INTERNATIONAL
RELATIONS
2013–2014 Update
Tenth Edition
Joshua S. Goldstein
Jon C. Pevehouse
Chapter Three:
Liberal and
Social Theories
Anti-government protester in Bahrain, 2011.
3.1 The Waning War
Liberal theorists see the rules of IR as slowly evolving through
time and potentially becoming more peaceful.
Evolution results primarily from the gradual build-up of
international organization and mutual cooperation
(reciprocity) and secondarily from changes in norms and
public opinion (identity).
Current period is one of the least warlike in history
3.1 The Waning of War
Q: With respect to warfare, __________.
A) the long-term trend is that there are fewer wars but more
people being killed in them
B) the advances in technology lead us to fear annihilation of the
world more than destruction of a city
C) major wars will continue regardless of trends toward fewer
wars
D) today’s most serious conflicts consist mainly of skirmishing
rather than all-out battles
Answer:
D) today’s most serious conflicts consist mainly of skirmishing
rather than all-out battles
True-False:
Events in the post–Cold War era have continued a long-term
trend toward larger wars.
Answer:
False
3.2 Liberal Theories
Kant and Peace
Liberal Institutionalism
International Regimes
Collective Security
The Democratic Peace
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Kant and Peace
Liberal theories of IR try to explain how peace and cooperation
are possible
German philosopher Immanuel Kant
Liberal Institutionalism
Kant’s first answer
Rational actors
States could join a worldwide federation
International cooperation
Neoliberal approach
HAPPY FAMILY
Liberal theories emphasize the potential for rivalries to evolve into
cooperative relationships as states recognize that achieving mutual
benefits is most cost effective in the long run. For example, the
U.S. and Soviet/Russian space programs began cooperating in the
1960s and continue today, with other countries. Here, astronauts
from the United States, Russia, Germany, and Sweden share the
International Space Station, 2006.
International Regimes
Set of rules, norms, and producers
Can help solve collective-goods problems
Intervening variables
Embedded in international institutions
HEALTHY REGIME
International regimes are sets of rules, norms, and procedures, not
always codified into institutions, that govern the behavior of actors
in IR. The world health regime includes states, IGOs such as the
World Health Organization (WHO), nonprofit organizations such as
the Gates Foundation, and others, all working with common
expectations about activities to improve health and stem epidemics.
Here, Cuban doctors give WHO vaccines to children in Haiti, 2010.
Collective Security
Grows out of liberal institutionalism
Formation of a broad alliance
League of Nations
United Nations
Regional IGOs
Success of collective security
Issue of failed states
Democratic Peace
Kant’s second answer
Democracies almost never fight each other
Democracy more widespread
Period of transition
DEMOCRATIC TIDE
Upsurges of democratic movements throughout the world in recent
years testify to the power of the idea of democracy. Because
democracies rarely fight each other, worldwide democratization
might lead to lasting peace. Here, Tunisia holds its first free
election after leading the Arab Spring and reversing decades of
authoritarian rule, 2011.
3.2 Liberal Theories
Q: What was the first attempt at creating a collective security
system?
A)
United Nations
B)
League of Nations
C)
European Community
D)
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Answer:
B) League of Nations
True-False:
A current example of an international regime is the
International Monetary Fund.
Answer:
True
3.3 Social Theories
Identities and Ideas Matter
Postmodernism
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Identities & Ideas Matter
Approach rather than theory
Constructivist
One strand of research examines how states’ interests
and identities are intertwined
Another strand of research relies heavily on
international norms
CONSTRUCTING IDENTITIES
Constructivist theories, based on the core principle of identity, see
actors’ preferences as constructed by the actors rather than given
“objectively.” These theories may do better than realist or liberal
approaches in explaining major changes in a state’s foreign policy
goals and image in the world that arise from internal changes and
new self-concepts rather than external constraints or opportunities.
Examples might include the breakup of the Soviet Union and the
election of Barack Obama as president. Iran’s identity as an Islamic
revolutionary state affects its foreign policies. Here, the morals police
close a barber shop in Iran for giving Western-style haircuts, 2008.
President of Ukraine,
Victor Yanukovych
Postmodernism
Rooted in literature critiques - pays special attention to texts and
to discourses
Calls into question the whole notion of states as actors
Postmodernists seek to “deconstruct” concepts
3.3 Social Theories
Q: Which of the following do postmodernists mainly focus on
when attempting to deconstruct dominant beliefs?
A)
Human behavior
B)
State behavior
C)
Discourse
D)
Psychology
Answer:
C) Discourse
True-False:
The teasing apart of words in order to uncover subtle
meanings, searching for what is perhaps left out, is a
particularly Marxist approach to texts.
