Teaching for Learning 2013 FALCON Conference Our Role as Teachers November 8, 2013 Todd Zakrajsek, Associate Professor Department of Family Medicine University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 919-636-8170 [email protected] Teaching is not easy… Roadmap not always helpful… Teach for Learning Some material presented will be scary at times, but, seriously, teaching can be SO MUCH FUN!!! FUNDAMENTAL TASKS OF TEACHING Knowledge of the Subject Matter Interacting with Students Designing Learning Experiences Managing the Course Beginning of the Course Taxonomy of Significant Learning Learning How to Learn Becoming a better student Inquiring about a subject Self-directing learners Caring Developing new… Feelings Interests Values Human Dimensions Learning about: Oneself Others Foundational Knowledge Understanding and remembering: Information Ideas Application Skills Thinking: Critical, Creative, & Practical Managing projects Integration Connecting: Ideas People Realms of life Teach for Learning I don’t understand this stuff at all? What are you talking about in class??? Design for Learning What is your anticipated outcome? How will you accomplish that outcome? How will you know you were successful? Card passing What is one issue or concern you have with respect to your students and creating an effective learning environment? Body’s Reaction to Lecturing Bligh, 2000, What’s the Use of Lectures? 2000, p.51; Hartley & Davies, 1978, Programmed Learning and Educational Technology:15:207-224. Lecture Breaks Increase Students’ Attention Bligh, What’s the Use of Lectures? 2000, p.51. Is this stuff really important, or do I just need to know it for the test??? What do you want your students to know or be able to do 5 years after graduation? I shouldn’t have wasted all that time preparing for the presentation. It was a disaster… Assumptions Learn how to make better (good) assumptions!!! The only real valuable thing is intuition. - Einstein I learned this stuff last year. This is such a waste of time… Long-Term Potentiation http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= DF04XPBj5uc I can’t learn in her class. I am a visual learner and she almost never has good pictures in her Powerpoint slides. Learning Styles: Concepts and Evidence -- vision and olfactory very important Pashler, McDaniel, Rohrer, & Bjork, 2009 Doyle and Zakrajsek, 2013 Parents Of Nasal Learners Demand Odor-Based Curriculum March 15, 2000 http://www.theonion.com/articles/parents-of-nasal-learners-demand-odorbased-curricu,396/ Basketball…. I can’t do math… I am not a good writer… I can’t give presentations… I am terrible at tests… I can’t learn… Effort vs. Entity Mueller & Dweck, 1998 mug night vases vector http://www.manythings. org/anagrams/ gum thing saves covert marching nameless licensed teaching thickens charming salesman silenced cheating kitchens host inch fiber glare sisters shot chin brief large resists # Problems Solved Place “Smart” and “Effort” in Proper Place Standard Trial 1 Trial 3 # Problems Solved Effort Standard Smart Trial 1 Trial 3 Carol Dweck, 2006 Entity – fixed, less risk, look smart, criticism is about self Incremental – growth, accepting challenge, failure is opportunity, criticism is about task I study all the time….but I never seem to get good grades. Popular Study Techniques 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. ___ Elaborative Interrogation ___ Self-Explanation ___ Summarization ___ Highlighting/underlining ___ Keyword Mnemonic ___ Imagery for text ___ Rereading ___ Practice Testing ___ Distributed Practice ___ Interleaved Practice Learning Techniques: Promising Directions from Cognitive and Educational Psychology, APS, Psychological Science, (2013) Dunlosky, Rawson, Marsh, Nathan, & Willingham. Popular Study Techniques 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Elaborative Interrogation (M) Self-Explanation(M) Summarization(L) Highlighting/underlining(L) Keyword Mnemonic(L) Imagery for text(L) Rereading(L) Practice Testing(H) Distributed Practice(H) Interleaved Practice(M) Learning Techniques: Promising Directions from Cognitive and Educational Psychology, APS, Psychological Science, (2013) Dunlosky, Rawson, Marsh, Nathan, & Willingham. I learn the stuff, but when I need it I can’t seem to remember it… Karpicke & Roediger, 2007 SSSS SSST STTT Proportion of ideas recalled .80 .70 .60 .50 .40 5 Minutes 1 Week Retention Interval For Final Test Selected References Angelo, T. A., & Cross K. P. (1993). Classroom assessment techniques (2nd ed.) San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Bjork, R. A., & Linn, M. C. (2006, March). The Science of Learning and the Learning of Science: Introducing Desirable Difficulties. American Psychological Society Observer, 19, 29- 39. Bransford, J.D., Brown, A.L., & Cocking, R.R. (1999). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Chickering, A., & Ehrmann, S. (1996). Implementing the seven principles: Technology as lever. AAHE Bulletin, October, 3-6. Goldstein, N. J., Cialdini, R. B., & Griskevicius, V. (2008). A room with a viewpoint: Using normative appeals to motivate environmental conservation in a hotel setting. Journal of Consumer Research, 35, 472-482. Halpern, D. F. & Hakel, M.D. (2002). Applying the science of learning to university teaching and beyond. New Directions in Teaching and Learning, 89. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Selected References Karpicke, J.D., & Roediger, H.L. (2007). Repeated retrieval during learning is the key to long-term retention. Journal of Memory and Language, 57, 151-162. Mueller, C.M. & Dweck, C.S. (1998). Intelligence praise can undermine motivation and performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 33-52. Pashler, H., McDaniel, M., Rohrer, D., & Bjork, R. (2009). Learning Styles: Concepts and Evidence. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 9 (3), 105119. Available Online - http://psi.sagepub.com/content/9/3/105.full Recht, D.R., & Leslie, L. (1988). Effect of prior knowledge on good and poor readers’ memory of text. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 16 – 20. Wilson, T.D., Damiani, M. & Shelton, N. (2002). Improving the academic performance of college students with brief attributional interventions. In Joshua Aronson, Ed., Improving Academic Achievement: Impact of Psychological Factors on Education. (pp. 91-108). New York: Academic Press.