Sociology
Spring 2012
Agenda for Day 1
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Seating Chart
Ms. Rasmussen
Syllabus
Exploration of Sociology
– Socialization
• Student Introductions
Ms. Rasmussen (Ras – ma – sin) or
Ms. R
• Teaches
Psychology, AP
Psychology &
Sociology
• Loves animals
(especially
giraffes)
• Getting married
in June 
Syllabus
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Course Overview
Grading
Materials
Rules
Policies
Agenda
Parent Signature
Exploration of Sociology
• Social environment: shapes who we
become
• Socialization: process of how we learn
things
– Significant Others: people who greatly
influence our lives
• Parents, Friends, Etc.
• “Big Daddy” video clip
Introductions
• Who has helped shape you to be the
person you are? How so?
• State your name and grade
– Give an interesting fact about yourself
– Then state your significant other and why you
choose that person
Homework
• Reread your syllabus.
– Write down any questions you may have.
• Due on Friday, January 27th:
– Syllabus Signature
– Class Materials
Agenda
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Syllabus Questions
Warm Up: Goals
Overview of the Classroom
Warm Up: Introductory Quiz
What is Sociology
Sociological Perspective
The Sociological
Perspective
Chapter 1
Introduction Quiz
(Mark each either “True” or “False”)
1. More U.S. students are killed in school shootings
now than 10 or 15 years ago.
2. The earnings of U.S. women have just about caught
up with those of U.S. men.
3. More rapists are mentally ill (than not).
4. Most people on welfare are lazy and looking for a
handout. They could work if they wanted to.
5. Couples who live together before marriage are
usually more satisfied with their marriages than
couples who did not live together before marriage.
Answers
1. School shootings: FALSE
– There were more shootings in the 1990s
2. Earnings of women: FALSE
– Gap has narrowed only slightly. Women make only 70%
of what men make.
3. Rapists mentally ill: FALSE
– Rape is a learned behavior
4. Welfare: FALSE
– Most on welfare are children, old, sick, handicapped
5. Cohabitation: FALSE
– Opposite is true.
What is Sociology?
• Individually, list as many words that pop into
your head when you hear “sociology”.
– 5 minutes
• With a partner, group the similar words. Add
to your list as more words come to mind
– 10 minutes
• With a partner, label your groups.
– 5 minutes
• Individually, define sociology.
Sociological Perspective
-seeing the broader social context
• Also called sociological imagination
– Definition: understand human behavior by placing in
broader social context
– How do groups/societies influence us?
• Society: share culture and territory
• Social Location
– Memberships we have because of our location
Sociological Perspective
(cont.) The sociological imagination
• C. Wright Mills & using
our imagination
– Sociological imagination
– What would a child/person
be like if you took it from 1
society when it was a baby
& raised it in a completely
different type of society?
• Avoid a cramped, personal
view
Sociological Perspective
With a partner, discuss the following journal prompt. After your
discussion, write down some reasons you and your partner
came up with.
According to American sociologist C. Wright Mills,
people look for relationships between their personal
lives and their society. Using the concept of
sociological imagination (understanding human
behavior by placing it within into broader social
context), describe how a runaway “street rat” would
explain his reasons for quitting school, leaving his
family, and taking to the streets for food,
companionship, and shelter.
Practicing the Sociological
Perspective
During other classes you have today/this week, carefully
observe the behavior of the instructor(s)/teacher(s)
and other students.
What patterns do you see in who speaks? What about
how people use space? Anything else you notice?
Write about what you observe in 1 or more welldeveloped (5+ sentences) paragraphs.
Due: Tuesday, January 31st
Sociology as a Social Science
Important Figures
Chapter 1: Sociological Perspective
Unit 1: Sociological Perspective & Research
Global Context
• Globalization: growth
of world
interdependence
• Connections are quite
new in human history
• Advances in
communications &
technology
• Understand our actions
have consequences for
others
Sociology & Other Sciences
• Humans developed science to satisfy
basic curiosities
– Sociology is a science; studies society and
human behavior
• Science divided into 2 types; both attempt
to find order
– Natural sciences: explain & predict natural
environments
– Social sciences: understand social world
through controlled observations
Other Social Sciences:
• Anthropology
– Culture & group beliefs
• Economics
– Supply & demand
• Political Science
– Theory of government
• Psychology
– Human mental &
emotional processes
• History
– Past events
• Sociology
Read a Down-toEarth Sociology: An
Updated Version of
the Old Elephant
Story on page 7.
Partner Activity: Sociology as a Social Science
• Compare and contrast sociology to the
other social sciences
– Anthropology, Economics, Political Science
and Psychology
• Use p. 6-7 of your textbook.
• You do not need to write full sentences;
bullet points are fine
Goals of Science
1. Explain
2. Make generalizations
– Sociologists analyze patterns
3. Predict
3. Must move beyond common sense
Origins of Sociology
• Ancients answered question on
superstition, myth
• Sociology appeared in mid-1800’s out of
industrial revolution upheaval
• American & French Revolutions further
challenged tradition
• Imperialism led to question of why cultures
differ
• Began to apply scientific method
Practicing the Sociological
Perspective
During other classes you have today/this week, carefully
observe the behavior of the instructor(s)/teacher(s)
and other students.
What patterns do you see in who speaks? What about
how people use space? Anything else you notice?
Write about what you observe in 1 or more welldeveloped (5+ sentences) paragraphs.
