Theories of Motivation
An Overview of Some of the
Popular Management Theorists
Alderfer’s ERG Theory
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•
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ERG Theory
•
Clayton P Alderfer proposed a
hierarchy involving three sets of needs:
Existence: needs satisfied by such
factors as food, air, water, pay, and
working conditions.
Relatedness: needs satisfied by
meaningful social and interpersonal
relationships.
Growth: needs satisfied by an
individual making creative or productive
contributions.
Tested by Thematic Apperception Test
ERG Theory Relationships Among Frustration,
Importance, and Satisfaction of Needs
Frustration
of growth needs
Importance
of growth needs
Satisfaction
of growth needs
Frustration of
relatedness needs
Importance of
relatedness needs
Satisfaction of
relatedness needs
Frustration
of existence needs
Importance
of existence needs
Satisfaction of
existence needs
Chris Argyris (1923 -
Chris Argyris
Maturity – Immaturity Continuum
• Influenced by the humanist
approach of Abraham Maslow
and the socio-technical process
of E. Wight Bakke.
• Indicated his feelings about how
organizations neglected human
needs.
• If treated like a child one will
behave like a child – result is
organizational mediocrity
Chris Argyris –
Personality vs. Organization
• Certain organizational practices, such as the division
of labor, interfere with the development of healthy
human personalities.
• These practices promote immature, not mature
behavior.
• In an attempt to self-actualize, individuals run into the
obstacles posed by formal organizations.
• The result is defensive behaviors, with management
reacting by becoming more autocratic or by turning to
sugar-coated human relations.
Chris Argyris
Albert Bandura
Albert Bandura proposed a social cognitive
theory (social learning theory; self-efficacy
theory) which refers to an individual’s belief
that they are capable of performing a task.
Four ways self efficacy can be increased:
1. Enactive mastery – if you’ve performed task
in the past, you can do it again
2. Vicarious modeling – you become more
confident because you see someone else
do the task
Social Learning 3. Verbal persuasion – you become more
confident because someone convinces you
Self-efficacy
that you have the skills necessary to
Social Cognitive
perform task
4. Arousal – if you get “psyched up” then you
perform better
Abraham Maslow
Maslow defined human needs as:
Hierarchy of Needs
Physiological: the need for food, drink,
shelter, and relief from pain.
Safety and security: the need for
freedom from threat; the security from
threatening events or surroundings.
Belongingness, social, and love: the
need for friendship, affiliation,
interaction, and love.
Esteem: the need for self-esteem and
for respect from others.
Self-actualization: the need to fulfill
oneself by maximizing the use of
abilities, skills, and potential
Maslow’s Need Hierarchy
• Maslow’s theory assumes that a person attempts to
satisfy the more basic needs before directing
behavior toward satisfying upper-level needs.
• Lower-order needs must be satisfied before a higherorder need begins to control a person’s behavior.
• A satisfied need ceases to motivate.
Need Hierarchy
David McClelland
Proposed Theory of Needs:
nAch
nPow
nAff
Need for Achievement (nAch) – drive to
excel, to achieve in relation to a set of
standards
Need for Affiliation (nAff) – the desire
for friendly and close interpersonal
relationships
Need for Power (nPow) – need to make
others behave in a way in which they
would not have behaved otherwise (to
have power over them)
McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory
Achievement
(n Ach)
Affiliation
(n Aff)
Power
(n Pow)
Douglas McGregor (1906-1964)
Douglas McGregor
• Taught psychology at MIT.
• At Antioch College, McGregor
found that his classroom
teaching of human relations
did not always work in
practice.
• From these experiences, his
ideas evolve and lead him to
recognize the influence of
assumptions we make about
people and our managerial
style.
Theory X
•
•
•
Management is responsible for organizing the elements of
productive enterprise – money, materials, equipment, people –
in the interest of economic ends.
With respect to people, this is a process of directing their
efforts, motivating them, controlling their actions, modifying
their behavior to fit the needs of the organization.
Without this active intervention by management, people would
be passive – even resistant – to organizational needs. They
must, therefore, be persuaded, rewarded, punished,
controlled – their activities must be directed. This is
management’s task -- in managing subordinate managers or
workers. We often sum it up by saying that management
consists of getting things done through other people.
Theory X
•
Behind this conventional theory there are several
additional beliefs – less explicit, but widespread:
–
–
–
–
–
The average man is by nature indolent – he works as
little as possible.
He lacks ambition, dislikes responsibility, prefers to be
led.
He is inherently self-centered, indifferent to
organizational needs.
He is by nature resistant to change.
He is gullible, not very bright – the ready dupe of the
charlatan and the demagogue.
Theory Y
•
•
•
•
Management is responsible for organizing the elements of
productive enterprise – money, materials, equipment, people –
in the interest of economic ends.
