AN EXCLUSIVE GROUP
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Usually form between ages
10 & 15
Stem from an overwhelming
desire to fit in
Revolve around interests w/
friends and peers
Deal in social power
Not everyone is welcome
excluding becomes the
primary activity
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Peers serve as a panel of judges who
define each other based on identifiable
traits (clothing, music, activities, inside
jokes, rituals)
Formed around 1 or 2 leaders
Have strict rules
Feed off a super-sensitivity to criticism and
a need to belong
“I’M ALWAYS WORRIED”

35% of population

Beautiful, athletic, charming, affluent

Set the tone for the entire class
 Have
the most friends – exclusive
 Socialize earlier than others both in
and out of school
 Appear
on fun
 Have
to have cornered the market
prestige (via romances,
scholastic achievements, athletic
exploits) from teachers and classmates
“WHERE’S MY SELF RESPECT?”
 10%
of population
 Hoverers
 Mimic
the dress and the rules
 Believe
none
that ½ a loaf is better than
 Welcome
temporary inclusion
“I’M FREE AND CONTENT”
 45% of population
 Non-exclusive
 Small groups of several friends apiece
 Tend to feel most content
Assorted measures of confidence and
satisfaction
 Can be labeled into subcategories-math
nerds, bandies, phantom tv people, etc.
 Nearly all surveyed felt resentment or even
contempt for the popular group

“I’M MAD AND I CAN’T TAKE IT
ANYMORE.”
 10% of population
 No friends
 Social hermits
 Envious
 Susceptible to adolescent depression,
drug abuse, violent subcultures
 Often have hidden talent with time to
hone that talent
“The Breakfast Club”
 “10 Things I Hate About You”
 “American Pie”
 People Magazine’s Most Beautiful People
 Fashion Magazines


“She’s All That”

“Bring It On”

“Popular”

“Glee”

Mean Girls

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gZ
_qXmxdgGM
THE DARK SIDE OF
CLIQUES

Occupy the power center of the group

Manipulate cliques as a means to bully
Taught that “nice” is preferable
 Therefore, honesty and straight talk is
avoided
 Use friendships as their weapon of choice
 Scapegoat, backstab, belittle, spread
rumors, fights, sexually harass, exclude

Use less emotion and more
action
 Broadcast strengths
 Spread rumors
 Fight
 Use weapons
 Deliberate humiliations
 Sexual harassment

 BEING
TEASED IS SOMETIMES
BETTER THAN BEING IGNORED
 THE
BIGGEST BULLIES ARE IN THE
POPULAR CROWD, SO THEY CAN
GET AWAY WITH IT
 CLOTHES
 POPULAR
AND LOOKS MATTER
DOES NOT EQUAL NICE


BOYS…
1. Athleticism
2. Stature
3. Sense of humor
GIRLS
1. Looks
2. Clothes
3. Vivacious or bubbly personality
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Sense of belonging
Self-worth
Shared interests
Confidence
Closeness-help w/
problems
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Peer pressure
Conformity-the enemy of proper
identity formation
Drug use-type of clique
Bullying
Lack of Diversity-ethnic, racial, religion.
link
Stage
Time Period
Parents’ Tasks
Image-Making
Pregnancy
Begin to imagine themselves as
parents
Nurturing
Birth to Age 2
Become emotionally attached to child
May question relative worth of other
priorities
Authority
Age 2 to Ages 4-5
Determine rules
Clarify role as authority figure
Interpretive
Ages 4-5 to Age 13
Rethink their role as parents
Decide what knowledge, skills, and
values child needs
Interdependent
Adolescence
Establish boundaries
Find disciplinary methods
appropriate for teens
Departure
Child Leaves Home
Evaluate their parenting
1967
 Used naturalistic observation and interviews.
 Four Important Dimensions of Parenting
1. Disciplinary strategies
2. Warmth and nurturance
3. Communication styles
4. Expectations of maturity and control
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Authoritarian
Permissive
Authoritative/democratic
Uninvolved

Authoritarian parent parent who relies on
coercive techniques to discipline the child
and displays a low level of nurturance.
◦ Coercive techniques include threats or physical
punishment
◦ Places firm limits and controls on the child
◦ Little verbal exchange between the parent and the
child

