EDM 6210
Education Policy and Society
Tsang Wing-kwong
Pong Suet-ling
Rm. 416, Ext. 6922
Rm. 417, Ext. 6974
http://www.fed.cuhk.edu.hk/~wktsang
1
Why Education Policy and Society?
2010 年 11 月 09 日
2010 年 11 月 09 日
■ 2010黃均瑜
年 10 月 24 日 (日)
觀點
2010 年 11 月 18 日
■ 2010 年 11 月 2 日 (二)
國民教育走進課堂仍然是禁忌嗎?
■ 2011 年 1 月 3 日 (一)
觀點
黃均瑜
【明報專訊】
法政隨筆
余若薇
觀點
池卓龍
國民教育走進課堂仍然是禁忌嗎?
三言堂
吳志森
每當特區政府建議加強國民教育,總會招來謾罵與批評。今年施政報
法政隨筆
李柱銘
國民教育不等於公民教育
國民教育應走出課堂——反思母校黃均瑜校長的話
告提出「進一步加強國民教育內容, 使這個課題成為獨立的『德育
■ 2010 年 10 月 14 日
及國民教育科』」,社會上隨即出現反對論調。本來,香港社會言論
近年來,施政報告對教育的著墨不多,但總有一段提到國民教育,每年投
【明報專訊】
……
自由,各人都有表達意見的自由和空間,但如果論點來來去去都離不
名校王老師,參加北京國情研習班,高官接見,率先發言,不知是否「接
開「洗腦論」和「狹隘論」,那麼,這只顯示出香港儘管已經回歸了
放大量資源。
要聞
>
要聞
特首曾蔭權在今年施政報告中,提出要加強國民教育,預計於二零一三/
事實上,推動愛國並不等於否定中國有落後和不足之處,國家政府的
13今年施政報告宣布加強國民教育,筆者翌日在報章中指出,國民教育
年,不少事物雖然都在開放、在進步,但在某些論者心目中,國
近權力亢奮症候群」發作,一開口,就語無倫次。
今年施政報告中,不單有
5
段提到國民教育,所佔篇幅更長,牽涉資源更
工作報告也不迴避這些問題。正因為看到國家仍有落後與不足,才有
民教育似乎依然停留了在歷史某一時空。
應了解中國社會最真實的一面
,絕非單單安排學生參加交流團到中國
一四學年,獨立推行德育及國民教育科。這個建議旋即在社會上、議會內惹
「對傳媒做多點工夫」
倒模教育要不得
施展抱負的空間。論者怪罪國民教育沒有高唱國家的黑暗面,其實國
王老師用流利普通話,先大讚香港國民教育做得不錯,在升旗禮和奏國歌
中學設基本法校內試
主要城市興盛一面。依賴學生到冠冕堂皇的內地社會參觀,絕非交流
多,而且第
161 段更提到將來中小學原有的公民教育會改為獨立的「德育及
高唱「洗腦論」
起激烈討論,因大家認為這項莫名其妙的教育政策,顯然具政治目的。
家的負面信息媒體每日都會有,自不需我們代勞。關鍵是所有結論都
原意,反而只會令到學生對香港制度產生自卑感。我認為推動國民教
時表現得很有禮儀,話鋒一轉,先批評香港學生的「國民意識」不夠紮實:
國民教育科」。立法會議員多番追問,這是否必修科?為何沒有任何諮詢?
