DEVELOPING LEADERS
A personal perspective
Sqn Ldr Dick Tudor
OC TRS
RAF Lossiemouth
Leadership Development in the
RAF
“ It is timely to review the RAF’s approach to
leadership development to ensure that it is coherent
and consistent, thereby assuming excellence across
the range of leadership roles.”
LEADERSHIP: THE
ACADEMIC BACKGROUND
The Development of Leadership
Theory
Period
Approach
Core Theme
Up to late 1940s
Trait approach
Leadership ability is innate
Late 1940s to late 1960s
Style approach
Leadership effectiveness is to
do with how the leader
behaves
Late 1960s to early 1980s
Contingency approach
It all depends; effective
leadership is affected by the
situation
Since early 1980s
Now Leadership approach
Leaders transform the way
people feel about themselves
The Trait Approach

Effective leaders have certain qualities in
common

Example: intelligence, dependability, sense
of responsibility, energy, sociability (e.g.
Stogdill – Ohio State Studies)

‘Leaders are born, not made’

Findings not consistent

Leadership situation not considered
The Style Approach

Concern for task – the extent to which the leader
emphasises the task objectives

Concern for people – the extent to which the leader
emphasises the needs, interests etc of the group

Directive leadership – the extent to which the leader
makes all the decisions regarding group activity

Participative leadership – the extent to which the
leader shares decision-making concerning group
activity
(Wright 96)
Situational Leadership
‘To be successful in all environments,
leaders require a measure of all of the
different leadership attributes but their
relative importance will be situation and
context-dependent.’
Factors Determining Appropriate
Leadership Style

Maturity of followers or subordinates

Existing relationship between them and their
leader

Clarity and structure of the task or work

The position power and personal power of
the leader

Time available

Culture
Cross-Cultural Aspects of
Leadership
‘Exporting participative leadership from the United
States to countries with authoritarian cultures is
like preaching Jeffersonian democracy to [those]
who believe in the divine right of kings.’
(Haire, Ghiselli and Porter 66)
Transformational Leadership
Achieving performance beyond normal
expectations by changing how people feel
about themselves and what is possible and
raising their motivation to new highs.
Bass and Avolio’s Full-Range
Model of Leadership

Laissez-faire leadership

Transactional leadership – management-byexception and contingent reward

Transformational leadership – the four ‘I’s –
idealised influence, inspirational motivation,
intellectual stimulation, individualised
consideration
Laissez-faire Leadership

Avoiding taking a stand

Ignoring problems

Not following up

Refraining from intervening
…leads to conflict and lack of
achievement
Transactional Leadership

Management by exception – passive or
active

Contingent reward
Management by Exception

Setting work objective and performance
standards

Waiting for problems to arise and reacting to
them reluctantly, or monitoring for deviations
and errors and correcting them

Enforcing rules and procedures
…leads to continuing status quo, lack of initiative, and
avoidance of risk taking by subordinates
Contingent Reward

Setting work objectives and
performance standards

Providing feedback

Exchanging reward and recognition –
e.g. money or praise – for achievement
…can lead to expected performance
Problems with Transactional
Leadership

Motivating and rewarding people with ‘carrots’ and
punishing them with ‘sticks’ makes them feel like donkeys

Lack of consideration for people’s ideas, needs and
feelings

Focuses only on planning, organizing, directing and
controlling – and manipulation by reward

Does not develop people to their fullest potential and
contribution
Transformational Leadership:
The Four ‘I’s

Individualized consideration

Intellectual stimulation

Inspirational motivation

Idealized influence
(Bass 90)
LEADERSHIP: LEVELS OF
DEVELOPMENT
COVEY ON MANAGEMENT
Three Levels of Development

Organisational development (OD)

Team Development

Individual or self-development
Organisational Development
… the applied behavioural science discipline that
seeks to improve organisations through planned,
systematic, long-range efforts focused on the
organisation’s culture and its human and social
processes
Leadership Development in the
RAF
“The ability to lead is required at all rank
levels of the RAF although the range of
leadership attributes required will vary with
the level at which the leader is operating.”
Creating an Atmosphere for
Organisational Development
“Central to any organisation improvement program
is the creation of a situation in which learning and
change can take place by individuals and/or groups”
(Schein 99)
Leadership Self-Development:
The Starting Point

