Chapter 14:
Early Adulthood
Module 6
Social and Personality Development
in Early Adulthood
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
SOCIAL AND PERSONALITY
DEVELOPMENT IN EARLY
ADULTHOOD
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Developmental Tasks of Early
Adulthood
• Let’s look at Table 6.4 to review these tasks
346
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Table 6-4
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
INTIMACY, LIKING, AND LOVING
DURING EARLY ADULTHOOD
FORGING RELATIONSHIPS
345
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
What makes young adults
happy?
• Happiest memories = psychological needs
rather than material needs satisfied
• Unhappiest memories = basic psychological
needs left unfulfilled
• Culture influences which psychological needs
are most important in determining happiness
347
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
What makes us tick?
Social Clocks of Adulthood
• Definition
• Cultural influence
• Helson’s research (women’s social clock,
deciding whether to pursue a career first or
family first)
347
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Seeking Intimacy: Erikson’s
View of Young Adulthood
INTIMACY-VERSUS-ISOLATION STAGE
Intimacy = Close, intimate relationship with
others
Isolation = Feelings of loneliness and fearful of
relationships
348
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Friendship
• Important part of adult life need for belonging
• Filters
• Personal qualities
348
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
The Friends We Choose
348
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Falling in Love: When Liking
Turns to Loving
How does love develop?
348
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Falling in Love
• STIMULUS-VALUE-ROLE (SVR)
THEORY (Murstein)
– Stimulus stage
– Value stage
– Role stage
349
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Passionate and Companionate
Love: Two Faces of Love
• PASSIONATE (ROMANTIC LOVE)
• COMPANIONATE LOVE
349
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
LABELING THEORY OF
PASSIONATE LOVE
If it hurts…it really love?
How do you know?
349
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
LABELING THEORY OF
PASSIONATE LOVE
If you label negative emotions as
positive (jealousy, rejection, etc) and
pair them to feelings of passion or
love, then the strong physiological
arousal and reaction lead to
misperception that you are in love,
and that the behavior of the other was
indications of love.
349
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Attachment and Love
Romantic Love
• Also called passionate love or eros
– Complex intermingling of emotions
– Strong components of sexuality and infatuation
– Often predominates early part of a love
relationship
• Affectionate love or companionate love
– Have deep, caring affection for person
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Sternberg’s Triangular Theory:
Three Faces of Love
• Robert Sternberg
– Intimacy
– Passion
– Decision/Commitment
350
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Attachment and Love
Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Love
• Theory that love includes three types
– Passion: physical, sexual attraction
– Intimacy: warmth, closeness, and sharing
– Commitment: intent to remain together
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Sternberg’s Triangle of Love
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Fig. 10.12
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Do as I say…not as I do!
• Relatively high number of people report close
friend of a different race
• Relatively low number actually name someone
of another race or ethnicity
351
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Choosing a Partner:
Recognizing Mr. or Ms. Right
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Seeking a Spouse: Is Love All
That Matters?
• U.S. – love as a major factor
• In other cultures, love may be a
secondary
– Emotional maturity, health, similar
education, chastity
351
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Filtering Models of Mate
Selection
•
Louis Janda and Karen Llenke-Hamel
– Broad determinants of attractiveness
– Specifics
– End result
353
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
353
Do you think you will use the
principle of homogamy to select
a mate?
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
What happens when the
marriage gradient faces the
cougar?
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Attachment Styles and
Romantic Relationships
• Infant attachment style is reflected in
adult romantic relationships (Shaver)
– Secure
– Avoidant
– Anxious-ambivalent
353
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Developmental Diversity
Gay and Lesbian Relationships: Men with
Men and Women with Women
• Research findings suggest that gay and lesbian
relationships are quite similar to relationships
between heterosexuals
• Most gays and lesbians seek loving, long-term,
and meaningful relationships that differ little
qualitatively from those desired by
heterosexuals
355
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Should marriage be a legal
option for lesbians and gays?
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Review and Apply
REVIEW
• According to Erikson, young adults are in
the intimacy-versus-isolation stage.
• Types of love include passionate and
companionate love. Sternberg’s triangular
theory identifies three basic components
(intimacy, passion, and
decision/commitment).
356
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Review and Apply
REVIEW
• In general, the values applied to
relationships by heterosexual, gay, and
lesbian couples are more similar than
different.
