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PowerPoint slides prepared by Leonard R. Mendola, PhD
Touro College
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Chapter 12: Culture
Outline
• CULTURE, ADOLESCENCE, AND EMERGING
ADULTHOOD
– The Relevance of Culture for the Study of
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood
– Cross-Cultural Comparisons
– Rites of Passage
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Chapter 12: Culture
Outline
• SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS AND POVERTY
– What Is Socioeconomic Status?
– Socioeconomic Variations in Families,
Neighborhoods, and Schools
– Poverty
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Chapter 12: Culture
Outline
• ETHNICITY
– Immigration
– Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood
• A Special Juncture for Ethnic Minority Individuals
– Ethnicity Issues
– The United States and Canada
• Nations with Many Cultures
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Chapter 12: Culture
Outline
• THE MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY
– Media Use
– Television
– The Media and Music
– Technology, Computers, and the Internet
– Social Policy and the Media
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Culture, Adolescence, and Emerging
Adulthood
• Culture and Adolescence
– In chapter 1, culture was defined as the behavior,
patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a
particular group of people that are passed on from
generation to generation.
– The products result from the interaction between
groups of people and their environment over many
years.
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Culture, Adolescence, and Emerging
Adulthood
• The Relevance of Culture
– Schools and neighborhoods are no longer the
fortresses of a privileged group whose agenda is
the exclusion of those with a different skin color or
different customs.
– Immigrants, refugees, and ethnic minority
individuals increasingly decline to become part of a
homogeneous melting pot, instead requesting that
schools, employers, and governments honor many
of their cultural customs.
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Culture, Adolescence, and Emerging
Adulthood
• The Relevance of Culture (Continued)
– In the 20th century, the study of adolescents and
emerging adults was primarily ethnocentric,
emphasizing American values, especially middleSES, white, male values (Spencer, 2000).
• One example:
– Ethnocentrism—the tendency to favor one’s
own group over other groups—is the
American emphasis on the individual or self.
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Culture, Adolescence, and Emerging
Adulthood
• The Relevance of Culture
– People in all cultures have a tendency to:
• Behave in ways that favor their cultural group.
• Feel proud of their cultural group.
• Feel negatively toward other cultural groups.
– Over the past few centuries and at an increasing
rate in recent decades, technological advances in
transportation, communication, and commerce have
made these ways of thinking obsolete.
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Culture, Adolescence, and Emerging
Adulthood
• Cross-Cultural Comparisons
– Cross-cultural studies involve the comparison of a
culture with one or more other cultures, which
provides information about the degree to which the
development of adolescents and emerging adults is
similar, or universal, across cultures, or the degree
to which it is culture-specific (Schlegal, 2009).
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Culture, Adolescence, and Emerging
Adulthood
• Individualism and Collectivism
– The search for basic traits has focused on the
dichotomy between individualism and collectivism
(Triandis, 2007).
– Individualism
• Giving priority to personal goals rather than to group goals.
• It emphasizes values that serve the self, such as feeling
good, personal distinction and achievement, and
independence.
– Collectivism
• Emphasizes values that serve the group by subordinating
personal goals to preserve group integrity,
interdependence of the members, and harmonious
relationships.
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Culture, Adolescence, and Emerging
Adulthood
Characteristics of Individualistic and Collectivistic Cultures
Fig. 12.1
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Culture, Adolescence, and Emerging
Adulthood
Fig. 12.2
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Culture, Adolescence, and Emerging
Adulthood
• Individualism and Collectivism (Continued)
– Compared with collectivist cultures, individualistic
cultures have higher rates of suicide, drug abuse,
crime, teenage pregnancy, divorce, child abuse and
mental disorders.
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Culture, Adolescence, and Emerging
Adulthood
• Individualism and Collectivism (Continued)
– A recent analysis proposed four values that reflect
parents’ beliefs in individualistic cultures about
what is required for children’s and adolescents’
effective development of autonomy:
1.
2.
3.
4.
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Personal choice.
Intrinsic motivation.
Self-esteem.
Self-maximization (Tamis-LeMonda & others, 2008).