Due: Tuesday, January 31st
Important Figures in
Sociology
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Auguste Comte
Herbert Spencer
Karl Marx
Èmile Durkheim
Max Weber
Harriet Martineau
Jane Addams
W.E.B. DuBois
With your assigned group, read about your assigned person, and
figure out 2 of the most important ideas presented about them
in your text. Your task is to develop a kinesthetic (involving
bodily movement) way for your classmates to remember that
person. This can take the form of a motion, skit, etc.
1. Auguste Comte
– Pages 9-10
2. Herbert Spencer
– Page 10
3. Karl Marx
– Pages 11 & 29
4. Emile Durkheim
– Pages 12-13 & 15
5. Max Weber
– Pages 13-14 & 15
6. Harriet Martineau
– Page 17
7. Jane Addams
– Page 18
8. W.E.B. DuBois
– Pages 18-19
Auguste Comte
(1798-1857, French)
• “Father of sociology”
– Positivism
• French Revolution led to
questions about social
order vs. chaos
• Originally used term “social
physics”
– Coined term “sociology”
• Practiced “armchair
philosophy”
Herbert Spencer
(1820-1903, British)
• Opposed social reform
• Introduced Social
Darwinism
• Wealthy industrialists
liked his views
– Later discredited
• Compared society to an
organism
Karl Marx
(1818-1883, German, exiled in Britain)
• Believed in reform
• Class conflict = engine of
history
• Bourgeoisie vs. proletariat
• Class conflict would occur
– Bourgeoisie overthrown by
proletariat
– Classless society would develop
• Was he a sociologist?
Èmile Durkheim
(1858-1917, French)
• Primary goal sociology
as separate academic
discipline
• 2nd goal show how
social forces affect
behavior
– Famous study on suicide- not just
a personal act
– Social integration/cohesion
• Weaker integration= 
suicide rates
• Emphasized social facts
Max Weber
Pronounced “Vay-ber”
(1864-1920, German)
• Said religion force in social change
• Protestant ethic
– Catholic vs. Protestant viewpoints on
being saved
• Spirit of capitalism
• Tested theory
• Argued for value free sociology
– Should be objective
• Use Verstehen to understand
human behavior
Harriet Martineau
(1802-1876, British)
• Translated Comte’s Positive
Philosophy into English
• Completed a firsthand
systematic study of
American society in 1830s
– Published Society in America
– Argued for understanding of
women’s lives
Jane Addams
(1860-1935, American)
• Traveled, saw help for
poor in London
• Co-founded Hull House in
Chicago’s slums
• Effects of industrialism on
lower class
– Made legislative gains
• Awarded Nobel Peace
Prize 1931
W.E.B. DuBois
(1868-1963, American)
• 1st African American to
earn doctorate from
Harvard
• Racism rampant
• Noted issues between
African Americans &
whites
• Connected social analysis
to social reform
– Founded NAACP
Important Figures in
Sociology
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Auguste Comte
Herbert Spencer
Karl Marx
Èmile Durkheim
Max Weber
Harriet Martineau
Jane Addams
W.E.B. DuBois
Closure: Important Figures
• With a partner, respond to the following journal
prompt. Discuss with your partner and jot down
some bullet points. Come up with at least 5
bullet points. Be ready to discuss with the class.
Which sociologist do you feel made the
greatest impact? Explain why you
chose this particular sociologist.
Tensions in Sociology
Theoretical Perspectives
Chapter 1: Sociological Perspective
Unit 1: Sociological Perspective & Research
Tensions in Sociology
• Continued tension between analyzing vs.
social reform
– Basic/pure sociology
• Make discoveries about groups
– Clinical sociology
• Implementing solutions
– Applied sociology
• Somewhere in between 2
Recap: Types of Sociology
With a partner fill in the chart below. This was covered in
lecture and is in your textbook on p. 21-22.
Type
Basic/Pure
Sociology
Clinical
Sociology
Applied
Sociology
2-3 Word
Description
Example
Recap: Types of Sociology
Type
Basic/Pure
Sociology
2-3 Word
Description
Discoveries;
Research
Example/
Sociologist
Comte,
Spencer
Clinical
Sociology
Solutions;
Reform
Marx
Applied
Sociology
Solve
Problems;
Application
DuBois NAACP,
Durkheim,
Addams
Theoretical Perspectives &
Levels of Analysis
• Theory: general statement
• 3 major theories in sociology:
– Symbolic interactionism, functional analysis,
conflict theory
• Macro vs. micro levels of analysis:
– Functionalists & conflict are MACRO
– Symbolic interactions: MICRO
• Need all 3 theories together!
Symbolic Interactionism
• Society is composed of symbols;
used to establish meaning,
develop views, communicate
– Influenced by Cooley, Thomas &
Mead
• Studies use of symbols
– Mutually understood symbols
– Symbols show relationships
• Behavior based off meaning
giving to symbols
• Symbols can change over time
Functional Analysis
(aka Functionalism, Structural Functionalism)
• Society is composed of parts;
each has a function that
contributes to equilibrium
– Pioneered by Comte, Spencer
• Integrated whole; like a living
organism
– Look at structure & function
• Robert Merton’s views:
– Functions vs. dysfunctions
– Manifest vs. latent functions
• Latent dysfunctions
Conflict Theory
• Emphasizes conflict, competition, & change
– Opposite of functionalism
– Based off of Marxist ideas
• Those with power control others
– Get the largest share
• Many conflicts are about power
Perspective Discussion
with a partner
In recent media reports, many Native American
Indian groups have complained that major
sports team mascot names such as the Kansas
City Chiefs, Washington Red Skins, Atlanta
Braves, and Cleveland Indians, are insensitive
to their heritage. Using the basic assumptions
of symbolic interactionism, defend or condemn
the use of American Indian references in team
mascot names
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An Invitation to Sociology - Cedarburg School District