Abnormal
Psychology
Clinical Perspectives on Psychological Disorders 5e
Richard P. Halgin
Susan Krauss Whitbourne
University of Massachusetts at Amherst
slides by Travis Langley
Henderson State University
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Chapter 1
SubstanceInduced
Disorders
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More than half (51%) of all
Americans have used
nonprescription or illegal drugs
for nonmedical purposes.
Over one quarter have abused or been
dependent on drugs during their lifetime.
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Key Terms
SUBSTANCE INTOXICATION – Temporary
behavioral or psychological changes due to
substance accumulation.
 TOLERANCE – After repeated use of a
substance, state in which the individual would
have to increase amount used to achieve the
same effects.
 SUBSTANCE WITHDRAWAL – Set of
physical and psychological disturbances
experienced when substance is discontinued.

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Substance Use Disorders
 SUBSTANCE
ABUSE Maladaptive substance use that
leads to significant impairment or
distress.
 SUBSTANCE
DEPENDENCE -
Addiction.
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Alcohol
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Patterns of Use and Abuse


Approximately 5% of
Americans are
considered heavy
drinkers.
One in seven has history
of alcohol abuse or
dependence.
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Effects
Alcohol Use
AlcoholofEffects
Immediate Effects
 Sedating
 Central Nervous System
Depressant
 Potentially Fatal in Excess
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Alcohol Effects
Immediate Effects
 Sedating
 Central Nervous System
Depressant
 Potentially Fatal in Excess
POTENTIATION compounds
these effects.
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Effects
Alcohol Use
AlcoholofEffects
Long-Term Effects
 Tolerance
Heavy drinkers tend to
increase intake, thereby
increasing likelihood of
bodily damage.
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Effects
Alcohol Use
AlcoholofEffects
Long-Term Effects
 Tolerance
 Dementia
Wernicke’s or Korsakoff’s
 Liver damage
 Zinc deficiency
The list goes on and on . . . .
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THEORIES OF ALCOHOL
TheoriesDEPENDENCE
of Alcohol Dependence
BIOLOGICAL
 Runs in families
 Genetic markers and genetic mapping
PSYCHOLOGICAL
 Expectancy model
 Abstinence violation effect
SOCIOCULTURAL
 Family, community, & cultural stressors
 Children of alcoholics at greater risk
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TREATMENT FOR
Alcohol
Treatment
ALCOHOL
DEPENDENCE
BIOLOGICAL
 Medications to control withdrawal symptoms.
 Medications as aversive agents.
PSYCHOLOGICAL
 Cue exposure method.
 Relapse prevention therapy.
ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS
 12-step program treating alcoholism as
disease.
 Spiritually based, providing social support.
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•
In Alcoholics
Anonymous, a
drinking binge by an
alcoholic who
succumbs to
temptation is attributed
not to moral failing but
to biological process.
•
Another tenet of AA is that alcoholics
are never cured.
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TREATMENT FOR
Alcohol
Treatment
ALCOHOL
DEPENDENCE


Cue exposure method: A behavioral
approach to alcohol treatment in which the
individual is given a priming dose of alcohol,
which initiates the craving for more alcohol;
the person is then urged to refuse further
alcohol.
Relapse prevention therapy: A treatment
method based on the expectancy model, in
which individuals are encouraged not to view
lapses from abstinence as signs of certain
failure.
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Substances
Other Than
Alcohol
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Stimulants
Stimulant

Amphetamines &
Methamphetatmines

Cocaine

Caffeine
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Cannabis
Cannabis

Marijuana

THC

Hashish
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Hallucinogens
Hallucinogens

LSD

Psilocybin

PCP
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Opioids
Opioids

Natural Opioids:
 Opium
 Morphine
 Heroin

Synthetic Opioids
 Methadone
 Codeine
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Sedatives, Hypnotics, &
Anxiolytics
S
e
d
a
v
e
s
H
y
p
n
o
c
s
a
n
d
A
n
x
o
y
c
s
SEDATIVES have calming effects
on the central nervous system.
 HYPNOTICS have sleep-inducing
qualities.
 ANXIOLYTICS are antianxiety
medications.

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TREATMENT
Treatment
BIOLOGICAL
 Substances to block or reduce craving.
BEHAVIORAL
 Contingency management.
COGNITIVE
 Help modify thoughts, expectancies,
behaviors concerning drugs.
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For more information on material covered
in this chapter, visit our Web site:
http:/www.mhhe.com/halgin6e
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