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Culture, Adolescence, and Emerging
Adulthood
• Individualism and Collectivism (Continued)
– The analysis also proposed that three values reflect
parents’ beliefs in collectivistic cultures:
1. Connectedness to the family and other close
relationships.
2. Orientation to the larger group.
3. Respect and obedience.
– Critics of the individualistic and collectivistic
cultures concept argue that these terms are too
broad and simplistic, especially with increase in
globalization (Kagitcibasi, 2007).
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Culture, Adolescence, and Emerging
Adulthood
Average Daily Time Use of Adolescents in Different
Regions of the World
Fig. 12.3
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Culture, Adolescence, and Emerging
Adulthood
•
How Adolescents Around the World Spend Their Time
– There is considerable variation across different countries in
the number of hours adolescents spend in paid work.
– U.S. adolescents spend about 40 percent less time on
schoolwork than East Asian adolescents.
– About 40 to 50 percent of U.S. adolescents’ waking hours was
spent in discretionary activities, compared with 25 to 35
percent in East Asia and 35 to 45 percent in Europe.
– The largest amounts of U.S. adolescents’ free time were spent
using the media and engaging in unstructured leisure
activities, often with friends.
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Culture, Adolescence, and Emerging
Adulthood
• Rites of Passage
– Ceremonies or rituals that mark an individual’s
transition from one status to another, such as the
entry into adulthood.
– Some societies have elaborate rites of passage
that signal the adolescent’s transition to adulthood;
others do not (Kottak & Kozaitis, 2008).
– The absence of clear-cut rites of passage makes
the attainment of adult status so ambiguous that
many individuals are unsure whether they have
reached it or not.
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Socioeconomic Status and Poverty
• What Is Socioeconomic Status?
– The grouping of people with similar occupational,
educational, and economic characteristics.
Socioeconomic status carries with it certain
inequalities:
1. Occupation
2. Education
3. Economic resources
4. Power to influence
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Socioeconomic Status and Poverty
• Socioeconomic Variations in Families,
Neighborhoods, and Schools
– Parenting style
– Intellectual experiences
– Mental health
– Negative experiences
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22
Socioeconomic Status and Poverty
• Poverty
– Some adolescents are resilient and cope with the
challenges of poverty without major setbacks, but
many struggle unsuccessfully.
– In 2006, 17 percent of children under 18 years of age
were living in families below the poverty line (Federal
Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, 2008).
– The U.S. figure of 17.8 percent of children living in
poverty is much higher than those from other
industrialized nations.
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Socioeconomic Status and Poverty
Living in Distressed Neighborhoods
Fig. 12.4
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Socioeconomic Status and Poverty
• Ramifications of living in poverty
–
–
–
–
–
Health.
Housing/neighborhoods.
Often powerless/having less prestige.
In occupations, they rarely are the decision makers.
Rules are handed down to them in an authoritarian
manner.
– Vulnerable to disaster.
– Range of alternatives is often restricted.
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Socioeconomic Status and Poverty
• Feminization of poverty
– Far more women than men live in poverty.
– Likely causes include:
• Lower income for women.
• Divorce.
• Resolution of divorce cases by the judicial system—
leaves women with less money than needed to
function adequately.
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Socioeconomic Status and Poverty
• Countering Poverty’s Effects
– One trend in antipoverty programs is to conduct twogeneration interventions (McLoyd, Aikens, & Burton, 2006):
• Services for children
– (such as educational day care or preschool education).
• Services for parents
– (such as adult education, literacy training, and job skill
training).
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Socioeconomic Status and Poverty
• Antipoverty Programs
– Programs that benefit adolescents living in poverty:
• The Quantum Opportunities Program
• El Puente
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28
Ethnicity
• Immigration
– Relatively high rates of immigration are contributing
to the growth in the proportion of ethnic minority
adolescents and emerging adults in the United States
(Fuligni, Hughes, & Way, 2009; Liu & others, 2009).
– Stressors
• Language barriers
• Dislocation
• Separation from support network
• Preserve identity
• SES (Kim & others, 2009)
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29
Ethnicity
•
Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Special
Juncture for Ethnic Minority Individuals
– Most ethnic minority individuals first consciously
confront their ethnicity in adolescence.
