Consumer Behaviour,
Second Edition
Martin Evans,
Ahmad Jamal
Gordon Foxall
Cardiff Business School
ISBN:978-0-470-99465-8
Chapter 1
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Chapter Objectives
• Explain the concept of consumer behaviour
• Describe the consumption process
• Explain how consumers are motivated to satisfy
their needs
• Examine ways of defining consumer needs:
Maslow’s and Freud’s perspectives
• Define consumer values
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What is Consumer Behaviour?
Συμπληρώστε την πρόταση: Για μένα,
συμπεριφορά καταναλωτή είναι......
Consumer Behaviour Defined
The study of the processes involved when individuals or
groups select, purchase, use or dispose of products,
services, ideas or experiences to satisfy needs and
desires.
Reflects totality of consumer’s decisions with respect to
the acquisition, consumption, and disposition of goods,
services, time, and ideas by (human) decision-making units
(over time).
Consumption plays an important role in our social,
psychological, economical, political, and cultural lives.
Consumer Behaviour explores the “why”, “what”, “how”,
“how much” and “when” of the consumption process
What is Consumer Behaviour?
Hoyer & MacInnis, 2008
Multiple Roles… Multiple Factors
Hoyer & MacInnis, 2008
Decision Making & Consumption
DECISION MAKING PROCESS
ENVIRONMENT
Culture
Social status
Income
Education
Reference Groups
Family
Social Values
Marketing Mix
PERSONAL
FACTORS
Motivation
Perception
Learning
Attitudes
Personality
P
U
R
Problem
Evaluation C
Post
Solution
Identifiof
H Purchase
Search
cation
Alternatives A Behaviour
S
E
Consumer Needs, Wants,
Motives and Values
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Customer Motivation
“Marketing Creates
Needs”
Do you agree, or
disagree……..??
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• Marketing doesn’t create needs, but exploits them by
reminding us of salient needs at the right time
• Marketing encourages us to want brand X by
associating its acquisition with the satisfaction of
a need
• Even physiological hunger might lead to a want
for a Bounty Nat (chocolate/coconut bar
advertised in an island paradise context): imagery
suggests hunger satisfaction but also a kind of
inner utopia!
• A want is a satisfaction of a need
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The Homeostasis
Need Satisfaction
Deprivation
Homeostasis
• A need is an internal state of tension caused by
disequilibrium from an ideal or desired state
• We strive for a state of equilibrium (Homeostasis)
• Physiological needs (e.g. hunger) move us away from
this… but so do social and psychological needs
• Motivation drives individuals to move from one point
to another. It is an “. . . an inner state of arousal that
[creates] . . . energy to achieve a goal. ” (Hoyer &
MacInnis, 2008)
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Nicorette is targeting
consumers who have a
specific goal: They want
to quit smoking.
© 2007 GlaxoSmithKline Consumer Healthcare, LP.
Biogenic drives: such as hunger & thirst originate from our
physiology.
Psychogenic drives: such as to achieve a certain status
originate from our social & cultural environment and
psychological make up.
Cognitive Motives: we are motivated to adapt to our
environment and achieve a sense of meaning.
Affective Motives: we are motivated to attain emotional goals
and to achieve satisfying feeling states
McGuire (1974)
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Different Kinds of
Motivation
Motivation
Internal
External
Positive
Pleasure, comfort
Attractive goods and services,
attractive situations
Negative
Pain, discomfort
Unattractive goods and services,
unattractive situations
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How to identify consumer needs?
Hoyer & MacInnis, 2008
Maslow’s Hierarchy of
Needs
Self
Actualisation
Needs
Aesthetic Needs
Cognitive Needs
Esteem Needs
Social Needs
Safety Needs
Physiological Needs
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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
• Examples of how marketers have targeted Maslow’s
‘cognitive’ needs  consumers motivated to learn
Rather than focusing on complex
medical information, this ad for
Eucerin focuses on the
endorsement by the Skin Cancer
Foundation and thereby
enhances consumers’ ability to
process information about this
product. The ad copy also states
that Eucerin is the brand
recommended by dermatologists.
A website is provided for
consumers who are motivated to
learn more about the product.
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Beiersdorf Inc. © 2008
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The Freudian
Approach to Needs
Id
Superego
Ego
Naughty
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Nice
Naughty but Nice
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•
Id appeal within what are socially acceptable
products
•
Phallic symbolism of design or packaging (e.g. Etype Jaguar, Flake)
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Good vs. Real Reasons for
Buying: Naughty, Nice,
Naughty But Nice
Id
Superego
Ego
Maybe you can think of examples for you and the people
you know!
Source: Ann Summer’s, www.annsummers.com (id), Freemans Plc, www.freemans.com (superego and ego)
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Even ice cream has been promoted with a
‘free the Id’ appeal using the copy headline of
‘Lose Control’
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Manifestations of Id in advertising…
Could these tap the Id in a socially acceptable
way? Why or why not?
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Consumer Values
• Critical determinants of consumer
behaviour
• “An enduring belief that a specific mode of
conduct or end-state of existence is
personally or socially preferable to an
opposite or converse mode of conduct or
end-state”
• How things “should be” rather than how
“they are”
Consumer Value Systems
Global Values
More centrally
held
Enduring beliefs about desired states of existence
or models of behaviour
Domain Specific Values
Beliefs relevant to economic, social, religious
and other activities
Evaluation of Product Attributes
Evaluative beliefs concerning product activity
Less centrally
held
Source: D. Vinson, J.Scott and L.Lamont; The Role of Personal Values in Marketing and Consumer Research, Journal
of Marketing 41 (April 1977)
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© 2009 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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Summary
You should now be able to:
•
Distinguish between needs and wants
•
Apply theories of motivation to how consumers
behave
•
Explain consumer values and how they relate to
motives
•
Define motives for ‘going shopping’
•
Demonstrate awareness of motivation research
techniques, their nature and applications
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