Answer:
False
3.4 Marxism
Both IR and domestic politics arise from unequal
relationships
Oppression of less powerful by powerful classes
Marx’s theories of class struggle
Lenin’s theory of imperialism
Revolutions in global south
Less visible theories in IR
RICH AND POOR
Disparity of wealth is a central aspect of global North-South
relations. Marxists see international relations and domestic politics
alike as being shaped by a class struggle between the rich and
the poor. In São Paulo, Brazil, rich and poor neighborhoods sit
side by side.
3.4 Marxism
Q: Marxist approaches to IR hold that both IR and domestic policies
arise from unequal relationships between which of the following?
A)
Political elites
B)
Economic classes
C)
Governmental agencies
D)
Economic agencies
Answer:
B) Economic classes
True-False:
The utilization of taxes to sway the working classes at home
is an example of a buy off.
Answer:
False
3.5 Peace Studies
Seeks to shift focus of IR away from interstate level of analysis
Conflict resolution
Militarism
Positive peace - structural violence
World government
Peace movements
Nonviolence, pacifism
SHADOW OF WAR
Militarism in a culture, or the lack thereof, can influence foreign
policy. In societies at war, children’s psychological trauma
contributes to intergroup conflicts decades later. Generations of
Palestinians have grown up in a society affected by violent conflict.
This Palestinian girl, walking between Israeli troops and Palestinian
stone-throwers in the West Bank in 2010, has lived around violent
conflict her whole life, as have her parents and grandparents.
GIVE PEACE A CHANCE
Peace demonstrators play a role in many conflicts. Here,
demonstrators respond to an outbreak of violence in Belfast,
Northern Ireland, 2013.
3.6 Peace Studies
Q: Scholars of peace studies emphasize what level of analysis
when recommending strategies for achieving peace?
A)
Individual
B)
National
C)
International
D)
Global
Answer:
A) Individual
True-False:
In international conflicts, peaceful strategies for resolving
those conflicts are in competition with violent approaches.
Answer:
True
3.6 Gender Theories
Why Gender Matters
The Masculinity of Realism
Gender in War and Peace
Women in IR
Difference Feminism versus Liberal Feminism
Postmodern Feminism
Why Gender Matters
Feminist scholarship
Difference feminism
Liberal feminism
Postmodern feminism
A GUY THING
Feminists from various theoretical traditions agree that the
gender makeup of international summits and national
governments matters. Here, China’s old (left) and new (right)
ruling group mark the transition of power, 2012.
The Masculinity of Realism
Difference feminism provides a perspective from which to reexamine the core assumptions of realism
International system based on feminine principles
ROLE REVERSAL
Feminist scholars emphasize the importance of gender roles in
IR, especially the traditional distinction between males in the
political-military roles and females in the domestic-family roles.
Changing this division could change IR, they think. Here, top
U.S. officials attend the UN General Assembly, 2010.
Gender in War and Peace
Hidden assumption of masculinity in realism
Gender gap
WOMEN POWER
Difference feminists see women as inherently less warlike than
men and more adept at making peace because of their potential
and actual experiences as mothers. In this view, women play
distinct roles in wartime and also have distinct needs. During
the long civil war in Liberia in the 1990s, women organized
mass protests for peace and insisted the male faction leaders
end the war. Their leader, Leymah Gbowee, shared the Nobel
Peace Prize in 2011.
Women in IR
Liberal feminists skeptical of difference
Liberal feminists believe that when women are allowed
to participate in IR, they play the game basically the
same ways men do, with similar results
For liberal feminists, the main effect of gender
imbalance in IR is wasted talent
Women in U.S. foreign policy establishment, U.S.
Congress, legislatures worldwide
Women in combat
COMBAT HERO
Women soldiers have performed as well as men in military tasks,
as predicted by liberal feminists. But in state armies, women are
barred from virtually all infantry combat units worldwide. Guerrilla
forces more often include women, and female U.S. military police in
Iraq often participate in fighting. Here, in 2005, a sergeant from the
Kentucky National Guard receives the silver star for heroism in
combat after fighting off an ambush in Iraq.
Difference Feminism versus Liberal
Feminism
Individuals vs. groups
Profound differences in IR would occur only if many
women participated in key foreign policy positions
Postmodern Feminism
Deconstructs realism with the specific aim of
uncovering the pervasive hidden influences of
gender in IR and demonstrates the arbitrariness of
the construction of gender roles
Language of realism reflects influences of gender and
sex
3.6 Gender Theories
Q: Difference feminists argue that realism involves assumptions
of masculinity because of what principle?
A)
Unified actors
B)
Alliances that are permanent
C)
Pursuit of local interest
D)
Anarchic international politics and ordered domestic
politics
Answer:
D) Anarchic international politics and ordered domestic
politics
True-False:
Power and potency are likely to be key terms for
postmodern feminists as they describe both male virility
and state capability.
Answer:
True
Chapter Discussion Question
Taking into consideration the central terms of realism, like
anarchy, state actors, rationality, and the
utility of military force, how have the central claims of realism
been challenged over recent years? Use particular recent
global political events to add substance to your answer.
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