Motivation and Work PowerPoint® Presentation by Jim Foley © 2013 Worth Publishers Module 33: Sexual Motivation, and the Need to Belong Another Human Motivation: Sex Sexual motivation may have evolved to enable creatures to pass on their genes. Issues to explore about sex: physiological, including the response cycle (with disorders of sexual response), hormones, and stimuli developmental, especially in adolescence sexual orientation and its possible origins The Sexual Response Cycle Beginning in the late 1950s, William Masters and Virginia Johnson observed sexual arousal and orgasm to learn about the typical pattern of human response to sexual stimulation. Their findings: Phase Excitement Plateau Orgasm Resolution Physiological Response Genitals fill with blood and lubricate, ready for intercourse; breathing and pulse become rapid The changes related to excitement reach a peak Contractions all over the body; sexual release Enlarged genitals release blood; male goes through refractory phase, women resolve slower Sexual Response Disorders Some people have a variation or impairment in some phase of the sexual response cycle. These variations are sometimes distressful or problematic enough to be seen as disorders: premature ejaculation erectile dysfunction low sexual desire lack of orgasm response These can improve with behavioral therapy, other psychotherapy, and/or medication. Hormones and Sexual Motivation Sexual desire and response is not as tied to hormone levels in humans as it is in animals. During ovulation, women show a rise in estrogen and also in testosterone. As this happens, sexual desire rises in women and also in the men around them (whose testosterone level rises). Low levels of testosterone can reduce sexual motivation. The Psychology of Sex Like hunger, sexual desire is a function of biological factors, internal drives, external and imagined stimuli, and cultural expectations. The Effect of External Stimuli All effects of external stimuli on sexual behavior are more common in men than in women. The short-term effect of exposure to images of nudity and sexuality increases sexual arousal and desire. Possible dangers include: the distortion of our ideas of what is appropriate and effective for mutual sexual satisfaction. the habit of finding sexual response through idealized images may lead to decreased sexual response to real-life sexual partners. Imagined Stimuli The brain is involved in sexuality; people with no genital sensation (e.g. spinal cord injuries) can feel sexual desire. The brain also contains dreams, memories, and fantasies that stimulate sexual desire. Fantasies are not just a replacement for sexual activity; they often accompany sex. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in your text as a factor contributing to teen pregnancy? A. Easy access to birth control B. Guilt related to sexual activity C. Alcohol use D. Media portrayal of unprotected sex Teen Pregnancy and Contraception American teens have higher rates of pregnancy and abortion than European teens. Possible reasons include: inadequate communication about birth control with parents and sexual partners. guilt about sex may make American teens less likely to plan for it and use contraception. alcohol use may make impulsive sex more likely and impair decision making. media portrayals in the United States make unprotected sex look common and free from consequences. Sexually Transmitted Infections Unlike the risk of pregnancy, the risk of STIs multiplies and spreads, and condoms do not offer sufficient protection for STIs like herpes. Sex and bad math: Herb has sex with 9 people, each of whom has 9 other partners who each have sex with 9 people. To how many people could his STI spread? 511 (Laura Brannon and Timothy Brock study estimate) Factors Correlating with Sexual Restraint Participation in abstinence education programs, even when randomly assigned to participate Strong religious beliefs and involvement High intelligence test scores, thinking of consequences, and focusing on future achievement Presence of father in the home Participation in activity helping others, even when randomly assigned to participate Sexual Orientation Sexual orientation refers to one’s preferences as an object of sexual attraction. This attraction may not necessarily result in sexual activity, but may exist in the form of desires, interests, infatuations, and fantasies. “Identity” as either heterosexual, bisexual, or exclusively homosexual, emerges in puberty. Sexual Orientation Statistics How many people are exclusively homosexual? Based on a compilation of surveys: 3 percent of men and 1-2 percent of women. Are the surveys missing anyone? These surveys protected anonymity, BUT they defined sexual preference as sexual activity. Many do not act on their preference. Sexual Orientation and Mental Health Forty years ago, homosexuality was considered a psychological disorder. Having a homosexual orientation in today’s society still puts one at risk for anxiety and mood disorders because of the stress of discrimination and isolation, and the difficulty in finding satisfying and loving relationships. Researchers found somewhat higher levels of homosexuality among males who have: A. B. C. D. older brothers. more than one sister. no siblings. been raised by only their mother. Which of the following is NOT supported by research as a factor contributing to homosexual orientation? A. Prenatal hormonal exposure B. Genetics C. Being raised by homosexual parents D. Having several older biological brothers Origins of Sexual Orientation Theories suggesting that sexual preference is related to parenting behaviors or childhood abuse are not supported by evidence. Differences appear to begin at birth. This could be genetic, or it could be caused by exposure to hormones or antigens in the womb. The fraternal birth order effect: being born after a brother increases the likelihood of being gay. Cause or Effect? The brain and other differences in sexual orientation Heterosexual men have a certain cell cluster in the hypothalamus that, on average, is larger than in gay men and in women. Gay men are more likely than straight men to be poets, fiction writers, artists, and musicians. Homosexuality • Our sexual orientation is so basic to who we are that some research suggests it operates automatically—without our awareness (Jiang et al., 2006). • The bottom line from a half-century’s theory and research: If there are environmental factors that influence sexual orientation, we do not yet know what they are. Biological and Behavioral Differences Associated with Sexual Preference Biological Differences Associated with Sexual Preference Genetics and Homosexuality In fruit flies, a difference in one gene determined sexual orientation and behavior. Homosexuality seems to run in families and among identical twins, but still emerges spontaneously, even in one of a pair of twins. Genes related to homosexuality could be passed on by siblings or by people not living exclusively according to their sexual orientation. Homosexuality and Gender Hormones that affect gender may also affect sexual orientation. In mammals, female fetuses exposed to extra testosterone, and male fetuses exposed to low levels of testosterone, often grow up with: bodies, brains, and faces with traits of the opposite sex. the sexual attraction expected of the opposite sex to one’s own sex. Why do we have a need to belong? Emotional support to get through crises Keeping children close to caregivers Evolutionary psychology perspective: seeking bonds with others aids survival in many ways Division of labor to allow growing food Mutual protection in a group Cooperation in hunting and sharing food The Need to Belong Leads to: loyalty to friends, teams, groups, and families. However, the need to belong also leads to: • changing our appearance to win acceptance. • staying in abusive relationships. • joining gangs, nationalist groups, and violent organizations. Disrupted Bonds, New Beginnings Children repeatedly moved away from primary caretakers in childhood may have difficulty forming deep attachments in adulthood. People losing a loved one or moving away from a hometown can feel grief. Being ostracized, cut off from social contact or excluded, can lead to real physical pain. And yet people can find resilience and relief from pain by building social connections. Social Networking = Social Connection? Connecting online can be seen as taking turns reading brief words about each other, or as an experience of connection and/or belonging. Portrayal of one’s self online is often close to one’s actual sense of self. Use of social networking can become a compulsion, sacrificing face-to-face interaction and in-depth conversation.