Cross-Cultural Management
西安电子科技大学
杜 荣
Chapter 1 Meanings and
Dimensions of Culture
Outline
• Chap1-1 Cross-cultural management
• Chap1-2 Globalization
• Chap1-3 Definitions of culture
• Chap1-4 Nature of culture
• Chap1-5 Cultural values
• Chap1-6 Dimensions of culture
• Chap1-7 Attitudinal Dimensions of Culture
• Chap1-8 Trompenaars’ s Cultural Dimensions
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Cross-Cultural Management
Chap1-1
Cross-cultural management
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Cross-Cultural Management
What is Cross-Cultural
Management?
CCM is a fairly new field that is based on theories
and research from:
• Cross Cultural Psychology
• International Business
• Organizational Behaviour
• Human Resources
• Anthropology
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Cross-Cultural Management
Goals for Cross-Cultural
Management
Cross Cultural Management seeks to
• understand how national cultures affect
management practices
• identify the similarities and differences across
cultures in various management practices and
organizational contexts
• increase effectiveness in global management
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Cross-Cultural Management
Chap1-2
Globalization
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Cross-Cultural Management
Globalization
Like it or not, globalization is here…to stay.
• Most large companies have some kind of business
relations with customers, companies, employees or
various stake-holders in other countries…and
cultures. (Global corporations)
• Many employees and managers deal with people
from other cultures on a constant basis
• Most of us have a close experience with only one
or two cultures…=>
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Cross-Cultural Management
Globalization
• We do not understand people from other cultures
as readily and intuitively as people from our own
culture =>
• Cross cultural management helps organization
members to gain better understanding of other
cultures, of their culture and of the consequences
of people from different cultures working together
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Cross-Cultural Management
Chap1-3
Definitions of culture
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Cross-Cultural Management
Culture
Definition: acquired knowledge that people use
to interpret experience and generate social
behavior.
Culture forms values, creates attitude,
influences behavior.
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Cross-Cultural Management
Chap1-4
Nature of culture
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Cross-Cultural Management
Culture
Characteristics of culture include:
• Learned
• Shared
• Transgenerational
• Symbolic
• Patterned
• Adaptive
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Cross-Cultural Management
Cultural diversity
(P4: Culture and types of handshake)
• Cultural values
(P5: Priorities of cultural values: US, Japan)
(P5: examples where culture can affect
management approaches)
Depict cultural diversity through concentric circles.
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Cross-Cultural Management
Chap1-5
Cultural values
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Cross-Cultural Management
Priorities of Cultural Values
United States
1. Freedom
2. Independence
3. Self-reliance
4. Equality
5. Individualism
6. Competition
7. Efficiency
8. Time
9. Directness
10. Openness
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Japan
1. Belonging
2. Group harmony
3. Collectiveness
4. Age/seniority
5. Group consensus
6. Cooperation
7. Quality
8. Patience
9. Indirectness
10. Go-between
Cross-Cultural Management
Arab Countries
1. Family security
2. Family harmony
3. Parental guidance
4. Age
5. Authority
6. Compromise
7. Devotion
8. Patience
9. Indirectness
10. Hospitality
Management Approaches Affected
by Cultural Diversity
Centralized vs.
Decentralized
decision making
Cultural
Diversity
Informal vs.
formal procedures
Safety vs. risk
Individual vs.
group rewards
Sort-term vs.
long-term horizons
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Cross-Cultural Management
High vs. low
organizational
loyalty
Cooperation vs.
competition
Stability vs.
innovation
Summary of what we learned
last week
• Introduction to the course of cross-cultural
management and our international teaching
team
• Goals for Cross-cultural management
• Nature of culture
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Cross-Cultural Management
We will learn today
• A model of culture: concentric circles
• Comparing culture as a normal distribution
• Values in culture
• Hofstede’s cultural dimensions
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Cross-Cultural Management
A model of culture: concentric
circles
Explicit artifacts and
products of the society
Norms and values
that guide the society
Implicit, basic
assumptions that guide
people’s behavior
Outer layer: observable,
e.g. language, food,
buildings, art.
Middle layer: helps
people understand how
they should behave.
Inner layer: intangible,
helpful for problemsolving and well
interactions with other
people.
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Cross-Cultural Management
Comparing Cultures as
Overlapping Normal Distribution
Chinese Culture
?
?