Learning to know and control oneself

Overcoming emotional barriers

Building self-confidence and emotional
intelligence
Emotional Intelligence
“ …refers to the capacity for recognising our own
feelings and those of others, for motivating ourselves,
and for managing emotions well in ourselves and in our
relationships.”
(Goleman 98)
Three Factors of Leadership
Development

A person must be motivated to be a leader
and to develop the necessary skills

The development process should be focused
on specific leadership behaviour

Provision for practising leadership skills and
obtaining feedback
(Randell 98)
Barriers to Leadership and
Leadership Development

Low self-esteem – leads to a lack of motivation

Lack of self-confidence – as a result of not
coming to terms with oneself, can lead to a lack
of confidence in others

Fear of failure, shame or social disapproval

Cognitive constriction – thinking ‘inside the box’

Adverse consequences of stress – cognitive,
managerial and physical
HOOPER & POTTER ON LEADERS
x
x
OR
x
TO
x
x
Overcoming the Barriers

Desensitisation – gradual increases in difficulty of task –
lead to gradual reduction of fear and anxiety

Reinforcement theory – reward and recognition for
effort and progress

Psycho-analytical re-enactment – what was done and
what, if anything went wrong, creates a process selfdiscovery

Social skill development – based on honesty and trust

Group dynamics theory – teams develop cohesiveness
through mutual help and support
Support for Leadership
Development
“Individuals are responsible for their own development.
Organisations are responsible for providing the enabling
resources and ensuring that sufficient leaders are taking
advantage of development opportunities.”
(London 02)
Can You ‘Teach’ Leadership?

Yes, but only at the cognitive level

Knowing what to do and how to do it is
necessary but not sufficient

Wanting to do it depends on emotional
factors

Doing it can only be learned by actually doing
it, feedback, application and practice
A Definition of Leadership
‘Leadership is the process of influencing the
behaviour, beliefs and feelings of other group
members in an intended direction.’
(Wright and Taylor 84)
The Leadership Trust’s Definition
‘Leadership is using our personal power to win the
hearts and minds of people to achieve a common
purpose.’
Leadership in the RAF
‘… the RAF requires personnel with strong leadership
attributes, excellent managerial skills and the confidence to
exercise command.’
Leadership in the RAF
And…
‘The successful exercise of command is dependent
upon an individual’s professional expertise, management
skills and leadership ability.’
Command, Management and
Leadership in the RAF

‘Command’ – is a position of authority
and responsibility to which individuals
are legally appointed

‘Management’ – is concerned with
making the best use of resources

‘Leadership’ – is the projection of
personality and character to achieve the
desired outcome
DEALING WITH CHANGE
The Leadership Challenges Ahead

New technology

Deregulation and privatisation

Intense competition

Increasing inter-dependence

Higher-quality products, services and
customer care

People’s increasing expectations
Successful Change Ensures
Survival
‘It is not the strongest species that survive, nor the
most intelligent, but the ones most responsive to
change.’
(Darwin)
Change is Difficult
‘There is nothing more difficult to plan, more doubtful
of success, nor more dangerous to manage, than the
creation of a new system. For the initiator has the
enmity of all who would profit by the preservation of
the old institutions and merely lukewarm defenders in
those who should gain by the new ones.’
(Machiavelli 1510)
TRANSFORMATIONAL v
TRANSACTIONAL
LEADERSHIP
Transformational Leadership:
The Four ‘I’s

Individualized consideration

Intellectual stimulation

Inspirational motivation

Idealized influence
(Bass 90)
Individualized Consideration

Showing concern for the individual

Identifying individuals’ abilities and needs

Providing matching challenges

Providing opportunities to learn

Delegating, coaching and giving
developmental feedback
…leads to a desire to improve and learn
Intellectual Stimulation