Effects on the child
◦ Does not exhibit a strong social responsibility or
sense of independence
◦ Appears anxious about social comparison
◦ Does not initiate social activity
◦ Displays poor communication skills
◦ Boys—generally more aggressive
◦ Girls—generally more dependent
◦ In general appear unhappy

Effects extending to adolescence
◦
◦
◦
◦
Less advanced moral reasoning
Less prosocial behavior
Lower self-esteem
Poorer adjustment to starting school

Permissive parent parent who sets few
limits on the child’s behavior
◦ Makes few demands on mature behavior
◦ Allows child to make own decisions about routine
behaviors including TV viewing, bedtime, and
mealtimes
◦ Either moderately nurturant or cool and uninvolved

Effects on the child
◦ Does not exhibit a strong social responsibility or
sense of independence
◦ Displays low self-control
◦ Displays low self-reliance
◦ Displays a tendency to expect to get own way

Authoritative parent parent who sets limits
on a child’s behavior using reasoning and
explanation and displays a high degree of
nurturance
◦ Expects child to behave in a mature manner
◦ Uses rewards more than punishments
◦ Communicates expectations clearly and provides
explanations to help the child understand the
reasoning behind the expectations
◦ Listens to what the child has to say
◦ Encourages dialogue between the parent and
child
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Effects on the child
◦
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◦
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◦
◦
◦
Self-reliant
Socially responsible
Friendly with peers
Cooperative with adults
Independent
Energetic
Achievement oriented
High degree of self-control

Effects extending to adolescence
◦
◦
◦
◦
More pro-social behaviors
Fewer problem behaviors (i.e. substance abuse)
Greater academic achievement
Higher self-confidence
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Parent sets demands and guidelines on the child’s
behaviors
◦ Child is aware of the responsibilities individuals have
toward one another when they live in social groups
◦ Child is better equip with an understanding of how to sort
out the social world
Parental demands are accompanied with reasonable
explanations
◦ Child is more likely to accept the limitations of his or her
actions
Parent takes child’s responses into account and shows
affection toward the child
◦ Child is likely to acquire a sense of control over his or her
actions
◦ Child is able to derive a sense of self worth
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Parents are not around (choice or
circumstance.)
Parents are there but don’t act like it.
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Effects:
Poor social skills
Self-esteem issues
Anger
Depression
Substance Abuse
Many similarities w/ authoritarian. ????
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-Parents may use more than one parenting
style
Tend to get “easier” with younger kids
Different styles for daughters/sons
Style is often determined by their view of
their own parents-mimic what was good,
avoid what they considered bad parenting

Also known as
discrimination
against the elderly.
49

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Do you say “aaawww,
isn’t she cute?” when you
see an older woman
doing something a
younger person might do
(e.g., having fun, kissing
a man)?
Do you think older
people aren’t appealing
because of their physical
appearance (e.g., loose
skin, wrinkles, gray hair,
weight around the
middle)?
50
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Do you think all old
people are wise?
Are you
uncomfortable
talking to elders?
When you talk to
older people do you
look them in the eye?
Are elders all “old
people” to you or can
you see each as an
individual?
51
 The
Social Construction of Aging
◦ Youth, speed, production ($) are American
ideals
◦ Physical and mental weakness are
stigmatized
 feel ashamed or embarrassed when weak, ill, or
need help
◦ You have done something WRONG if you
become ill or old or poor
52
In the 1960s, Robert Butler coined the
phrase ageism, which he defined as:
"A process of systematic stereotyping of
and discrimination against people because
they are old, just as racism and sexism
accomplish this with skin color and gender.
Old people are categorized as senile, rigid
in thought and manner, old-fashioned in
morality and skills…
53
. . . . Ageism allows the younger generations to
see older people as different from
themselves; thus they subtly cease to identify
with their elders as human beings"
(See R. Butler, Why Survive? Being Old in America,
1975 - item no. 71 of this bibliography.)
54
 Ageism
can be coupled with
other forms of oppression
 sexism, racism, beautyism…
a powerful combination
◦ It all adds up to the beliefs that –
 AGING is bad
 AGING is ugly
 AGING is to be avoided
 AGING is a social and economic crisis
 We need to FIGHT AGING
55