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U.S. Culture
Cross-Cultural Management
Stereotyping from the Cultural
Extremes: Brugha and Du’s research
How Americans see the Chinese
• in community
• avoid confrontation
(keep in harmony)
• respect for authorities
and seniors
How Chinese see Americans
• individualism
• face confrontation
(arguments and debates)
• respect for achievements
Chinese Culture
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Cross-Cultural Management
U.S. Culture
Values in Culture
Values: basic convictions that people have
regarding what is right and wrong, good and
bad, important and unimportant.
• Value differences and similarities across
cultures: P 10: “common personal values”
U.S. Values and possible alternatives
• Values in transition: work values change over
time.
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Cross-Cultural Management
Dominant Western Values
in Workforce
Career
Stage
Entered the
Workforce
Approximate
Current Age
1. Protestant
Work Ethic
Mid-1940s to
Late 1950s
50 to 65
Hard working; loyal to
firm; conservative
2. Existential
1960s to
Mid-1970s
35 to 50
Nonconforming; seeks
autonomy; loyal to self
3. Pragmatic
Mid-1970s to
Mid-1980s
35 to 35
Ambitious, hard worker;
loyal to career
4. Generation X
Mid-1980s
through 1990s
Under 25
Flexible, values leisure;
loyal to relationships
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Cross-Cultural Management
Dominant
Work Values
Chap1-6
Dimensions of culture
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Cross-Cultural Management
Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions
• Dutch researcher Geert Hofstede found there
are four dimensions of culture.
• Hofstede’s initial data: questionnaire surveys
with over 116000 respondents from over 70
different countries who worked in the local
subsidiaries of IBM.
• The fifth dimension was added later.
• Criticized because of its focus on just one
company.
• Popular in the research field of cross-cultural
management.
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Cross-Cultural Management
Hofstede’s

Power Distance

Uncertainty Avoidance

Individualism

Masculinity

Long-Term Orientation
Five Cultural
Dimensions
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Cross-Cultural Management
• Power Distance: the extent to which less powerful
members of organizations accept that power is
distributed unequally.
Low: people treated as equals despite social
status
High: people accept authority relations
• Uncertainty avoidance: the extent to which people feel
threatened by ambiguous situations and have
created beliefs and institutions that try to avoid
these.
Low: prefer few formal rules
High: want clear behavioral guides
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Cross-Cultural Management
• Individualism/collectivism: the tendency of people to
look after themselves and their immediate family only
(belong to groups or collectives and to look after
each other in exchange for loyalty).
Low: group behavior important
High: individual behavior important
A bipolar continuum
Individualism
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Cross-Cultural Management
Collectivism
• Masculinity/femininity: a situation in which the
dominant values in society are success, money, and
things (caring for others and the quality of life).
Low: cooperation; friendly atmosphere;
employment security; low stress; warm
interpersonal relationships.
High: competition; challenge; recognition;
wealth; advancement; high stress; tight
control.
A continuum
Masculinity
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Femininity
Cross-Cultural Management
• Long–term orientation: value placed on persistence,
status, thrift
Low: respect for tradition, personal
stability, focused on the past
High: perseverance, thrift, focused on
the future
This dimension was added to depict the
influence of Confucianism in Asia.
This dimension is similar to “Adjusting”
proposed by Brugha and Du.
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Cross-Cultural Management
Examples of Cultural Dimensions
Country
Power
Distance
Individualism*
Masculinity**
Uncertainty
Avoidance
Long-term
Orientation***
China
High
Low
Moderate
Moderate
High
France
High
High
Moderate
High
Low
Germany
Low
High
High
Moderate
Moderate
Hong Kong
High
Low
High
Low
High
Indonesia
High
Low
Moderate
Low
Low
Japan
Moderate
Moderate
High
Moderate
Moderate
Netherlands
Low
High
Low
Moderate
Moderate
Russia
High
Moderate
Low
High
Low
United States
Low
High
High
Low
Low
West Africa
High
Low
Moderate
Moderate
Low
* A low score is synonymous with collectivism
** A low score is synonymous with masculinity
*** A low score is synonymous with a short-term orientation
Additional Frameworks
Two additional perspectives, of social/cross-cultural
psychologists merit attention:
Markus & Kitayama: Independent &
Interdependent Construals
Triandis: Individualism-Collectivism
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Cross-Cultural Management
Vertical & Horizontal Individualism
& Collectivism
Harry Triandis: Combination of Individualism vs.
collectivism and power & achievement vs.
