“The Struggling Youth Project”
EPSE 526 Research Study
Brayden Gordon, Wendee Byrne, Sarah Howard
•
Self-Determination, Motivation, SocioEmotional Factors, Learning Disability
and Delinquency
• Instruments Used and Possible
Adaptations
Defining the “Self-Determination Theory”
(SDT)

“Self-Determination” Defined

Self Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 2002)

Three innate needs of SDT:
1) Competence
2) Relatedness
3) Autonomy
Defining “Motivation”

“Motivation” Defined

Self Determination Theory (SDT) and Motivation

Intrinsic VS Extrinsic Motivation

Self-Regulation
Links Between SDT/Motivation and
Depression?

Inability = decreased self-esteem (Burden, 2008)

Non-Verbal LD & Depression (Elksinin, 2004)

Higher scores of depression (Maag & Reid , 2006)

Distress, Depression, Anxiety, Suicide, & Lifespan
(Wilson et al, 2009)

Depression & Cognitive Restructuring (Caprara et al,
2010)
So how does this connect to Struggling
Youth?

Students with LD make up a large portion of
Incarcerated Youth

Incarcerated Youth and youth with LD show poor selfdetermination and lower self-efficacy beliefs in various
areas. (Houchins, 2001)

Unaware of abilities, needs, wants and preferences
(Miller & Eppler, 1995)

Lacking self-control (Lagrange, 1996, Swenson &
Kennedy, 1995)

Being unreflective (Ross & Ross, 1989)

Promoting self-doubt (Gooden, 1997)

Being extrinsic learners (Swenson & Kennedy, 1995)
What Psychologists Say!

22% - 33% of all referrals to school psychologists have
something to do with self-regulation and motivation
behaviours. (Cleary, 2009)

“…extremely unfamiliar with self-regulation and
motivation assessment methods….” (Cleary, 2009, 80)

Not given “adequate graduate training”
What Instruments to use?

A small percentage of School psychologists identified:

Piers-Harris Children’s Self-Concept Scale (PHCSCS)

Behaviour rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF)

However, researchers tended to use:

SESRL- Self-Efficacy for Self-Regulated Learning Scale 11items modified to
7 items (Bandura 1990)

Resistive Regulatory Self-Efficacy Scale 13 items (Pastorelli&Picconi, 2001

Empathetic Self-Efficacy Scale 10 items (Bandura, 2003)

Personal Agency Beliefs Scale- Multi-CAM-Control, Agency, and Means –
Ends Inventory (CAMI, Skinner, 1988)

AMS- Academic Motivational Scale (Vallerand, 1989; Guay, 2008

SRQ-A Self-Report Scale (Ryan & Connell, 1989, Guay, 2008)
Important Points so Far

Correlation between socio-emotional functioning, selfefficacy, self-determination, motivation and SLD

Psychologists do not routinely measure key elements
discussed, even though instruments are available

Perhaps this is something that should be considered.
Perhaps measurement here is equally, if not more
important than academic achievement.
Examples of Scales
LASSI
 Heavy language
load
 Requires
considerable
working memory
Looks like a “test”
 Usual adaptation
is “read-aloud”
Examples of Scales
SRQ- A
 Please note
questions 9/10
and consider who
may be reading
this measure
aloud to the
student
Possible Adaptation

http://www.careernetwork.org/career_assessment_instr.
html - Knowdell Card Sorts
Very True
Sort of True
So The Teacher
Won’t Yell at me
Not Very True
Not at All True
Because I want to
Learn New Things
References

Baron, Ida Sue, Test Review, Behavior Rating Inventory Of Executive Function, Child
Neuropsychology, 2000, Vol. 6, No. 3, Pp. 235±238

Burden, Robert (2008) “Is Dyslexia Necessarily Associated with Negative Feelings of Self-worth?
A Review and Implications for Future Research”. Dyslexia 14: 188-196.

Caprara, G. V., Gerbino, M., Paciello, M., Di Giunta, L., &Pastorelli, C. (2010). Counteracting
depression and delinquency in late adolescence: The role of regulatory emotional and
interpersonal self-efficacy beliefs. European Psychologist 15(1), 34-48.

Cascallar, E., Boekaerts, M., &Costigan, T. (2006). Assessment in the evaluation of self-regulation
as a process. Educational Psychology Review, 18, 297-306.

