The Many Pathways To Recovery
Victor S. Braatz-ADS
Executive Director
Recovery Network Inc.
Many thanks to those professionals who are
integrating Recovery Oriented Systems of Care
into our health model. Particularly Jack G. Jesse
Ph.D. and William White, MA, who’s research and
practices were critical in the development of this
Roads to Recovery (coined by Bill
• Roads to Recovery- Bill Wilson, 1944
“The roads to recovery are many and
that the resolution of alcoholism by
any method should be a cause for
celebration by A.A. members”
Many Pathways to Recovery
Part 1- Mutual Aid Groups
• Current Mutual Aid Groups, with
informational web-sites
• Online supports and information
Advantages and Disadvantages of Mutual Aid
Mutual Aid Groups
Alcoholics Anonymous-
Narcotics Anonymous-
Other A’s
Women for Sobriety- www.womenfor
• Rational Recovery-
Mutual Aid Groups (continued)
• SMART Recovery: Self-Management and
Recovery Training-
• White Bison-
• HAMS- Harm Reduction Abstinece and
Moderation Support-
• S.O.S. Secular Organization for
Mutual Aid Groups (continued)
• Life Ring-
• Celebrate
• HAHA- Health and Healing Advocate's
Online Support Resources
• U.S. Department of Health and Human
• Substance Abuse and Mental Health
• National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA)
• National Council on Problem
Online Support Resources (continued)
• 24/7 Help Yourselfwww.24/
• Sober Recovery-
• Cyber Recovery-
• Addiction Tribe-
• Daily Strength-
• National Alliance on Mental
Online Support Resources (continued)
• Anxiety Tribe-
• MD Junction-
Look to the web for education, help and
Benefits of Mutual Aid Groups
• Group Interaction: common issues and
• Networking: share interest
• Practical Knowledge: mentoring from others
• Cost Effectiveness: cost is minimal
Benefits of Mutual Aid Groups
• Recognition: awareness of maladaptive
• Empowerment: help build self-actualization
• Community: develop sense of belonging
Benefits of Mutual Aid Groups
• Compliance: higher completion ratio
• Acceptance: being accepted by a group of
people who share similar issues can be both
curative and permanent
Benefits of Mutual Aid Groups
• Overall Effectiveness: Although there is not
enough cumulative data on mutual aid groups to
measure their long term success rates, in the
short term people will…
1. develop a better understanding of their
drug/alcohol issues
2. learn from positive role models
3. Better comply with treatment and sanctions
4. Better understand the impact their use caused on
relationships, family, friends, employers and society
Disadvantages of Mutual Aid Groups
• Dependence: lack of self-actualization
• Rigid and Dogmatic: many groups have
become altruistic in their approach and lack
tolerance for other groups
• Coercion: when people are not ready to
change, they generally will not
Disadvantages of Mutual Aid Groups
• Predators: “13th step”
• Mental Health Disorders: many co-occuring
mental disorders result in the person being
looked on as non-compliant
U.S. History of Recovery/Mutual AID
1. The colorful history of the Recovery/Mutual
aid movement in the United States
2. A look a cultural influence’s along the way
U.S. History of Recovery/Mutual AID
• 1750-Early 1800’s native Americans formed
sobriety (Circles)
• 1784: Dr. Benjamin Rush. Dr. Rush’s writings
mark the beginning of the American
temperance movement
• 1810: Rush calls for creation of ‘Sober Houses”
for the care of the confirmed drunkard
U.S. History of Recovery/Mutual Aid
• 1830: Dr. Samuel Woodward calls for the
creation of inebriated asylums.