People are not by nature passive or resistant to organizational
needs. They have become so as a result of experience in
organizations.
The motivation, the potential for development, the capacity
for assuming responsibility, the readiness to direct
behavior toward organizational goals are all present in
people. Management does not put them there. It is a
responsibility of management to make it possible for people to
recognize and develop these human characteristics for
themselves.
The essential task of management is to arrange organizational
conditions and methods of operation so that people can
achieve their own goals best by directing their own efforts
toward organizational objectives.
Theory X
•
•
•
•
•
Work is inherently distasteful
to most people.
Most people are not
ambitious, have little desire
for responsibility, and prefer
to be directed.
Most people have little
capacity for creativity in
solving organizational
problems.
Motivation occurs only at the
physiological and safety
levels.
Most people must be closely
controlled and often coerced
to achieve organizational
objectives.
Theory Y
•
•
•
•
•
Work is as natural as play, if
the conditions are favorable.
Self-control is often
indispensable in achieving
organizational goals.
The capacity for creativity in
solving organizational
problems is widely distributed
in the population.
Motivation occurs at the
social, esteem, and selfactualization levels, as well as
physiological and security
levels.
People can be self-directed
and creative at work if
properly motivated.
Frederick Herzberg
(1923-2000)
• His research emphasized job
enrichment (depth) rather than job
enlargement
– Job context (hygiene factors) –
needed to be optimal to prevent
job dissatisfaction. These factors
(according to Herzberg) did not
motivate.
– Job content (motivators) – factors
that did lead to motivation
– Money (according to Herzberg)
could motivate if it was seen as a
reward for accomplishment; but if
money was given without regard
for merit, then it was a hygiene
factor.
Frederick Herzberg
Motivation and Hygiene Factors
HYGIENE FACTORS
ENVIRONMENT
MOTIVATORS
WHAT THEY DO
Policies and Administration
Achievement
Supervision
Recognition for
Accomplishment
Working Conditions
Interpersonal Relations
Money, Status, Security
Challenging Work
Increased Responsibility
Growth and Development
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
Extrinsic factors
Intrinsic factors
Factors within the
job context:
Factors within the
job content:
 Pay
Achievement
 Status
Increased responsibility
 Working conditions
Recognition
Dissatisfiers
Hygiene factors
Satisfiers
Motivators
Traditional and Herzberg Views of Satisfaction Dissatisfaction
High job
dissatisfaction
Low job
satisfaction
Low job
dissatisfaction
I. TRADITIONAL
II. HERZBERG’S TWO-FACTOR VIEW
Motivators
•Feeling of achievement
•Meaningful work
•Opportunities for advancement
•Increased responsibility
•Recognition
•Opportunities for growth
Hygienes
•Pay
•Status
•Job security
•Working conditions
•Fringe benefits
•Policies and procedures
•Interpersonal relations
High job
satisfaction
High job
satisfaction
High job
dissatisfaction
Frederick Herzberg
Motivation and Hygiene Factors
THE JOB SURROUNDINGS
AND THE
HYGIENE FACTORS
SUPERVISION
WORKING
CONDITIONS
RESPONSIBILITY
BENEFITS
INTERPERSONAL
RELATIONSHIPS
ACHIEVEMENT
THE JOB ITSELF
AND THE
WORK ITSELF MOTIVATOR RECOGNITION
FACTORS
COMPANY
POLICY AND
ADMINISTRATION
GROWTH
ADVANCEMENT
SECURITY
STATUS
SALARY
A Comparison of the Content Theories
Maslow
(need hierarchy)
Self-actualization
Higher
order
needs
Esteem
Belongingness,
social, and love
Safety and security
Herzberg
(two-factor theory)
The work itself
•Responsibility
•Advancement
Motivators •Growth
Alderfer
Need for
achievement
Growth
Need for
power
Achievement
Recognition
Quality of interpersonal relations
among peers, with
supervisors, with
subordinates
Relatedness
Hygiene
conditions Job security
Basic
needs
Physiological
Working conditions
Salary
McClelland
Existence
Need for
affiliation
Work Design
• Richard Hackman, Edward
Lawler, and Greg Oldham’s
work extended Herzberg’s
notions by adding a situational
(it depends…) dimension
– Key job characteristics
– Depending on an individual’s
“growth-need strength,” these
characteristics could be amplified to
make the job more meaningful.