應該在相對充分的正面和反面理由支持下才能作出。
無疑侮辱同儕專業水平
校長有讚有彈 家長憂死背法律
育是應當理直氣壯做的事,但國民教育絕不應情緒化,反而是讓學生
「香港學生一個很大的通病,就是說,當中國發生好的事情、正面的事情
是誰的決定?是否政治決定?教育局官員一概沒有答案。
透徹了解家國國情,另一方面反思國民身分。事隔不久,母校校長黃
何以莫名其妙呢?其實公眾也認同特區應推行國民教育,但以此取代公民
因此,在作出價值判斷的過程中,全部正面或全部負面的信息無助於
回歸以來,香港政府一直倚重非政府機構推動國民教育,自己則扮演
的時候,譬如說奧運呀世博呀,國民意識就非常強,會感到自豪是一個中國
撥款者的角色,好處是不同機構可以舉辦不同類型的活動,形式靈活
到內地交流,認識國情,關心祖國絕對正確,但國民教育絕不能代替公民
學生對事物作出正確的判斷。最重要是通過親身接觸,通過資訊與數
均瑜隨即撰文指謾罵與批評國民教育者論點離不開「洗腦論」和「狹
【明報專訊】施政報告建議整合現時德育、公民教育和國民教育課程,在
教育,則政治洗腦意味甚濃。公民教育是要讓學生以宏觀角度,了解身為社
多樣。但不足之處是不夠規範化,各有各表述,不能保證每個學生均
據的蒐集,讓學生自己作出結論。如果發現國家現况未如理想,那麼,
人。但是當一聽到負面消息,尤其香港媒體比較喜歡發放負面消息,國民意
隘論」,文章提出擔心國民教育「洗腦」者是向教育工作者投不信任
教育,國民與公民只差一字,但作為公民既要了解國情,亦應具國際視野,
受到相同的教育。如今將國民教育列入正規課程,能夠補足過往的缺
立志推動國家發展,才是國民教育的成果。
會以至地球的一員,需要負上的權利和責任,與認識人權、自由等世界性價
2013/14
學年開始會正名為獨立的「德育及國民教育」學科,更要求增加課時
一票,
「認定教師將會不辨是非、盲目地向學生灌輸思想」。
失。
識又會慢慢的減弱,好像一加強就突然間又減弱。」
懂得如何做個地球村的良好公民
global citizen。公民教育著重公民責任與權
值觀。至於對於自身國家認識、身份認同的國民教育,則單單屬公民教育的
在過去一段很長的日子裏,在課室推動國民教育是一種禁忌,如今回
教授《基本法》,並設校內試作考核,教育局會建立基本法試題庫供學校使
國民教育走進課堂,同時也反映了教師對國民教育的看法。香港的教
接著,又批評香港的傳媒:「國家發生一些重大的事件,部份香港的傳媒
利,維護天賦人權自由,著重個人與社會關係,這與施政報告所指以內地交
我從不反對公民教育一部份,萬萬不可凌駕於公民教育之上。
,
然而公民教育早已包括自由民主等普世價值在
2
歸了 13 年,這禁忌仍要保留嗎?
師都受過高等教育和專業訓練,如果論者擔心出現「洗腦」的情况,
內,實情與國民教育無異,反之視野更廣。我們又何須再增加一科
「德
用。有校長擔心增加基本法課程加重教師壓力,家長亦指措施要求學生死背
也做了很多工作。但港澳辦能不能夠在媒體上面做多一點工夫,讓大家不要
流來「加強對國民身分的認同,體會兩地同根同心、血脈相連」是兩碼子的
無疑是對本港教育工作者投以不信任的一票,認定教師將會不辨是
Why Education Policy and Society?
■■
2010
年年
1218
月日
1205
日
2010
12
月
日
2010
年
11
月
(四)
■
2010
年
12
月
26
日
2010
日
■■
2010
年年
1111
月月
1829
日
(四)
回應名校女生
周日話題
■
年1月
5 日 (三)
e2011
Emily
李光知
要聞
> 要聞
社評‧筆陣 > 社評
我的老師:男拔今日只有富貴餐
名校又教了我什麼?
名校教了我什麼—女校生的反思
直資風波掀出階級矛盾 孫公功力再受考驗
教育心語
直資校混帳
直資學校管治帳目混亂
【明報專訊】 審計轟十罪 執法部門應查箇中流弊
【明報專訊】
【明報專訊】
【明報專訊】
真道書院校長涉千萬校款置業
【明報專訊】審計署審查全港 72 所直資學校,發現其中一些的管治及行政
直資學校都貴族化?
