behavior of actors in IR. The world health regime includes states, IGOs such as the World Health Organization (WHO), nonprofit organizations such as the Gates Foundation, and others, all working with common expectations about activities to improve health and stem epidemics. Here, Cuban doctors give WHO vaccines to children in Haiti, 2010. Collective Security Grows out of liberal institutionalism Formation of a broad alliance League of Nations United Nations Regional IGOs Success of collective security Issue of failed states Democratic Peace Kant’s second answer Democracies almost never fight each other Democracy more widespread Period of transition DEMOCRATIC TIDE Upsurges of democratic movements throughout the world in recent years testify to the power of the idea of democracy. Because democracies rarely fight each other, worldwide democratization might lead to lasting peace. Here, Tunisia holds its first free election after leading the Arab Spring and reversing decades of authoritarian rule, 2011. 3.2 Liberal Theories Q: What was the first attempt at creating a collective security system? A) United Nations B) League of Nations C) European Community D) North Atlantic Treaty Organization Answer: B) League of Nations True-False: A current example of an international regime is the International Monetary Fund. Answer: True 3.3 Social Theories Identities and Ideas Matter Postmodernism MyLab Media Simulations: Using Theory: You are the New Prime Minister. http://media.pearsoncmg.com/long/long_mpsk_media_1/si ms_2011/prime_minister/player.html Please log into MyPoliSciLab with your username and password before accessing this link. Identities & Ideas Matter Approach rather than theory Constructivist One strand of research examines how states’ interests and identities are intertwined Another strand of research relies heavily on international norms CONSTRUCTING IDENTITIES Constructivist theories, based on the core principle of identity, see actors’ preferences as constructed by the actors rather than given “objectively.” These theories may do better than realist or liberal approaches in explaining major changes in a state’s foreign policy goals and image in the world that arise from internal changes and new self-concepts rather than external constraints or opportunities. Examples might include the breakup of the Soviet Union and the election of Barack Obama as president. Iran’s identity as an Islamic revolutionary state affects its foreign policies. Here, the morals police close a barber shop in Iran for giving Western-style haircuts, 2008. President of Ukraine, Victor Yanukovych Postmodernism Rooted in literature critiques - pays special attention to texts and to discourses Calls into question the whole notion of states as actors Postmodernists seek to “deconstruct” concepts 3.3 Social Theories Q: Which of the following do postmodernists mainly focus on when attempting to deconstruct dominant beliefs? A) Human behavior B) State behavior C) Discourse D) Psychology Answer: C) Discourse True-False: The teasing apart of words in order to uncover subtle meanings, searching for what is perhaps left out, is a particularly Marxist approach to texts. Answer: False 3.4 Marxism Both IR and domestic politics arise from unequal relationships Oppression of less powerful by powerful classes Marx’s theories of class struggle Lenin’s theory of imperialism Revolutions in global south Less visible theories in IR RICH AND POOR Disparity of wealth is a central aspect of global North-South relations. Marxists see international relations and domestic politics alike as being shaped by a class struggle between the rich and the poor. In São Paulo, Brazil, rich and poor neighborhoods sit side by side. 3.4 Marxism Q: Marxist approaches to IR hold that both IR and domestic policies arise from unequal relationships between which of the following? A) Political elites B) Economic classes C) Governmental agencies D) Economic agencies Answer: B) Economic classes True-False: The utilization of taxes to sway the working classes at home is an example of a buy off. Answer: False 3.5 Peace Studies Seeks to shift focus of IR away from interstate level of analysis Conflict resolution Militarism Positive peace - structural violence World government Peace movements Nonviolence, pacifism SHADOW OF WAR Militarism in a culture, or the lack thereof, can influence foreign policy. In societies at war, children’s psychological trauma contributes to intergroup conflicts decades later. Generations of Palestinians have grown up in a society affected by violent conflict. This Palestinian girl, walking between Israeli troops and Palestinian stone-throwers in the West Bank in 2010, has lived around violent conflict her whole life, as have her parents and grandparents. GIVE PEACE A CHANCE Peace demonstrators play a role in many conflicts. Here, demonstrators respond to an outbreak of violence in Belfast, Northern Ireland, 2013. 3.6 Peace Studies Q: Scholars of peace studies emphasize what level of analysis when recommending strategies for achieving peace? A) Individual B) National C) International D) Global Answer: A) Individual True-False: In international conflicts, peaceful strategies for resolving those conflicts are in competition with violent approaches. Answer: True 3.6 Gender Theories Why Gender Matters The Masculinity of Realism Gender in War and Peace Women in IR Difference Feminism versus Liberal Feminism Postmodern Feminism Why Gender Matters Feminist scholarship Difference feminism Liberal feminism Postmodern feminism A GUY THING Feminists from various theoretical traditions agree that the gender makeup of international summits and national governments matters. Here, China’s old (left) and new (right) ruling group mark the transition of power, 2012. The Masculinity of Realism Difference feminism provides a perspective from which to reexamine the core assumptions of realism International system based on feminine principles ROLE REVERSAL Feminist scholars emphasize the importance of gender roles in IR, especially the traditional distinction between males in the political-military roles and females in the domestic-family roles. Changing this division could change IR, they think. Here, top U.S. officials attend the UN General Assembly, 2010. Gender in War and Peace Hidden assumption of masculinity in realism Gender gap WOMEN POWER Difference feminists see women as inherently less warlike than men and more adept at making peace because of their potential and actual experiences as mothers. In this view, women play distinct roles in wartime and also have distinct needs. During the long civil war in Liberia in the 1990s, women organized mass protests for peace and insisted the male faction leaders end the war. Their leader, Leymah Gbowee, shared the Nobel Peace Prize in 2011. Women in IR Liberal feminists skeptical of difference Liberal feminists believe that when women are allowed to participate in IR, they play the game basically the same ways men do, with similar results For liberal feminists, the main effect of gender imbalance in IR is wasted talent Women in U.S. foreign policy establishment, U.S. Congress, legislatures worldwide Women in combat COMBAT HERO Women soldiers have performed as well as men in military tasks, as predicted by liberal feminists. But in state armies, women are barred from virtually all infantry combat units worldwide. Guerrilla forces more often include women, and female U.S. military police in Iraq often participate in fighting. Here, in 2005, a sergeant from the Kentucky National Guard receives the silver star for heroism in combat after fighting off an ambush in Iraq. Difference Feminism versus Liberal Feminism Individuals vs. groups Profound differences in IR would occur only if many women participated in key foreign policy positions Postmodern Feminism Deconstructs realism with the specific aim of uncovering the pervasive hidden influences of gender in IR and demonstrates the arbitrariness of the construction of gender roles Language of realism reflects influences of gender and sex 3.6 Gender Theories Q: Difference feminists argue that realism involves assumptions of masculinity because of what principle? A) Unified actors B) Alliances that are permanent C) Pursuit of local interest D) Anarchic international politics and ordered domestic politics Answer: D) Anarchic international politics and ordered domestic politics True-False: Power and potency are likely to be key terms for postmodern feminists as they describe both male virility and state capability. Answer: True Chapter Discussion Question Taking into consideration the central terms of realism, like anarchy, state actors, rationality, and the utility of military force, how have the central claims of realism been challenged over recent years? Use particular recent global political events to add substance to your answer.