– They become acutely aware of how the majority
white culture evaluates their ethnic group (Comer,
1993).
– Ethnic minority youths’ awareness of negative
appraisals, conflicting values, and restricted
occupational opportunities can influence their life
choices and plans for the future (Diemer & others,
2006).
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30
Ethnicity
• Ethnicity Issues
– A number of ethnicity issues are involved in the
development of adolescents and emerging adults.
• Ethnicity and Socioeconomic Status
– A higher percentage of ethnic minority children and
youth live in families characterized by poverty than
non-Latino children and youth (McLoyd & others,
2009).
– In 2006, 33 percent of African American children and
adolescents and 27 percent of Latino children and
adolescents lived in poverty compared to 10 percent
of non-Latino white children and adolescents (Federal
Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics, 2008).
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31
Ethnicity
• Ethnicity and Socioeconomic Status (Continued)
– Much of the research on ethnic minority adolescents
and emerging adults has failed to identify
distinctions between the dual influences of ethnicity
and SES (Huston & Ripke, 2006).
– Many ethnic minority adolescents experience a
double disadvantage:
1. Prejudice, discrimination, and bias because of their ethnic
minority status.
2. The stressful effects of poverty.
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Ethnicity
• Differences and Diversity
– Historical, economic, and social experiences
produce legitimate differences among various ethnic
minority groups, and between ethnic minority groups
and the majority non-Latino white group (Gollnick &
Chinn, 2009).
– Differences does not equal deficits.
– Ethnic minority groups are not homogeneous.
– Research on ethnic minority groups often focused
only on a group’s negative, stressful aspects.
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Ethnicity
• Prejudice, Discrimination, and Bias
– Prejudice is an unjustified negative attitude toward
an individual because of the individual’s membership
in a group.
– The group toward which the prejudice is directed
can be made up of people of a particular ethnic
group, sex, age, religion, or other detectable
difference (Paluck & Green, 2009).
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Ethnicity
African American Adolescents’ Reports of Racial Hassles in the Past Year
Fig. 12.5
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Ethnicity
•
The United States and Canada: Nations with Many
Cultures
– The United States has been and continues to be a
great receiver of ethnic groups.
– Canada comprises a mixture of cultures that are
loosely organized along the lines of economic power.
The Canadian cultures include:
• Native peoples, or First Nations, who were Canada’s original
inhabitants.
• Descendants of French settlers who came to Canada during
the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
• Descendants of British settlers who came to Canada during
and after the seventeenth century, or from the United States
after the American Revolution in the latter part of the
eighteenth century.
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Ethnicity
•
(Continued from previous slide)
The United States and Canada: Nations with Many
Cultures
– The late nineteenth century brought three more
waves of immigrants:
• From Asia, mainly China, immigrants came to the
west coast of Canada in the latter part of the
nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
• From various European countries, immigrants
came to central Canada and the prairie provinces.
• From countries in economic and political turmoil
(in Latin America, the Caribbean, Asia, Africa, the
Indian subcontinent, the former Soviet Union, and
the Middle East), immigrants have come to many
different parts of Canada.
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37
The Media and Technology
• Media Use
• Mass media play important roles in adolescents’
lives. (Murray & Murray, 2008; Roberts, Henriksen, &
Foehr, 2009).
• On average, youth spend 6 ½ hours a day (44 ½
hours a week) with media while spending only 2 ¼
hours a day with parents and just 50 minutes a day
on homework.
• Two-thirds have a TV in their bedroom.
• About 50 percent have a TV, a VCR/DVD player,
2.1 video game consoles, and 1.5 computers.
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The Media and Technology
(Continued from previous slide)
• Use of Media
– Adolescents spend the most time watching TV
(just over 3 hours a day).
– A major trend in the use of technology is the
dramatic increase in media multi-tasking (Roberts,
Henriksen, & Foehr, 2009).
• It is not unusual for adolescents to simultaneously watch
TV while text messaging their friends.
• TV viewing and video game playing often peak in early
adolescence and then begin to decline at some point in late
adolescence in response to competing media and the
demands of school and social activities (Roberts, Henriksen, &
Foehr, 2009).
