Shanna Sutherland The USA is the world’s leading producer (73%) of online pornography (MacKay, 2001). Sexual representation, products and services are becoming more accessible to a wider group of consumers (Attwood, 2006). Pro-sex Anti-pornography ◦ Women take control of their sexuality when they engage with SEM. ◦ Pornography reduces women to sexual objects to be consumed by men (MacKinnon, 1987). ◦ Enjoying pornography is a form of resistance to a culture that allows no sexual pleasure for women at all (Philipson, 1984). ◦ Men can be degraded through instrumental sexual use by women as well (Kant,1993). Sexual desire produced by pornography frequently leads to the objectification of others (Shrage, 2005). One consequence for women of being viewed as sexual objects is that women start to treat themselves as objects (Noll & Fredrickson, 1998). Noll and Fredrickson (1998) define self-objectification as valuing one’s body from a third person perspective where one focuses on observable body attributes (e.g., How do I look?) rather than from a first person perspective where one focuses on non-observable body attributes (e.g., What am I capable of? How do I feel?). Individuals who consume high levels of pornography tend to be more sexually active and report a higher frequency of masturbation (Hald & Malamuth, 2008). Will exposure to sexually explicit material be correlated with women’s sexual attitudes and behaviors? Exposure to sexually explicit materials will be correlated with greater selfobjectification and greater objectification of sexual partners. Exposure to sexually explicit materials will be correlated with greater engagement in a variety of sexual behaviors. ◦ 23 people excluded, leaving 169 total participants ◦ Females ranging in age from 18 to 57 with a mean of 23.24 ◦ 82.8% Caucasian, 7.7% African American, 3% Hispanic, 1.2% Asian, 5.3% Other ◦ 46.6% Single, 36.9% In a Relationship, 15.3% Married, 1.2% Divorced ◦ 6.5% High School or Less, 64% Some College, 8.9% Associate’s, 11.2% Bachelor’s, 9.4% Higher Education ◦ An online survey that measured Demographics Types and Frequency of SEM Self-Objectification Sexual Partner-Objectification Sexual Behaviors Please indicate the frequency with which you have read Cosmopolitan in the previous year Not at all 1 to 3 times 4 to 6 times 6 to 12 times 2 to 3 times a month About once a week Twice or more times a week (Lawrence & Herold, 1988) Interpersonal Sexual Objectification Scale (Noll & Fredrickson, 1998) ◦ 5 Appearance-based items: Weight is important to my concept of self ◦ 5 Competence items: Health is important to my concept of self? ◦ Participants rate each item on a 5 point Likert scale ◦ Scale was scored by subtracting the mean of the competence-based items from the mean of the appearancebased items; higher scores indicate more self-objectification Revised Interpersonal Sexual Objectification Scale (Noll & Fredrickson, 1998) ◦ 5 Appearance-based items: Weight is an attribute that I look for in a sexual partner ◦ 5 Competence items: Health is an attribute that I look for in a sexual partner Rouse-Pattison Sexual Behavior Scale (2004) ◦ Please indicate how many times in the previous year you have had vaginal intercourse. Not at all 1 to 3 times 4 to 6 times 6 to 12 times 2 to 3 times a month About once a week Twice or more times a week Once or more a day The mean of the participants looking at sexually explicit material in the previous year was, m = 1.52, this mean correlates with the answers 1 to 3 times a year and 3 to 6 times a year. Therefore, it can be concluded that participants in this study view or read a variety of sexually explicit material between 1 and 6 times a year. Self Objectification scale was reliable ◦ appearance items, alpha = .82 ◦ competence items, alpha = .79 There was a marginally positive correlation between SEM use and self objectification, r = .14, p = .08. This correlation indicates that the more SEM the women view/read the more likely they are to self-objectify. Partner Objectification scale was reliable ◦ appearance items, alpha = .80 ◦ competence items, alpha = .83 There was a marginally positive correlation between SEM use and objectification of sexual partners, r = .14, p = .08 This correlation indicates that the more SEM the women view/read the more likely they are to objectify their sexual partners. The Sexual Behavior scale was reliable ◦ alpha = .93 There was a significant positive correlation between SEM use and sexual behaviors, r = .31, p < .001. This correlation indicates that the more SEM the women view/read the more likely they are to engage in sexual behaviors of various kinds. The results suggest that SEM use is associated with greater sexual activity. Also, the results show a trend indicating that the more frequently women use SEM the more likely they are to selfobjectify and view their partners in objectified ways. The objectification results help support the AntiPornography feminist theory and suggest that pornography can be associated with negative sexual attitudes for both men and women. Examine the consequences of selfobjectification and making the other an object. Examine the consequences of SEM use on other sexual attitudes (e.g., relationship satisfaction).