名校和屋邨中學我也讀過,中一至中五,我在一間屋邨中學念書,會
編按:上期刊出蘆葦〈名校教了我什麼——女校生的反思〉一文,在
直資名校被揭發一大堆混帳,那部古老幻燈片機就在我的腦袋開動
混亂,特別是從部分學校帳目所見,有把學生當作搖錢樹之嫌,也有學生被
自審計署長揭發直資學校帳目混亂後,輿論焦點均放在帳目與監管不
考後以理科二十九分的成績轉到拔萃男書院讀預科
。名校教育不是優
直資學校屢受批評,認為這些學校都在貴族化,助長社會不平等。我不同
【明報專訊】現時家長對直資學校趨之若鶩,寧願節衣縮食也甘願為子女
網絡世界引來了巨大迴響,無數的
likes/dislikes,編輯部亦收到一些
不斷重播我的中學校園片段,晃眼已是十多年前的泛黃舊事。
嚴的問題上;不過,立法會教育界代表張文光提醒筆者,觀乎不少直
質的保證,名校學生也不全是天賦異稟、優秀出眾,正如英國讀中學
當作提款機,不但違反了教育局的規定,其性質情節可能已經涉及違法。情
意。
繳付巨額學費,不過,審計署深入調查全港直資學校後發現「十宗罪」,每
回應文章,有來自前名校生,也有來自家長。本欄將陸續刊出一些有
資名校根本很少甚至沒有發出獎學金,今次的審計報告牽引出一個更
的不少精英,連在機場過聖誕也熬不住,證明溫室中長大的小花,完
况顯示,部分直資學校辜負了按特殊政策辦學的初衷,教育局監管不力也難
我的母校,是港島區一家有逾百年歷史的女校,人稱
「老牌名校」
、
裨益於討論和認識直資制度以至於香港現行教育制度的文章
,歡迎投
深層次的社會矛盾——不少分屬傳統名校的直資中學
,
根本沒有履行
直資計劃自 1988 年提出後,辦學團體逐漸願意辦直資學校,主要是希望以
年豪花數以億元計學費收入作非教學用途,包括有學校一擲
7100
萬元投資股
全經不起大風雪的考驗
,但我慶幸兩種學校都讀過,見識兩者的分別
。
「貴族學校」。我曾經為自己能夠入讀這樣的名校感到無比自豪,
辭其咎;我們認為家長和公衆有知情權,教育局應該公開有不當情况學校的
稿。
轉制之初,信誓旦旦承諾會透過獎學金來確保基層子弟仍有機會接受
學費作額外資源,辦一些有特色的學校,如關注學生的體藝發展、語文水平、
票,另一方面卻剋扣學生獎學金,侵吞慈善籌款收入和公帑利息等。
因為我們一班女生,既能說流利英語、又懂得吃西餐禮儀、亦能夠
最好教育這一條,令香港社會以往那種不論貧富,青年人起跑點大致
文
莊曉陽 圖 陳淑安
名單,並全面檢討直資計劃;為了重建直資學校的名聲,執法部門(例如廉
3
國際視野等。這些學校由零開始,並非甚麼名校。學費方面,我當校長時一
據了解,將軍澳香港華人基督教聯會真道書院涉及花費千萬元購入物業作
時移世易,報紙看罷了就掉,有了互聯網和
facebook,一篇「有趣」
淡定自信於人前表現自己,根本唔將隔籬學校著旗袍紮孖辮的四眼
相同的核心價值在一夜之間消失了。今日便要出席立法會帳目委員會
政公署)應該介入調查,揪出害群之馬,徹底整頓直資學校的流弊。
Why Education Policy and Society?
4
Why Education Policy and Society?
