Teaching for Learning
2013 FALCON Conference
Our Role as Teachers
November 8, 2013
Todd Zakrajsek, Associate Professor
Department of Family Medicine
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
919-636-8170
[email protected]
Teaching is not easy…
Roadmap not always helpful…
Teach for Learning
Some material presented will be
scary at times, but, seriously,
teaching can be SO MUCH FUN!!!
FUNDAMENTAL TASKS OF TEACHING
Knowledge of
the Subject
Matter
Interacting
with
Students
Designing
Learning
Experiences
Managing
the Course
Beginning of
the Course
Taxonomy of Significant Learning
Learning How to
Learn
 Becoming a better
student
 Inquiring about a
subject
 Self-directing
learners
Caring
Developing new…
 Feelings
 Interests
 Values
Human
Dimensions
Learning about:
 Oneself
 Others
Foundational
Knowledge
Understanding and
remembering:
 Information
 Ideas
Application
 Skills
 Thinking: Critical,
Creative, & Practical
 Managing projects
Integration
Connecting:
 Ideas
 People
 Realms of life
Teach for Learning
I don’t understand this stuff at
all? What are you talking about in
class???
Design for Learning
What is your anticipated
outcome?
How will you accomplish that
outcome?
How will you know you were
successful?
Card passing
What is one issue or concern you
have with respect to your students
and creating an effective learning
environment?
Body’s Reaction to Lecturing
Bligh, 2000, What’s the Use of Lectures? 2000, p.51; Hartley & Davies, 1978, Programmed
Learning and Educational Technology:15:207-224.
Lecture Breaks Increase
Students’ Attention
Bligh, What’s the Use of Lectures? 2000, p.51.
Is this stuff really important,
or do I just need to know it for
the test???
What do you want your
students to know or be
able to do 5 years after
graduation?
I shouldn’t have wasted all
that time preparing for the
presentation. It was a
disaster…
Assumptions
Learn how to make better
(good) assumptions!!!
The only real valuable thing is
intuition. - Einstein
I learned this stuff last year.
This is such a waste of time…
Long-Term Potentiation
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=
DF04XPBj5uc
I can’t learn in her class. I am
a visual learner and she
almost never has good
pictures in her
Powerpoint slides.
Learning Styles: Concepts and Evidence
-- vision and olfactory very important
Pashler, McDaniel, Rohrer, & Bjork,
2009
Doyle and Zakrajsek, 2013
Parents Of Nasal Learners Demand
Odor-Based Curriculum
March 15, 2000
http://www.theonion.com/articles/parents-of-nasal-learners-demand-odorbased-curricu,396/
Basketball….
I can’t do math…
I am not a good writer…
I can’t give presentations…
I am terrible at tests…
I can’t learn…
Effort vs. Entity
Mueller & Dweck, 1998
mug
night
vases
vector
 http://www.manythings.
org/anagrams/
gum
thing
saves
covert
marching
nameless
licensed
teaching
thickens
charming
salesman
silenced
cheating
kitchens
host
inch
fiber
glare
sisters
shot
chin
brief
large
resists
# Problems Solved
Place “Smart” and “Effort” in Proper Place
Standard
Trial 1
Trial 3
# Problems Solved
Effort
Standard
Smart
Trial 1
Trial 3
Carol Dweck, 2006
 Entity – fixed, less risk,
look smart, criticism is
about self
 Incremental – growth,
accepting challenge,
failure is opportunity,
criticism is about task
I study all the time….but I
never seem to get good grades.
Popular Study Techniques
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
___ Elaborative Interrogation
___ Self-Explanation
___ Summarization
___ Highlighting/underlining
___ Keyword Mnemonic
___ Imagery for text
___ Rereading
___ Practice Testing
___ Distributed Practice
___ Interleaved Practice
Learning Techniques: Promising Directions from Cognitive and Educational Psychology, APS,
Psychological Science, (2013) Dunlosky, Rawson, Marsh, Nathan, & Willingham.
Popular Study Techniques
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Elaborative Interrogation (M)
Self-Explanation(M)
Summarization(L)
Highlighting/underlining(L)
Keyword Mnemonic(L)
Imagery for text(L)
Rereading(L)
Practice Testing(H)
Distributed Practice(H)
Interleaved Practice(M)
Learning Techniques: Promising Directions from Cognitive and Educational Psychology, APS,
Psychological Science, (2013) Dunlosky, Rawson, Marsh, Nathan, & Willingham.
I learn the stuff, but when I
need it I can’t seem to
remember it…
Karpicke & Roediger, 2007
SSSS
SSST
STTT
Proportion of ideas recalled
.80
.70
.60
.50
.40
5 Minutes
1 Week
Retention Interval For Final Test
Selected References
Angelo, T. A., & Cross K. P. (1993). Classroom assessment techniques (2nd
ed.) San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Bjork, R. A., & Linn, M. C. (2006, March). The Science of Learning and the
Learning of Science: Introducing Desirable Difficulties. American Psychological
Society Observer, 19, 29- 39.
Bransford, J.D., Brown, A.L., & Cocking, R.R. (1999). How people learn:
Brain, mind, experience, and school. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Chickering, A., & Ehrmann, S. (1996). Implementing the seven principles:
Technology as lever. AAHE Bulletin, October, 3-6.
Goldstein, N. J., Cialdini, R. B., & Griskevicius, V. (2008). A room with a
viewpoint: Using normative appeals to motivate environmental conservation in a
hotel setting. Journal of Consumer Research, 35, 472-482.
Halpern, D. F. & Hakel, M.D. (2002). Applying the science of learning to
university teaching and beyond. New Directions in Teaching and Learning, 89.
San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Selected References
Karpicke, J.D., & Roediger, H.L. (2007). Repeated retrieval during learning is
the key to long-term retention. Journal of Memory and Language, 57, 151-162.
Mueller, C.M. & Dweck, C.S. (1998). Intelligence praise can undermine
motivation and performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75,
33-52.
Pashler, H., McDaniel, M., Rohrer, D., & Bjork, R. (2009). Learning Styles:
Concepts and Evidence. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 9 (3), 105119. Available Online - http://psi.sagepub.com/content/9/3/105.full
Recht, D.R., & Leslie, L. (1988). Effect of prior knowledge on good and poor
readers’ memory of text. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 16 – 20.
Wilson, T.D., Damiani, M. & Shelton, N. (2002). Improving the academic
performance of college students with brief attributional interventions. In Joshua
Aronson, Ed., Improving Academic Achievement: Impact of Psychological
Factors on Education. (pp. 91-108). New York: Academic Press.
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Learning How to Learn