Stimulating people’s intellect and
imagination

Questioning the status quo

Encouraging imagination and creativity

Using and encouraging intuition as well
as logic
…leads to a willingness to think
Inspirational Motivation

Inspiring people by articulating exciting
possibilities

Communicating a clear vision

Aligning organizational goals with individual
goals

Treating threats, problems and mistakes as
opportunities

Using appealing words and symbols
Idealized Influence

Displaying charisma

Expressing confidence in the vision

Personally taking full responsibility

Displaying a sense of purpose, persistence and trust

Emphasizing accomplishments

Gaining respect, trust and confidence by personally
demonstrating out-of-the-ordinary ability
…leads to trust, identification with the leader, and a desire to achieve
to show support
Charismatic Leaders

Show complete self-confidence

Show strong determination

Are forthright about what is right and
wrong, good and bad

Are eloquent speakers

Are active and energetic
Leadership and Idealized Influence
‘No man is a leader until his appointment is
ratified in the minds and hearts of his men.’
(US Infantry Journal 48)
Empowerment in the RAF
“(The) creation of a culture of
empowerment is critical to the successful
development of future leaders”
Leadership and Empowerment
‘Study after study finds that when workers have more
control – when they can help define their own goals and
hours and when they participate in decision making –
their job satisfaction rises.’
(Myers 93)
What is Empowerment?

Literally, giving people power, making
them able to…

In practice, giving people the
knowledge, skills, opportunity, freedom
and resources to manage themselves
and be accountable.
Why Empower People?

Job satisfaction and morale increase

Increased effectiveness/efficiency in some
private sector companies – e.g. share value
rises

Enhances self-esteem – a powerful motivator

Unless people are empowered, they will never
grow
ICEBERG
70%
Human Potential
How Can We Empower People?

Understand and develop each individual’s
potential and delegate matching challenges

Treat people as unique individuals

Provide the opportunity, resources, authority,
training and coaching for people to perform

Stimulate people’s intellects and emotions
The Enemies of Empowerment

Lack of trust

Fear of the consequences of taking
risks
Requirements of the Leader for
Empowerment

Ability and desire to respond positively to
people’s needs and interests

Time and availability

Trust

Preparedness to take risks and let go

Lack of self-centeredness

Emotional intelligence
Empowering People Requires
Emotional Intelligence

Self-awareness as a leader – especially
your need for control

Self-confidence

Recognizing others’ feelings and needs

Interpersonal skills

Trust
HOOPER & POTTER ON TEAM
LEADERSHIP
EXECS’ LEADERSHIP
MODULE: ACADEMIC
INTRODUCTION
The Issues

‘Leaders are born, not made. Discuss.’

Leadership development programmes are
prolific and costly

Are they effective?

Can leadership be “taught” – or even
learned?
The Learning Organisation
“ … organisations where people continually expand their
capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and
expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective
aspiration is set free, and where people are continually
learning how to learn together.”
(Senge 90)
The Importance of The Learning
Organisation
“The organisations that will truly excel in the future will be
the organisations that discover how to tap people’s
commitment and capacity to learn at all levels in an
organisation.”
(Senge 90)
Learning Leadership

Variety of conventional and
unconventional methods

Need for learning by doing

Feedback (e.g. 3600) and training

Leaders as teachers
Leadership as Influence
“Most definitions of leadership have made the assumption
that leadership involves a process of influence by one
person over other people.”
(Yukl 02)
Etymology

‘Management’ comes from the Latin
manus (‘a hand’) – to do with handling
objects, e.g. machines

‘Leadership’ comes from the AngloSaxon leader (‘road’ or ‘path’) – to do
with a sense of direction
‘Managers are people who do
things right.
Leaders are people who do the
rights things.’
(Bennis 84)
Leadership and Management
are not Mutually Exclusive

Not been supported by empirical research

People did not sort neatly into the two
stereotypes

The stereotypes implied managers were
always ineffective

Insensitive to denigrate ‘managers’ in
organisations with a negative stereotype.
Leadership v Management

Management produces orderly results
which keep things working efficiently

Leadership creates useful change

We need both if organisations and
nations are to prosper
(Kotter 90)