Organizational Behavior / Perception
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When you change the way you look at things,
the things you look at change.
Perception
“ The study of perception is concerned with identifying the process
through which we interpret and organize sensory information to
produce our conscious experience of objects and object relationship.”
MEANING:
Perceptions differ
from person to person.
Each
individual perceives the same situation
differently.
Perception is
a unique interpretation of the
situation, not an exact recording of the situation.
Perception is
than sensation.
more complex and much broader
NATURE OF PERCEPTION
It is a cognitive and psychological process. The manner in
which a person perceives the environment affects his
behaviour. There can be no behaviour without perception
and perception lies at the base of every human action.
Perception is the process by which an individual gives
meaning to the environment.
It occurs whenever stimuli activate the sense organs.
A stimulus that is not perceived has no effect on
behaviour.
Perception is a process that operates constantly between
us and reality.
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IMPORTANCE OF PERCEPTION
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Perception plays a very important role in shaping
the personality of an individual.
Perception is central in interpreting the world
around us.
Perception affects the outcome of our behavior
because we act on the basis of what we see.
An understanding of perception is important to
understand and control the human behavior.
Because people’s behavior is based on their
perception of what reality is, not on reality itself.
PERCEPTUAL PROCESS
 Perception
is an intellectual process.
 Perception
is the basic cognitive or
psychological process.
 Perception
is subjective process. Perception is
subjective because person beliefs or cultural
background shape their perception.
 Perception
consists of several sub-processes.
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CONT…
Perceptual
inputs
Perceptual throughputs
Stimuli
Receiving->Selecting->Organising>Interpreting
Perceptual
Outputs
Actions
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PERCEPTUAL PROCESS

Perceptual inputs: Objects, Events and people.
All those things in the setting where events occur or
contribute to the occurrence of events can be termed as
Perceptual inputs.
Perceptual
Mechanism: involves three elements viz.
selection of stimuli, organization of stimuli and
interpretation of stimuli.
Perceptual
Values.
outputs: Attitudes, Opinions, Feelings &
The result is the “ BEHAVIOUR”
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Perceptual Error
 Halo
effect
The process by which the perceiver evaluates
another person solely on the basis of one
attribute, either favorable or unfavorable.
 Expectancy effects
Extent to which expectations bias how events,
objects, and people are actually perceived
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Continue…
Projection
The assignment of one’s
attributes to other individuals.
 Primacy: First impressions
personal
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Improving Perceptual Accuracy
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Empathize(share feelings) with others
Postponed Impression Formation
Compare perceptions with others
Know Yourself
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Factors that Influence
Perception
Perception is influenced by a variety of individuals
and situational factors.
Physiological Differences
Cultural Differences
Social Roles
Occupational Roles
Previous Experiences
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CONT…
Self
Esteem
 Expectations/Wishes
Tunnel Vision
Intense Feelings & Attitudes
Stereotyping
Group Pressure
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Stereotype:
 A fixed,
commonly held notion or image of a person
or group, based on an oversimplification of some
observed or imagined trait of behavior or
appearance.
 The
use of stereotypes is a major way in which we
simplify our social world;
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Basic Elements For
Perception
Any perceptual event has three components that are:
1.) Perceiver
Any individual perceiving from event
2.) Target
Thing which is being perceived
3.) Situation
ATTRIBUTES OF THE PERCEIVER
Several attributes unique to our personalities can affect how
we see others. These include the following :
i)
ii)
iii)
Self concept
Cognitive structure
Previous experiences
CONT…
SELF-CONCEPT
 A person with a positive self-concept tends to perceive
the positive characteristics of others. Conversely, a
person with a negative self-concept is likely to focus on
negative characteristics. The more accurate a person's
self-concept, the more accurate his or her perceptions of
others will tend to be.