5
Why Education Policy and Society?
6
Why Education Policy and Society?
7
Why Education Policy and Society?
“In 1943, Sir Fred Clark, Director of the Institute of
Education, argued the case for the apporintment of a
sociologist to a chair in education on the ground that
the ‘uneasy awareness, now so widespread and yet
so ill-defined, that great changes in the social order
and the inter-play of social forces are already in
progress’ meant that ‘the educational theory and
educational policy that take no account of these will
be not only blind but positively harmful’ (Sir Fred
Clarke Archive, Institute of Education, March 1943).”
(Whitty, 2000, p. 2059)
8
Why Education Policy and Society?
• Empirical policy issues
– Why fine-toning MOI controversy?
– Why DSS elitism controversy?
– Why education for nationality controversy?
• Issues of boundness and embeddedness of
education policy
– The contextual embeddedness in policy making and
implementation
• Embeddness at macro-level: social, economic, political and
cultural contexts
• Embeddness at meso-level: Institutional and organizational
contexts
– The boundedness of rationality in policy design
• Degree of omniscience in education policy
• Degree of omnipotence in education policy
• Degree of omnipresence in education policy
9
Sociology of Education Policy of What ?
• Epistemological constituents of the course
– Policy studies in education
– Sociology of education
– Sociology of education policy
10
What Education Policy and Society ?
• Ways to Synthesis the Field of the Sociology of
Education
– In terms of theoretical perspectives, e.g. Functionalism,
conflict theories, interpretive perspective, post-modernism,
etc.
• Kababel and Halsey (1977)
• Sadovnik (2007)
• Apple et al. (2009)
– In terms of empirical areas, e.g. studies of education
institution, school organization, higher education,
classroom interaction, curriculum, schoolteachers, etc.
• Apple (1999)
• Ball (1997 & 2008)
11
What Education Policy and Society ?
• Ways to Synthesis the Field of the Sociology of
Education
– In terms of themes, context, location and time:
•
•
•
•
•
Roger Dale (2001)
Whitty (1997)
Halsey et al. (1996)
Lauder et al. (2006)
Apple et al. (2010)
• Rizvi and Lingard (2010)
12
A Framework Synthesizing the Development of
the Sociology of Education
• Dale characterizes the trajectory of the
development of the field into three components or
forces. They are
– Dominant theme,
– Context, and
– Location
13
A Framework Synthesizing the Development of
the Sociology of Education
• Dominant theme: Two prominent themes have
endeavored through the history of the field.
Sociologists of different theoretical orientations
may characterize them with different terminologies
and put their emphasis on them.
– Emile Durkhiem’s dual functions of modern education
• Social necessity of homogeneity: Organic solidarity
and integration
• Social necessity of diversity: Division of labor
14
“Each society sets up a certain idea of man, of what he should
be, as much from the intellectual point of view as the physical
and moral; that this ideal is, to a degree, the same for all the
citizens; that beyond a certain point it becomes differentiated
according to the particular milieux that every society contains in
its structure. It is this ideal, at the same time one and various,
that is the focus of education. Its function, then, is to arouse in
the child: (1) a certain number of physical and mental states that
the society to which he belongs considers should not be lacking
in any of its members; (2) certain physical and mental states that
the particular social group (caste, class, family, profession)
considers, equally, ought to be found among all those who make
it up. …Society can survive only if there exists among its
members a sufficient degree of homogeneity; education
perpetuates and reinforces this homogeneity by fixing in the
child, from the beginning, the essential similarities that collective
life demands. But on the other hand, without a certain diversity
all co-operation would be impossible; education assures the
persistence of this necessary diversity by being itself diversified
and specialized.” (Durkheim, 2006/1911, p. 79-80)
15
A Framework Synthesizing the Development of
the Sociology of Education
• Dominant theme: Two prominent themes have
endeavored through the history of the field.