Chirkov, V., Ryan, R.M., Kim, Y.M., and Kaplan, U. (2003) Differentiating Autonomy From
Individualism and Independence: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective on Internalization of
Cultural Orientations and Well-Being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Volume 84,
Issue 1, JJanuary, 97-110.

Cleary, T. J. (2009). School-based motivation and self-regulation assessments: An examination of
school psychologists beliefs and practices. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 25, 71-94.

Deci, E.L. and Vansteenkiste, M. (2004) Motivating Learning, Performance, and Persistence: The
Synergistic Effects of Intrinsic Goal Contents and Autonomy-Supportive Contexts. Journal of
Personality and Social Psychology, 2004, Vol. 87, No. 2, 246–260.
References


Elksnin, Nick. (2004) The Social-Emotional Side of Learning Disabilities. Learning Disability
Quaterly. January. 0731-9487.
Gioia, G. A., Isquith, P. K., Guy, S. C., & Kenworthy, L. (2000a). Behavior Rating Inventory of
Executive Function. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.

Guay, F., Ratelle, C. F., Chanal, J. (2008). Optimal Learning in optimal contexts: The role of selfdetermination in education. Canadian Psychology, 49(3), 233-240

Hosp, M. K., Griller-Clark, H., & Rutherford, R. B. (2001). Incarcerated youthiwth disabilities: Their
knowledge of transition plans. Journal of Correctional Education, 52(3), 126-130.

Houchins, D. E. (2001). Developing the self-determination of incarcerated students. Journal of
Correctional Education, 52, 141-147.

Jayanthi, M., Epstein, M.H., Polloway, E.A., and Bursuck, W.D. (1996) A National Survey of
General Education Teachers' Perceptions of Testing Adaptations. Journal of Special Education.
30: 99-115
References

Klassen, R. M. (2010) Confidence to manage learning: The self-efficacy for self-regulated learning
of early adolescents with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 33, 1-12.

Maag J.W. and Reid, R. (2006) Depression Among Students with Learning Disabilities: Assessing
the Risk. Journal of Learning Disabilities. January/February 39: 3-10.

Meltzer, L. J., Levine, M. D., Karniski, W., Palfrey, J. S., & Clarke, S. (2001). An analysis of the
learning styles of adolescent delinquents. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 17 (10), 600-608.

Randall , Jennifer and Engelhard, George. (2010). Performance of Students With and Without
Disabilities Under Modified Conditions: Using Resource Guides and Read-Aloud Test
Modifications on a High-Stakes Reading Test. Journal of Special Education. 44: 79-93

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic
motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68-78.

Sherdian, M. J., Steele-Dadzie, T. E., (2005). Structure of intellect and learning style of
incarcerated youth assessment: A means to providing a continuum of educational service in
juvenile justice. Journal of Correctional Education, 56 (4), 347-371.

Vaughn, S., Schumm, J.S. and Kouzekanani, K. (1993) What Do Students with Learning
Disabilities Think When Their General Education Teachers Make Adaptations? Journal of
Learning Disabilities. Vol 26: 545-555
References

Walls, T. A., Little, T. D. (2005) Relations Among Personal Agency, Motivatin, and School
Adjustment in Early Adolescence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97, 23-31.

Weinstein, C.-E., Schulte, A., and Palmer, D. (1987). Learning and Study Strategies Inventory
(LASSI), H. and H., Clearwater, FL.



White, J.L., Moffitt ,T.E. and Silva, P.A. (1992). Neuropsychological and Socio-Emotional Correlates
of Specific-Arithmetic Disability. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology Advance Access. DOI
10.1093/arclin/7.1.1.Arch Clin Neuropsychol 7: 1-16.
Wilson et al. (2009) The Mental Health of Canadians With Self-Reported Learning Disabilities.
purchase Journal of Learning Disabilities. January/February 42: 24-40.
Winters, Nancy C., Kathleen Myers, And Laura Proud (2002) Ten-Year Review Of Rating Scales. Iii:
Scales Assessing Suicidality, Cognitive Style, And Self-Esteem, Journal American Academy Of
Child Adolescent Psychiatry, 41:10: 1150-1181
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