“The Struggling Youth Project”
EPSE 526 Research Study
Brayden Gordon, Wendee Byrne, Sarah Howard
Self-Determination, Motivation, SocioEmotional Factors, Learning Disability
and Delinquency
• Instruments Used and Possible
Defining the “Self-Determination Theory”
“Self-Determination” Defined
Self Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 2002)
Three innate needs of SDT:
1) Competence
2) Relatedness
3) Autonomy
Defining “Motivation”
“Motivation” Defined
Self Determination Theory (SDT) and Motivation
Intrinsic VS Extrinsic Motivation
Links Between SDT/Motivation and
Inability = decreased self-esteem (Burden, 2008)
Non-Verbal LD & Depression (Elksinin, 2004)
Higher scores of depression (Maag & Reid , 2006)
Distress, Depression, Anxiety, Suicide, & Lifespan
(Wilson et al, 2009)
Depression & Cognitive Restructuring (Caprara et al,
So how does this connect to Struggling
Students with LD make up a large portion of
Incarcerated Youth
Incarcerated Youth and youth with LD show poor selfdetermination and lower self-efficacy beliefs in various
areas. (Houchins, 2001)
Unaware of abilities, needs, wants and preferences
(Miller & Eppler, 1995)
Lacking self-control (Lagrange, 1996, Swenson &
Kennedy, 1995)
Being unreflective (Ross & Ross, 1989)
Promoting self-doubt (Gooden, 1997)
Being extrinsic learners (Swenson & Kennedy, 1995)
What Psychologists Say!
22% - 33% of all referrals to school psychologists have
something to do with self-regulation and motivation
behaviours. (Cleary, 2009)
“…extremely unfamiliar with self-regulation and
motivation assessment methods….” (Cleary, 2009, 80)
Not given “adequate graduate training”
What Instruments to use?
A small percentage of School psychologists identified:
Piers-Harris Children’s Self-Concept Scale (PHCSCS)
Behaviour rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF)
However, researchers tended to use:
SESRL- Self-Efficacy for Self-Regulated Learning Scale 11items modified to
7 items (Bandura 1990)
Resistive Regulatory Self-Efficacy Scale 13 items (Pastorelli&Picconi, 2001
Empathetic Self-Efficacy Scale 10 items (Bandura, 2003)
Personal Agency Beliefs Scale- Multi-CAM-Control, Agency, and Means –
Ends Inventory (CAMI, Skinner, 1988)
AMS- Academic Motivational Scale (Vallerand, 1989; Guay, 2008
SRQ-A Self-Report Scale (Ryan & Connell, 1989, Guay, 2008)
Important Points so Far
Correlation between socio-emotional functioning, selfefficacy, self-determination, motivation and SLD
Psychologists do not routinely measure key elements
discussed, even though instruments are available
Perhaps this is something that should be considered.
Perhaps measurement here is equally, if not more
important than academic achievement.
Examples of Scales
 Heavy language
 Requires
working memory
Looks like a “test”
 Usual adaptation
is “read-aloud”
Examples of Scales
 Please note
questions 9/10
and consider who
may be reading
this measure
aloud to the
Possible Adaptation
html - Knowdell Card Sorts
Very True
Sort of True
So The Teacher
Won’t Yell at me
Not Very True
Not at All True
Because I want to
Learn New Things
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