Job Characteristics Model
Core Job
Characteristics
Critical
Psychological
State
Outcomes
(Personal and Work)
Skill Variety
Task Identity
Task Significance
Meaningfulness
of Work
Autonomy
Responsibility
for Outcomes
Feedback
About Job
Knowledge of
Results of Work
High Internal Work
Motivation
High Quality Work
Performance
High Satisfaction
with Work
Low Absenteeism
and Turnover
Employee
Growth Need
Motivation: Expectancy Theory
Victor Vroom
• The expectancy theory
of Victor Vroom helps
explain the choosing
process among
individuals in terms of
the value (valence) of
the reward and the
expectancy of receiving
the reward.
Victor Vroom
Expectancy Theory
Expectancy Theory
• Lyman Porter and
Edward Lawler
extended Vroom’s work
with their model of
expectancy.
Expectancy Theory
(Lyman W. Porter – Edward E. Lawler III)
Revised Diagram of the Theoretical Model
1
Abilities
And
Traits
Value of
Reward
Perceived 8
Equitable
Rewards
4
7A
Intrinsic
Rewards
3
9
6
Performance
(Accomplishments)
Effort
Satisfaction
7B
Extrinsic
Rewards
Perceived 2
Effect-Reward
Probability
5
Role
Perceptions
SOURCE: Managerial Attitudes and Performance, 1968, Richard D. Irwin Inc.
Principles of Expectancy Theory
• V1 = S(V2 x I)
– The valence associated with various first-level outcomes is a
sum of the multiplication of the valences (V2) attached to all
second-level outcomes with their respective instrumentalities
(I)
• M = f(V1 x E)
– Motivation is a multiplicative function of the valence for each
first-level outcome (V1) and the perceived expectancy (E) that
a given behavior will be followed by a particular first-level
outcome
• P = f(M x A)
– Performance is considered to be a multiplicative function of
motivation (the force) and ability
Process Theories of Motivation:
Expectancy Theory (continued)
Management practices:
• Managers need to focus on employee
expectations for success.
• Managers must actively determine which
second-level outcomes are important to
employees.
• Managers should link desired second-level
outcomes to the organization’s performance
goals.
Expectancy Theory Example
Expectancy
(probability of
performance given
effort)
Performance
outcome
(valences x
instrumentalities)
Finishing budget
on time (6.9)
2.76
Motivation
2.24
.20
Instrumentalities (how
much performance
outcome and second-level
outcome are associated
0.6
Day off (6)
1.0
Recognition/compliment
from boss (3)
0.3
Mention of performance
in personnel record (1)
0.2
Day off (6)
0.7
Recognition/compliment
from boss (3)
-0.1
Mention of performance
in personnel record (1)
0.0
Day off (6)
0.2
Recognition/compliment
from boss (3)
-0.4
Mention of performance
in personnel record (1)
0.4
0.7
Finishing budget
on required day
but after deadline
(3.2)
Valences of secondlevel outcomes
(in parentheses)
1.0
Finishing budget
on day after
deadline (.20)
Equity Theory
• Equity theory is not a
new one but focuses on
how individuals
perceive their reward or
pay compared to what
others are receiving.
• Issues of social justice
and distributive justice
are involved in the
theories of Stacy
Adams and Elliot
Jaques.
Elliot Jacques
Process Theories of Motivation:
Equity Theory
• Employees compare their efforts and rewards
with those of others in similar work situations.
• Individuals, who work in exchange for rewards
from the organization, are motivated by a desire
to be equitably treated at work.
• Equity exists when employees perceive that the
ratios of their inputs (efforts) to their outcomes
(rewards) are equivalent to the ratios of other
similar employees.
• Inequity exists when these ratios are not
equivalent.
The Equity Theory of Motivation
A person (P)
with certain
inputs (I) and
receiving
certain
outcomes (O)
Compares
his/her
input/outcome
ratio to
reference
person’s (RP)
inputs (I) and
outcomes (O)
and perceives
OP
IP
ORP
= IRP
or
equity
OP
IP
< ORP
IRP
inequity
or
OP
IP
IP: Inputs of the person
OP: Outcomes of the person
IRP: Inputs of reference person
ORP: Outcomes of reference
person
> ORP
IRP
inequity
Managing Across Cultures
• Geert Hofstede (1928 - )
describes cultural differences in
different countries.
– Individualism vs. collectivism
(group orientation);
– Power Distance: The level of
preference for equality or
inequality within groups:
– Uncertainty avoidance: The
preference for risk vs. structure.
– Masculinity (assertiveness) vs.
femininity (tender values).
– Long term vs. Short term
orientation.
Geert Hofstede
Courtesy of Prof. Hofstede
Last Thoughts ……
from Peter Drucker
“I would hope that American managers—indeed,
managers worldwide—continue to appreciate what I
have been saying almost since day one: that
management is so much more than exercising rank
and privilege; it’s so much more than ‘making deals.’
Management affects people and their lives, both in
business and in many other aspects as well. The
practice of management deservers our utmost
attention; it deserves to be studied”