356
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Review and Apply
APPLY
• Consider a long-term marriage with which you
are familiar. Do you think the relationship
involves passionate love or companionate love
(or both)? What changes when a relationship
moves from passionate to companionate love?
From companionate to passionate love? In
which direction is it more difficult for a
relationship to move? Why?
356
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
THE COURSE OF
RELATIONSHIPS
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Are you a POSSLQ?
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
To Marry or Not to Marry: That
is the Question
356
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Why do people choice cohabitation
rather than marriage?
• Not ready for lifelong commitment
• “Practice” for marriage
• Reject institution of marriage
357
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Why marry?
• Preferred alternative during early
adulthood
• Desirability of spouse roles
• Legitimatization of children
• Legal benefits and protections
357
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Why do people wait?
358
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
What makes marriage work?
• Successful married partners:
– Show affection
– Communicate relatively little negativity
– Perceive themselves as interdependent
– Experience social homogamy, similarity in
leisure activity. and role preferences
– Hold similar interest
– Agree on distribution of roles
358
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Why?
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
But the news is not all bad!
Most married couples:
– View early years of marriage as deeply
satisfying
– Find themselves more deeply in love than
before marriage
– Report newlywed period as one of happiest in
entire married life
358
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Parenthood: Choosing to Have
Children
• Statistics
• Costs
• Reasons
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
359
What produced the decline in
the US fertility rate?
• Availability of more reliable birth control
methods
• Increasing numbers of working outside the
home
• Choosing to have children later
• Cost of raising and educating children
• Fear of not being good or accessible
parent
359
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Dual-Earner Couples
Working Parent
Statistics and
Distribution of
Chores
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
360
Two’s a Couple, Three’s a
Crowd?
• Dramatic shift in spouse's roles
• Challenges to marital satisfaction
• Successful coping
360
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Gay and Lesbian Parents
• About 20% of gay men and lesbian
women are parents
– No difference in psychological adjustment
from children raised in heterosexual homes
– Specialization of roles develop
• For children, no differences in terms of
eventual adjustment from those raised in
heterosexual households
361
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Singlehood
• Statistics
• Rationale
• Societal view
361
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
From Research to Practice
Majority of American Women Are Living
Without Spouse
• What do the numbers say?
• What do the numbers mean?
362
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Something to ponder…
Why do you think that women are less
inclined to remarry after a divorce than
men are?
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Review and Apply
REVIEW
• Cohabitation is an increasingly popular option
for young adults, but most still choose marriage.
• Divorce is prevalent in the United States,
particularly within the first 10 years of marriage.
363
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Review and Apply
REVIEW
• Couples overwhelmingly desire to produce
children, although the availability of
contraception and changes in women’s
roles in the workplace have combined to
decrease average family size.
363
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Review and Apply
APPLY
• In what ways do you think cognitive changes in
early adulthood (e.g., the emergence of
postformal thought and practical intelligence)
affect how young adults deal with questions of
marriage, divorce, and childrearing?
363
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
WORK: CHOOSING AND
EMBARKING ON A CAREER
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Why Do People Work?
• Motivation
– Extrinsic
– Intrinsic
• Personal identity
• Status
366
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
What is the status of…?
• What is the status of the career you hope
to enter?
• Were you surprised?
366
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Satisfaction on the Job
• Satisfaction related to job status
• Worker satisfaction also associated with:
– Nature of job
– Amount of input one has into one’s duties
– Influence employees have over others
367
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
The Informed Consumer of
Development
Choosing a Career: Beginning Guidelines
•
•
•
•
•
•
Systematically evaluate a variety of choices.
Know yourself.
Create a “balance sheet,”
“Try out” different careers through paid or
unpaid internships.
Remember that if you make a mistake, you
can change careers.
It is reasonable to expect that careers may
change throughout life.
368
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Review and Apply
REVIEW
• Choosing a career is an important step in early
adulthood.
• Gender stereotypes are changing, but women
still experience subtle prejudice in career
choices, roles, and wages.
• People work because of both extrinsic and
intrinsic motivation factors.
369
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Review and Apply
APPLY
• If Vaillant’s study were performed today on
women, in what ways do you think the results
would be similar to or different from those of the
original study?
369
Discovering the Lifespan - Robert S. Feldman
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458. All rights reserved.
Download

Chapter 14 - Forensicconsultation.org