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The Media and Technology
Amount of Time U.S. 8- to 18-Year-Olds Spend Per Day in Different Activities
Fig. 12.6
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The Media and Technology
Developmental Changes in the Amount of Time U.S. 8- to 18-Year-Olds
Spend with Different Types of Media
Fig. 12.7
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41
The Media and Technology
(Continued from previous slide)
• Media Use
• Large, individual differences characterize all forms of
adolescent media use.
• Gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and
intelligence are all related to which media are used,
to what extent, and for what purposes (Roberts,
Henriksen, & Foehr, 2009).
• As adolescents become older, “television viewing
decreases, music listening and computer use
increase, and media tend to migrate to adolescents’
bedrooms” (Roberts, Henriksen, & Foehr, 2004, p. 492).
• As adolescents become older, they are more likely to
use media alone or with friends or siblings,
indicating increasing independence from parents and
the importance of peers.
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42
The Media and Technology
•
Television
– Few developments during the second half of the 20th century
had a greater impact on children than TV (Asamen, Ellis, & Berry,
2008; Strasberger, Wilson, & Jordan, 2008).
•
– Many children and adolescents spend more time in front of the
TV set than they do with their parents.
TV’s positive effects
– Presents motivating educational programs.
– Increases children’s and adolescents’ information about the
world beyond their immediate environment.
– Provides models of prosocial behavior (Schmidt & Vandewater,
2008; Wilson, 2008).
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43
The Media and Technology
• TV’s negative influence
– Fosters passive learners.
– Distraction from doing homework.
– Teaches stereotypes.
– Provides violent models of aggression.
– Presents unrealistic views of the world
(Murray & Murray, 2008).
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44
The Media and Technology
• Television and Violence
• Correlation research
• Indicates that watching television violence
is associated with aggressive behavior.
• Experimental research
• Provides evidence that viewing television
violence can increase aggression.
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45
The Media and Technology
Educational TV Viewing in Early Childhood and High School Grade
Point Average for Boys
Fig. 12.8
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46
The Media and Technology
• Television and Violence (Continued)
• The television that young children watch may
influence their behavior as adolescents.
• There is increased concern about children and
adolescents who play violent video games,
especially those that are highly realistic (EscobarChaves & Anderson, 2008)
• Research indicates that children and adolescents
who extensively play violent electronic games are
more aggressive, less sensitive to real-life violence,
more likely to engage in delinquent acts, and are
more likely to get lower grades than their
counterparts who spend less or no time playing
(Escobar-Chaves & Anderson, 2008).
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47
The Media and Technology
(Continued from previous slide)
• Television and Sex
• The number of sexual scenes on TV nearly doubled
from 1998 through 2004 (Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005).
• Watching television sex can influence adolescents’
sexual attitudes and behavior.
• Television teaches children and adolescents about
sex (Collins, 2005; Ward, Day, & Epstein, 2006).
• The overall conclusion about adolescent exposure to
sex in the entertainment media is very negative
(Collins, 2005; Ward, Day, & Epstein, 2006).
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48
The Media and Technology
• Television and Achievement
• The more adolescents watch TV the lower
their school achievement is (Comstock &
Scharrer, 2006).
• Three possibilities involve interference,
displacement, and self-defeating
tastes/preferences (Comstock & Scharrer, 2006).
1. Interference
• Having television on while doing homework
can distract children while they are doing
cognitive tasks, such as homework.
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49
The Media and Technology
(Continued from previous slide)
• Television and Achievement (Continued)
2. Displacement
• Television can take away time and attention
from engaging in achievement-related tasks,
such as homework, reading, writing, and
mathematics.
3. Self-defeating tastes/preferences
• Television attracts adolescents to
entertainment, sports, commercials, and other
activities that capture their interest more than
school achievement.
• Adolescents who are heavy TV watchers tend
to view books as dull and boring (Comstock &
Scharrer, 2006).
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50
The Media and Technology
• Television and Achievement
(Continued from previous slide)
(Continued)
• Some types of television content—such as
educational programming for young children—may
enhance achievement.