benevolence & universalism
• VI: achievement + individualism (USA)
• HI: universalism + individualism (Sweden)
• VC: power + collectivism (India)
• HC: benevolence + collectivism (Israel; rare)
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Cross-Cultural Management
Schwartz’s Values
•
•
•
•
Universalism
Benevolence
Conformity & tradition
Security
• Power
• Achievement
• Hedonism
• Stimulation
• Self Direction
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Cross-Cultural Management
Schwartz’s Value Map
Openness to
Change
SelfDirection Universalism
Creativity,
Stimulation Freedom
Exciting Life
SelfTranscendence
Social Justice,
Equality
Benevolence
Helpfulness
Hedonism
Pleasure
Conformity Tradition
Obedience
Humility
Devoutness
Achievement
Success,
Ambition
Security
Power
SelfEnhancement
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Social Order
Conservation
Authority,
Wealth
Cross-Cultural Management
Organized by motivational
similarities and dissimilarities
Empirical test of the Theory
• 75,000 + respondents, varied samples in 68 countries
• Instrument lists 57 abstract value items
• “How important is each item as a guiding principle in
your life?”
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Cross-Cultural Management
Tasks in the next session:
Students’ talks and presentations
Discussion in groups: how to learn
Cross-cultural management?
Assignment after class:
Read a paper on Hofstede’s cultural
dimensions.
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Cross-Cultural Management
Preview
• Integrating Hofstede’s cultural
dimensions
• Attitudinal dimensions of culture
• Trompenaars’s cultural dimensions
• Integrating culture and management
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Cross-Cultural Management
Chap1-7 Attitudinal Dimensions of
Culture
Work Value and Attitude Similarities
• Research has revealed many similarities in both work values and
attitudes
• Ronen and Kraut
– Smallest space analysis (SSA) - maps the relationship among
countries by showing the distance between each on various
cultural dimensions
– Can identify country clusters
• Ronen and Shenkar
– Examined variables in four categories
» Importance of work goals
» Need deficiency, fulfillment, and job satisfaction
» Managerial and organizational variables
» Work role and interpersonal orientation
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Cross-Cultural Management
A Synthesis of Country Cultures
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Cross-Cultural Management
GLOBE Project
• Multi-country study and evaluation of cultural
attributes and leadership behavior
• Are transformational characteristics of
leadership universally endorsed?
• 170 country co-investigators
• 65 different cultures
• 17,500 middle managers
800 organisations
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Cross-Cultural Management
GLOBE Project
• What traits are universally viewed as impediments to leadership
effectiveness?
• Based on beliefs that
– Certain attributes that distinguish one culture from others can be
used to predict the most suitable, effective and acceptable
organizational and leader practices within that culture
– Societal culture has direct impact on organizational culture
– Leader acceptance stems from tying leader attributes and
behaviors to subordinate norms
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Cross-Cultural Management
GLOBE Cultural Variable Results
Variable
Highest
Ranking
Medium
Ranking
Lowest
Ranking
Assertiveness
Spain, U.S.
Egypt, Ireland
Future orientation
Denmark, Canada Slovenia, Egypt
Sweden, New
Zealand
Russia, Argentina
Gender differentiation
South Korea,
Egypt
Uncertainty avoidance
Austria, Denmark Israel, U.S.
Power distance
Russia, Spain
England, France Demark, Netherlands
Collectivism/Societal
Denmark,
Singapore
Hong Kong, U.S. Greece, Hungary
In-group collectivism
Egypt, China
England, France Denmark,
Netherlands
Performance orientation U.S., Taiwan
Humane orientation
Indonesia, Egypt
Italy, Brazil
Sweden Denmark
Russia, Hungary
Sweden, Israel
Russia, Argentina
Hong Kong,
Sweden
Germany, Spain
Chap1-8 Trompenaars’ Cultural
Dimensions
• Research produced five cultural dimensions that are based on
relationship orientations and attitudes toward both time and the
environment
•
Universalism vs. Particularism
– Universalism - belief that ideas and practices can be applied
everywhere in the world without modification
• Focus on formal rules and rely on business contacts
– Particularism - belief that circumstances dictate how ideas and
practices should be applied and something cannot be done the
same everywhere
• Focus on relationships, working things out to suit the
parties
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Cross-Cultural Management
Trompenaars’ Cultural Dimensions
(cont.)