Sociologists of different theoretical orientations
may characterize them with different terminologies
and put their emphasis on them.
– Emile Durkhiem’s dual functions of modern education
• Social necessity of homogeneity: Organic solidarity and
integration
• Social necessity of diversity: Division of labor
– Martin Carnoy and Henry Levin’s dual role of schooling
in capitalist-democratic state
• Preparation for citizens in democratic state
• Preparation for workers in capitalist economy
16
“The schools are an arena of conflict because they have the dual
role of preparing workers and citizens. The preparation required
for citizenship in a democratic society based on equal
opportunity and human rights is often incompatible with the
preparation needed for job performance in a corporate system of
work. One the one hand, schools must train citizens to know their
rights under the law as well as their obligations to exercise these
rights through political participation. On the other, schools must
train workers with the skills and personality characteristics that
enable them to function in an authoritarian work regime. This
requires a negation of the very political rights that make for good
citizens.” (Carnoy and Levin, 1985, p. 257)
17
A Framework Synthesizing the Development of
the Sociology of Education
• Dominant theme:
– Roger Dale dual project of modernity
• Education as part of the project of enlightenment, i.e. the
project of emancipation of human potentials and reasons
• Education as part of the project of redemption and
rectification of the negative side of enlightenment (Dialectic
of Enlightenment), e.g. inequality and injustice in education
and/or other human conditions
18
A Framework Synthesizing the Development of
the Sociology of Education
• Dominant theme:
– To summarize, the dualism in the educational theme of
modern society
• To nurture social homogeneity and constituting social
integration among future members of a society within the
imperative of the modern nation-state, more specifically of
the liberal-democratic state. This imperative is built on the
ideal of universal equality of all reasoning citizens.
• To nurture social diversity and constituting social division
of labor among future members of society within the
imperative of capitalist economy. This capitalistic
imperative is operated under the rules of competition,
inequality or even the institution of stratification.
19
A Framework Synthesizing the Development of
the Sociology of Education
•
Location: The field of sociology of education has been
inhabited predominantly by academics working in
teacher training institutes or researchers in policy
studies agencies. These locations of the practitioners of
the filed imprinted their marks on the development of the
field.
– This location feature of the field has salient effect on its
researchers' orientation. The filed is by nature an applied
field and embedded in the practice of teacher education
and the process of education policy formation.
– On the one hand, some of its researchers have oriented
their research efforts to pedagogical practices in
classrooms and administrative practices in school
organizations.
– On the other hand, some other practitioners of the filed
have concentrated their research endeavors on policy
studies in education.
20
A Framework Synthesizing the Development of
the Sociology of Education
• Context: The changes in the empirical contexts, in
which the practices of education, schooling and
instruction take place, have also affected the
development of the field significantly. They have not
only shaped the research agendas and themes of
the field but also the practical climates of the
locations, in which its practitioners work.
– The institutionalization of modern schooling system: In the
nineteenth century Europe and then the first half of the
twentieth century in most of the developing countries, the
development of the national-compulsory education system
was defined as the project of constituting the complex
division of labor and human capitals for industrial
societies and building the organic solidarity for the
modern societies.
21
A Framework Synthesizing the Development of
the Sociology of Education
• Context:
– The optimism of progressive education and equalization
project: The policyscape of post-WWII welfare state had
elicited a number of research projects and policies
claiming to equalizing social disparity with equality of
educational opportunities.
• James Coleman's research on Equality of Opportunity in the
US in the 1960s.
• A.H. Halsey's project Educational Priority Area Project in the
UK in the 1970s.
• Desegregation school and busing policy in the US in the
1960s.
• Comprehensive school movement in the UK in the 1960s.
• Compensatory and remedial education in developed
countries
22
A Framework Synthesizing the Development of
the Sociology of Education
• Context:
– The pessimism and criticism of the radical theorists: In
connection with to the radical student movements in
Western countries, the discursive theme of the field shifted
to more critical or even cynical toward the egalitarian
project and progressive education in the 1970s.