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CONT…
COGNITIVE STRUCTURE:
 Cognitive structure, an individual's pattern of thinking, also
affects perception. Some people have a tendency to perceive
physical traits, such as height, weight, and appearance, more
readily. Cognitive complexity allows a person to perceive
multiple characteristics of another person rather than
attending to just a few traits

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ATTRIBUTES OF THE TARGET
The first major influence on perception is of the
target.
In particular, the following attributes of target can
be identified:
i) Physical appearance
ii) Verbal and non verbal communication
iii) Intentions
CONT…
PHYSICAL APPEARANCE
Physical appearance pals a big role in our perception of others.
Extremely attractive or unattractive individuals are more likely
to be noticed in a group than ordinary looking individuals.
Motions, sound, size and other attributes of a target shape the
way we see it.
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VERBAL AND NON-VERBAL
COMMUNICATION
Verbal Communication from targets also affects our
perception of them. Nonverbal communication conveys a
great deal of information about the target. The perceiver
deciphers eye contact, facial expressions, body movements,
and posture all in a attempt to form an impression of the
target.
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CONT…
INTENTIONS:
How we interpret the intentions of others influences our
perceptions of their personality. For instance, if you assume that
your professor is going to criticize your work, you may perceive
your instructor to be a negative and critical person.
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ATTRIBUTES OF THE SITUATION
Elements in the surrounding environment
also influence perception process. Some of
these are as follows :
i)
ii)
iii)
Social context
Organizational role
Location of event
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Types of perception
Color
perception
Visual perception
Speech perception
Size perception
Motion perception
Color Perception:
The ability to interpret information about something
on the basis of the effects of colors.
Color perception is subjective.
COLOR PERCEPTION
While perceptions of color are somewhat subjective, there
are some color effects that have universal meaning.
Several ancient cultures, including the Egyptians and Chinese,
practiced chromotherapy(referred to as light therapy ), or using colors
to heal.
Red was used to stimulate the body and mind and to increase
circulation.
Yellow was thought to stimulate the nerves and purify the body.
Orange was used to heal the lungs and to increase energy levels.
Blue was believed to soothe illnesses and treat pain.
Indigo shades were thought to alleviate skin problems.
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Visual perception
Visual perception is the ability to interpret information
and surroundings from the effects of visible light reaching
the eye.
Visual perception is a function of our eyes and brain.
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Size Perception:
The ability to interpret information about
the size of objects
It includes:
 Size constancy
 Shape constancy
 Color constancy
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Size constancy:
When we know that an object is of a
certain size,we tend to perceive it as
being same size,regardless of how far it is
from our eyes.
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Shape Constancy:
When we know that the object is a certain
shape,we tend to perceive it as the same
shape,regardless of the viewing angle.
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Color Constancy:
Colors of the objects tend to remain
constant in perception when we know
their actual color.
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
A perception that occurs when a sensory stimulus is
present but is incorrectly perceived and misinterpreted,
such as hearing the wind as someone crying.

Most of the illusions are optical
illusions i.e
An object causing a false visual
impression
•
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IMPOSSIIBLE FIGURE ILLUSION:
The figures for which our brain is able to take
sensation that is two dimensional and produce
perception that is three dimensional.

Reversible figures present ambiguous
infarmation tha can be interpreted in more than
one ways.

The Mueller-Lyer Illusion is an optical illusion
involving two lines and arrowheads at the ends of each
line. When two lines and arrowheads of equal length are
used, the one with ends pointing out is thought to be
longer than the one with ends pointing in.

The variation in the apparent size of the Moon (smaller
when overhead, larger when near the horizon) is another
natural illusion; it is not an optical phenomenon, but
rather a cognitive or perceptual illusion

Some times the objects at rest seem to be moving while
those that are moving seem to be at rest. E.g train at
railway station.

Abnormal condition or defects of the sense
organs.
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Illusion due to odd arrangements of stimuli.
 Illusion
due to appreciation,interests,
expectations etc.

Illusion due to limitations of the sense organs.
 Social
factors such as needs, motives,past
experiences and expectations about the world
and the way we percieve it.
“If a tree falls…”
If a tree falls in the forest and there is
nobody around to hear it…
 Does it make a noise?
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Answer
NO…Sound (like color) is all in your head!
Can you believe that this is a picture
and not an animation? To check, just
focus on one leaf for 5 seconds
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