• Individualism vs. Communitarianism
– Individualism - people regard themselves as individuals
• Rely on individuals to make decisions
– Communitarianism - people regard themselves as part of a group
• Seek consultation and mutual consent before making decisions
• Neutral vs. Emotional
– Neutral - culture in which emotions are held in check
• People try not to show their feelings
– Emotional - culture in which emotions are expressed openly and
naturally
• People smile, talk loudly, greet each other with enthusiasm
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Cross-Cultural Management
Trompenaars’ Cultural Dimensions
(cont.)
• Specific vs. Diffuse
– Specific - culture in which individuals have a large public space they
readily share with others and a small private space they guard
closely and share with only close friends and associates
• People often are open and extroverted
• Work and private life are separate
– Diffuse - culture in which both public and private space are similar
in size and individuals guard their public space carefully, because
entry into public space affords entry into private space as well
• People often appear indirect and introverted, and work and
private life often are closely linked
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Cross-Cultural Management
Trompenaars’ Cultural
Dimensions (cont.)
•
Achievement vs. Ascription
– Achievement - culture in which people are accorded status based
on how well they perform their functions
– Ascription - culture in which status is attributed based on who or
what a person is
• For example, status may be accorded on the basis of age,
gender, or social connections
•
Time
– Sequential approach to time - people do one thing at a time, keep
appointments strictly, follow plans to the letter
– Synchronous approach - people do more than one thing at a time,
appointments are approximate
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Cross-Cultural Management
Trompenaars’ Cultural Dimensions
(cont.)
• Environment
– Inner-directed
• People believe in controlling environmental outcomes
– Outer-directed
• People believe in allowing things to take their natural
course
• Cultural Patterns or Clusters
– Defined groups of countries that are similar to each other in
terms of the five dimensions and the orientations toward time
and the environment
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Cross-Cultural Management
Trompenaars’ Cultural Groups
Anglo cluster
Relationship
United States
Individualism
United Kingdom
x
x
x
x
x
x
Communitarianism
Specific relationship
Diffuse relationship
Universalism
Particularism
Neutral relationship
x
Emotional relationship
x
Achievement
x
Ascription
Cross-Cultural Management
x
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Trompenaars’ Cultural Groups
Asian cluster
Relationship
Japan China Indonesia Hong Kong Singapore
Individualism
Communitarianism
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Particularism
x
x
x
x
x
Neutral relationship
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Specific relationship
Diffuse relationship
Universalism
Emotional relationship
x
Achievement
Ascription
x
x
Cross-Cultural Management
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Trompenaars’ Cultural Groups
Latin American cluster
Relationship
Argentina
Individualism
Mexico
Venezuela
Brazil
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Particularism
x
x
x
x
Neutral relationship
x
x
x
Communitarianism
Specific relationship
Diffuse relationship
Universalism
Emotional relationship
Achievement
x
x
x
Ascription
x
Cross-Cultural Management
x
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Trompenaars’ Cultural Groups
Latin-European cluster
Relationship
France
Belgium
Individualism
Spain
x
Communitarianism
x
x
Specific relationship
x
x
Diffuse relationship
Universalism
x
x
x
x
x
Neutral relationship
x
Emotional relationship
x
x
Achievement
x
x
Particularism
Ascription
Italy
x
x
x
Cross-Cultural Management
x
x
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Trompenaars’ Cultural Groups
Germanic cluster
Relationship
Austria Germany Switzerland Czechoslovakia
Individualism
x
Communitarianism
Specific relationship
x
x
Diffuse relationship
Universalism
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Particularism
Neutral relationship
x
Emotional relationship
Achievement
x
x
x
x
x
Ascription
x
x
Cross-Cultural Management
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Culture Maps - Frameworks
Edward
T. Hall
Geert
Hofstede
Culture
Elements
Value
Patterns
•
•
•
•
•
time
space
things
friendships
agreements
&
interpersonal
behavior
•
•
•
•
•
power
risk
individualism
masculinity
long term
orientation
&
management
theories practice
Trompenaars
Value
Patterns
• universalism–
particularism
• collectivism–
individualism
• affective–neutral
relationships
• specificity–
diffuseness
• achievement–
ascription
• time orientation
•Internal–external
control
&
Int’l. business practice
Cross-Cultural Management
Kluckhohn &
Strodbeck
Variations
in Value
Orientations
• relation to nature
• orientation to
time
• belief about
human nature
• mode of human
activity
• relationships
• space
&
Int’l. business
practice
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Chapter1-Introduction