• Reproduction theories proposed by Pierre Bourdieu, Bowles
and Gintis,…
• The resistance theories advocated by Michael Apple, Paul
Willis, Henry Giroux, …
23
A Framework Synthesizing the Development of
the Sociology of Education
• Context:
– The instrumental-economicism the liberalistic-competition
states:
• A series of transformations of the 1980s, such as
– coming into power of the neo-liberal and neo-conservative
governments in many Western countries in the late 1970s and the
early 1980s;
– the rise of global-informational economy in the late 1970s and the
early 1980s; and
– the advent of global-informational culture in the late 1980s and
early 1990s.
• In response to these fundamental transformations, the
contexts of education policy in many developed countries
have undergone fundamental changes.
24
A Framework Synthesizing the Development of
the Sociology of Education
• Context:
– The instrumental-economicism the liberalistic-competition
states:
• Lauder et al. (2006) have synthesized these transformations
into two trends
– Individualization: It refers to the social-differentiation process in
the late-modern or even post-modern society. It consists “first, the
disembedding of industrial society ways of life and second, the reembedding of new ones, in which the individuals must produce,
stage and cobble together their biographies themselves.” (Beck,
1997; quoted in Lauder et al, 2006, p.21)
– Globalization: It refers to the social-integration process in the latemodern or postmodern society. It “is really about the
transformation of space and time. I would define it as action at
distance, and relate its growth over recent years to the
development of means of instantaneous global communication
and mass transportation.” (Giddens, 1994, p. 22) It refers to the
“time-space compression” processes “that so revolutionize the
objective qualities of space and time that we are force to alter …
25
how we represent the world to ourselves.” (Harvey, 1989, p. 240)
Social Integration
18000-1940
Modern state
formation
1950s-1970s
Contradiction
of welfare
state
Educational
System
Social Differentiation
Constitution of massive, universal, compulsory and
state-controlled schooling system as institutional
means for citizenship building and human capital
accumulation
Constitution of egalitarian schooling system as
policy instrument of implementing progressive and
compensatory education to rectify socio-economic
inequalities
1980s-1990s
Neo-liberal
state
Rolling back the of egalitarian policy and reinstating
neo-liberal and new-conservative education policy as
means to enhance freedom of choice and accountability
1990s-2000s
Globalcompetition
state
Elevating neo-liberal and new-conservative education
policy to global-competition scale
2010s
Post-liberal
era
Beginning to reinstate regulations to global-market fundamentalism in financial
sector. And what would become of the policyscape of education
26
The Organizing Themes of the Course
• Education policies as projects of social
differentiation of modern economy
– Conceptions of social differentiation, inequality and
stratification
– Education policies in the context and process of class
structuration of capitalism
– Education policies in the context of the class formation of
capitalism
– Education policies in the context of the “post-class”
society
– Education polices as project of social equalization
27
The Organizing Themes of the Course
• Education policies as projects of social integration
of modern state
–
–
–
–
Conceptions of state, nation, and citizenship
Education policies in the context of state formation
Education policies in the context of nation building
Education policies in the context of citizenship
development
– Education policies in the context of global citizenship
28
The Organizing Themes of the Course
• Education policies as projects of social integration
of modern state
–
–
–
–
Conceptions of state, nation, and citizenship
Education policies in the context of state formation
Education policies in the context of nation building
Education policies in the context of citizenship
development
– Education policies in the context of global citizenship
29
The Organizing Themes of the Course
• Education policies as project of competition state
reflexively confronting the phenomenon of
globalization
– Education policy in the context of globalizing class
position and identity
– Education policy in the context of globalizing citizenship
and nationality
30
The Organizing Themes of the Course
• Education policies as project of constituting the
lifeworld of schoolteachers
31
Lecture 1
Sociology of Education Policy: Definition of the Field
END
32