“A man's face is his autobiography. A
woman's face is her work of fiction.”
 Oscar Wilde
56
57

Lots and lots and lots of examples in daily
life…
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◦
Conversations
Jokes
Television
Birthday cards
Newspaper
Magazines
Music lyrics
58

Music
http://music.msn.com/music/features/bandsofthelivingdead
◦ Is music only for the young?
◦ Rockers and rappers who are in their
40s, 50s, and 60s are referred to as
“living dead” -- Writer states they
“refuse to die”
◦ Old men rockers are one thing but
old women?
59
60
61
DGKS Prof. Dr. VOK
62
63
64
90
80
70
60
50
Major
Minor
40
30
20
10
0
20-54
50-64
65+
Postitive
1.Perfect grandparent;
2.Golden ager
3.John Wayne conservative
4.Liberal matriarch/patriarch
5.Activist
6.Small–town neighbour.
The negative stereotypes were the:
1.Despondent
2.Vulnerable
3.Severely impaired
4.Shrew/curmudgeon
5.Recluse
6.Mildly impaired
7.Self–centred
8.Elitist

Prejudice and discrimination on TV
◦ Less than 2% of prime time television characters
are 65% - (it is slowly changing --- is it?)
◦ Majority of film and TV writers are white men
under 40
◦ Only 1/3 of older characters on prime time TV are
women
◦ 70% of older men and 80%+ of older women on TV
are portrayed disrespectfully, treated with little if
any courtesy, and looked at as “bad”
Examples from Ageism in America: Status Reports of Ageism in America by The
Anti-Ageism Taskforce at The International Longevity
67

The truth is that most older people are more
vulnerable due to losses
◦ Physical losses
 May not be able to walk, drive, grocery shop, clean house, talk on
telephone, see instructions or watch television, etc.
◦ Social losses
 Loss of parents, spouse, siblings, friends
 Coupled with physical, income, and cognitive, may lose ability to
get to and enjoy social activities
◦ Income losses
 Retirement
◦ Cognitive losses
 Some processing changes and memory loss are normal
68

And sadly enough, some people prey on older
people’s vulnerability
◦ These people can be known to the older person
such as family members, other care givers, or
strangers
◦ Elder Abuse!
69

Pioneered research with the dying in 1960s
◦ Difficulty in access to dying patients hindered by
physicians
◦ Patients were usually surprised, amazed, and
grateful; relieved to share their last concerns and
expressing their feelings
◦ Interviewed 400 dying persons over a 10 year
period

Her work resulted in a book
◦ On Death and Dying (1969) usual stages of dying

Shock/Denial

Anger
 Numbness, shock, withdrawal and cognitive
denial
 Can take from few seconds to few months
 1% of terminally ill people stay in that stage
 Envy and resentment of those whose lives will
continue
 Anger can be expressed towards everyone they
encounter in various forms such as complaints
 Important to see the dying person as a unique
human being engaged in the process of grieving
rather than somebody who is threatening or just a
‘patient’

Bargaining
◦ Making promises (usually towards spiritual figures)
in exchange to more time to live
◦ It is natural and healthy way to cope with the reality
of approaching death

Depression
◦ Acute depression, the dying regrets past failures
and mistakes that can not be corrected
◦ Grief about the lost time
◦ Recognition of approaching death

Acceptance
◦ Without anger or depression
◦ ‘it’s my time now, and it’s all right’ without defeat
or disappointment
◦ In our culture the dying person is often drowsy,
withdrawn, drugged, and asleep much of the time
◦ Often does not like to engage in conversation
◦ But, it is important to show that others care through
physical presence
◦ The dying often realizes our connectedness to all
living/dying beings

Positive aspects

Critique
 Focus on humane treatment of the dying and their needs
 Encourages the caregivers to view the world through the
eyes of the dying
 Learning from the dying about ourselves, our values and
our own search for values
 Can apply to other very stressful events-war, terrorism,
etc.
 Lack of empirical support in scientific literature
 Restrictive nature of the stages
 Problem with the way it was applied by healthcare
professionals – annoyance if the dying people do not
move neatly through the expected stages
youtube