• 1842: The Washington Total Abstinence
Movement, beginning of evangelical mutual
• 1845: Frederick Douglass promotes
temperance among African American people
U.S. History of Recovery/Mutual Aid
• 1849: Swedish physician Magnus Hass
describes a disease resulting form chronic
alcohol consumption. He christens it
Alcoholismus chronicus. Thus the term
• 1864: The first Inebriate Asylum is opened in
New York State
U.S. History of Recovery/Mutual Aid
• 1867: The Martha Washington Home opens in
Chicago. The first institution specializing in the
treatment of Women
• 1872: Walter Street Mission in New York City,
beginning of the urban mission movement,
carried on today by the Salvation Army
• 1880: Sigmund Freud recommends Cocaine be
used in the treatment of alcohol and opiate
U.S. History of Recovery/Mutual Aid
• 1893-1933: Anti-Saloon League, marked the
beginning of the prohibitionist movement.
Disappeared soon after the 18th amendment
was repealed in 1933
• 1908-1940: Oxford Group (First Century
Christian Fellowship) founded by Lutheran
minister Frank Buchman. Bill Wilson was
introduced to the group by his friend Ebby T.
in 1934
U.S. History of Recovery/Mutual Aid
• 1935: Bill Wilson and Dr. Bob Smith following
many of the principles of the Oxford Group
founded Alcoholics Anonymous in June
• 1976: Women for Sobriety, founded by Dr.
Jean Kirkpatrick. “ New Life” program consist
of 13 acceptance statements
• 1985: Secular Organization for Sobriety (SOS)
founded by Jim Christopher “Sobriety Priority”
U.S. History of Recovery/Mutual Aid
• 1986: Rational Recovery founded by Jack
Trimpey. Addictive Voice Recognition
Technique (AVRT)
• 1988: White Bison founded by Don Coyhis,
native american based “Wellbriety”
• 1990: Celebrate Recovery founded by Pastor
Jack Baker, follow 8 guiding principles
U.S. History of Recovery/Mutual Aid
• 1992: SMART Recovery, Self-Management and
Recovery Training, uses a four-point approach
• 1994: Moderation Management founded by
Audrey Kishline. Behavioral change program
• 1999: LifeRing, split from S.O.S. follows the
three S’s “Sobriety, Secularity, Self-Help”
U.S. History of Recovery/Mutual Aid
• 2007: HAMS (Harm Reduction, Abstinence and
Moderation Support) founded by Kenneth
Many Pathways to Recovery
Part 3-Types of Recovery
• Review different recovery models
• Discuss effects of different recovery models
Types of Recovery
• Abstinence-based Recovery: Resolution by
complete cessation
• Affiliated or Assisted Recovery: Use of
professional treatment, mutual aid groups and
Types of Recovery
• Bicultural Style of recovery:
• Complete Recovery: advance state of wellness
also known as transcendence
• Cultural Recovery: return to ancestral
Types of Recovery
• Faith-Based Recovery: mutual support from
the faith based community
• Family Recovery: Individual recovery of family
members precede the recovery of the family
as a unit
Types of Recovery
• Harm Reduction (as a stage of recovery):
• High Bottom Recovery: lack of economic or
social losses due to use
• Low Bottom Recovery: usually later stage of
addition, great losses and negative
Types of Recovery
• Solo Recovery: self-initiated and self-managed
without professional treatment or mutual aid
• Medication-assisted Recovery: use of
pharmaceuticals for detoxification,
stabilization, adhesives and anti-craving
Types of Recovery
• Moderated Recovery: resolution of use,
recognizing AOD’s exist on a wide continuum
of severity. Resolution is a less medicalized
term than recovery.
• Secular Recovery:
Types of Recovery
• Multiple Pathways of Recovery: (Multiple
Pathway Model): recognizing that there are
multiple pathways into and out of addiction
• Peer-Based Recovery:
1. Recovery Oriented Systems of Care
2. Recovery Mentors- trained peer helpers
3. Recovery Community Organizations
4. Building Recovery Capital
Types of Recovery
• Holistic Recovery: dealing with the whole
person, mind, body and spirit.
1. Mindfulness
2. Health, Nutrition and Exercise
3. Smoking cessation
4. Meditation
5. Auricular acupuncture
6. Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT)
Thank You

The Many Pathways To Recovery - MI-PTE