• Sesame Street and Mr. Roger’s Neighborhood
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51
The Media and Technology
(Continued from previous slide)
• The Media and Music
• Two-thirds of all CDs are purchased by the 10- to 24year-old age group.
• One-third of the nation’s 8,200 radio stations aim
their broadcast rock music at adolescent listeners.
• No cause-and-effect studies exist to link either music
or videos to an increased risk of early drug use in
adolescence (Martino & others, 2006).
• For a small percentage of adolescents, certain music
may provide a behavioral marker for psychological
problems (Martino & others, 2006).
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52
The Media and Technology
• Technology, Computers, and the Internet
• Today’s adolescents are experiencing this revolution
with increased use of computers and the Internet
(Brookshear, 2009; Reed, 2009).
• The new information society still relies on some
basic non-technological competencies that
adolescents need to develop:
•
•
•
•
•
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Good communication skills
Ability to solve problems
Thinking deeply
Thinking creatively
Have positive attitudes
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53
The Media and Technology
(Continued from previous slide)
• The Internet
• The core of computer-mediated communication.
• Internet Use by Adolescents
• Youth throughout the world are increasingly using the
Internet.
• Special concerns have emerged about children’s and
adolescents’ access to information on the Internet, which
has been largely unregulated.
–
–
–
–
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Of the 1,000 most-visited sites, 10 percent are adult-sex oriented.
Forty-four percent of adolescents have seen an adult site.
Twenty-five percent have visited a site that promotes hate groups.
Twelve percent have found a site where they can receive information
about how to buy a gun.
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54
The Media and Technology
• The On-Line Social Environment of Adolescents
and Emerging Adults
•
•
•
•
•
•
Chat rooms
e-mail
Instant messaging
Blogs
MySpace
Facebook
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55
The Media and Technology
• Social Policy and the Media
– Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development’s
recommendations (1995):
• Encourage socially responsible programming.
• Support public efforts to make the media more
adolescent friendly.
• Encourage media literacy programs.
• Increase media presentations of health
promotions.
• Expand opportunities for adolescents’ views to
appear in the media.
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56
RESOURCES FOR IMPROVING THE LIVES OF ADOLESCENTS
Canadian Ethnocultural Council
Conseil Ethnoculturel du Canada
www.ethnocultural.ca
CEC’s objective is to secure equality of
opportunity, of rights, and of dignity for
ethnocultural minorities and all other
Canadians.
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57
RESOURCES FOR IMPROVING THE LIVES OF ADOLESCENTS
Children, Adolescents, and the Media (2nd Ed.)
by Victor Strasburger and Barbara Wilson, and
Amy Jordan. (2008). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
This is an excellent, contemporary treatment of
many dimensions of the information age, such as
television and computers.
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58
RESOURCES FOR IMPROVING THE LIVES OF ADOLESCENTS
The Eisenhower Foundation
www.eisenhowerfoundation.org
This foundation provides funds for a number
of programs designed to improve the lives of
children and adolescents living in low-income
circumstances. The foundation is replicating
in a number of states the successful
Quantum Opportunities program of the Ford
Foundation.
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59
RESOURCES FOR IMPROVING THE LIVES OF ADOLESCENTS
“Poverty and Socioeconomic Disadvantage in
Adolescence” by Vonnie McLoyd, Rachel Kaplan, Kelly
Purcell, Erika Bagley, Cecily Hardaway, and Clara Smalls.
(2009).
In R. M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of
Adolescent Psychology (3rd ed.). New York: Wiley.
An excellent, up-to-date chapter on poverty, ethnicity, and
policies that are needed to improve the lives of children and
adolescents who live in poverty conditions.
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60
RESOURCES FOR IMPROVING THE LIVES OF ADOLESCENTS
The World’s Youth edited by Bradford Brown,
Reed Larson, and T.S. Saraswathi. (2002). Fort
Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace.
This is an excellent book on adolescent
development in eight regions of the world.
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61
E-LEARNING TOOLS
To help you master the material in this
chapter, visit the Online Learning Center
for Adolescence, 13th edition at:
http://www.mhhe.com/santrocka13e
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