OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
OCR Examinations
A Level Physical Education
A 7875
Module 2565 : Option B2
part 1
Psychology of Sport Performance
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Module 2565 B2.1.1
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
INDEX
Index
3
4
5
6
- PERSONALITY
- THEORIES OF PERSONALITY- TRAIT - CATTELL - EYSENCK
- EYSENCK’S PERSONALITY TRAIT DIMENSIONS
- THEORIES OF PERSONALITY - SOCIAL LEARNING
BANDURA / VICARIOUS CONDITIONING
7 - THEORIES OF PERSONALITY - INTERACTIONIST - LEWIN
8 - THEORIES OF PERSONALITY - TYPE A / TYPE B
9 - STRUCTURE OF PERSONALITY - MARTENS
10 - PERSONALITY STRUCTURE - HOLLANDER
PSYCHOLOGICAL CORE / TYPICAL RESPONSES
11 - EYSENCK AND CATTELL’S HIERARCHICAL MODEL
12 - SHELDON’S SOMATOPERSONALITY TYPOLOGY
SOMATOTYPE / PERSONALITY TYPE
13 - MEASUREMENT OF PERSONALITY
INTERVIEWS / QUESTIONNAIRES / OBSERVATION
14 - THE STRUCTURE OF CATTELL’S 16PF QUESTIONNAIRE
15 - PROFILE OF MOOD STATES (POMS)
MOODS / ICEBERG PROFILE
16 - THE SELF-CONCEPT - SELF-ESTEEM
17 - STRUCTURE OF SELF-CONCEPT
18 - FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE SELF-CONCEPT
OBJECTIVE SOURCES / SUBJECTIVE PERCEPTIONS
19 - THE SELF-CONCEPT WHEEL
20 - ATTITUDES IN SPORT
21 - FORMATION OF ATTITUDES
22 - COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDE - THE TRIADIC MODEL
COGNITIVE / AFFECTIVE / BEHAVIOURAL
23 - PREJUDICE AND SPORT STEREOTYPES
NEGATIVE STEREOTYPES
24 - POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ATTITUDES TO SPORT
25 - ATTITUDE CHANGE BY PERSUASION AND COGNITIVE
DISSONANCE - PERSUASIVE COMMUNICATION
26 - MEASUREMENT OF ATTITUDES
OBSERVATION / PHYSIOLOGICAL TESTS / QUESTIONNAIRES
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27 - MOTIVES AND MOTIVATORS
28 - INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION
29 - EXTRINSIC REWARDS AND INTRINSIC SOURCES
30 - MAJOR MOTIVES
31 - THE EFFECTIVENESS OF EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION
DISADVANTAGES / EXPLANATIONS / APPLICATION
32 - DEVELOPING AND ENHANCING MOTIVATION
33 - ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION - NACH / NAF
34 - ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION - PERSONALITY
COMPONENTS
35 - ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION - SITUATIONAL FACTORS
36 - AROUSAL AND DRIVE THEORY
RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM
37 - INVERTED U THEORY - OPTIMUM AROUSAL
38 - CATASTROPHE THEORY
39 - GROUPS
40 - STEINER’S MODEL
41 - SOCIAL LOAFING, INTERACTION AND COHESION
42 - COHESION - CARRON’s CONCEPTUAL MODEL
43 - LEADERSHIP - NATURE / NURTURE
44 - FACTORS AFFECTING LEADER EFFECTIVENESS
45 - LEADERSHIP STYLE - FIEDLER’S CONTINGENCY THEORY
CHELLADURAI CONTINUUM
46 - SITUATIONAL FACTORS - TASK / PERSON CENTRED
47 - MEMBER’S CHARACTERISTICS
48 - CHELLADURAI’S MULTIDIMENSIONAL MODEL
49 - CHELLADURAI’S FIVE TYPES OF LEADER BEHAVIOUR
50 - MENTAL PREPARATION FOR SPORT PERFORMANCE
51 - GOAL SETTING - GOAL STRUCTURE
52 - SMARTER GOALS (NCF)
Module 2565 B2.1.2
Personality
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
PERSONALITY
PERSONALITY
• unique characteristics of an individual
• knowledge about personality is important to ensure
optimum sporting performance
extroversion
introversion
TRAIT
innate and
enduring
PERSONALITY
SOCIAL LEARNING
neurotic
stable
behaviours learnt by
observation and
copying
INTERACTIONIST
mixture of trait
and social learning
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type A
type B
Module 2565 B2.1.3
Personality
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY- TRAIT
TRAIT THEORIES
• general (covering all situations)
• underlying (inside of and part of the person)
• enduring (long lasting)
• predisposition (an inclination or motive formed earlier)
CATTELL - EYSENCK’s hierarchical organisation of personality
PERSONALITY
PRIMARY
TRAIT
EXTROVERSION
(deals with others
easily and
comfortably)
INTROVERSION
(prefers to remain
independent /
isolated from others)
STABILITY
(behaviour
remains the same
over time)
NEUROTICISM
(behaviours
change
unpredictably)
SECONDARY
TRAIT
liveliness
sociability
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impulsiveness
activity
Next
excitability
Module 2565 B2.1.4
Personality
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
EYSENCK’S PERSONALITY TRAIT DIMENSIONS
WHAT ARE THE CHARACTERISTICS
OF PERSONS A - B - C - D?
A
•
•
B
•
•
C
•
•
stable extrovert
talkative, outgoing, easy going,
carefree, showing leader qualities
neurotic extrovert
restless, aggressive, excitable,
changeable
neurotic introvert
anxious, sober, rigid, pessimistic
D
• stable introvert
• careful, thoughtful, controlled,
reliable, even tempered
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Module 2565 B2.1.5
Personality
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY - SOCIAL LEARNING
SOCIALISATION
• sport has a socialising effect
• participation in sport establishes
norms and values of our society
BANDURA
• behaviour is determined by the
situation
– social comparison
– behaving the same way as the
peer group
SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
• social approval or disapproval
• explains behaviour in terms of the reaction
determines our responses
to specific situations
– behaviour is reinforced or
• we learn to deal with situations by
penalised
observing others
• or by observing the results of our own
VICARIOUS CONDITIONING
behaviour on others
• the learning of emotional responses
• and by modelling our own behaviour on
through observational learning
what we have seen
• example :
– athletes learn behaviour by watching
– learning to become angry after a
others
valid referee decision has gone
against him / her by watching
other players do the same
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Module 2565 B2.1.6
Personality
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY - INTERACTIONIST
INTERACTIONIST THEORIES
• traits determine behaviour
• but can be modified by situations
– traits
– situations
– behaviour
THE SITUATION
THE PERSON
(PERSONALITY)
LEWIN
• behaviour is a function of both the
person (personality P) and the
environment (E)
• B = f(P,E)
BEHAVIOUR
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Module 2565 B2.1.7
Personality
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY
TYPE A
• characterised by :
• impatience
• works at a rapid pace
• higher levels of stress
• easily aroused
• strong desire to succeed
• anxiety in stressful situations
• lacking in tolerance
• has a need to be in control
• makes decisions quickly without
much preparation or thought
Previous
TYPE B
• characterised by :
• relaxed and patient
• allow time for tasks to be completed
• tolerance of others’ mistakes
• delegates easily
• low personal stress
• calm and unflappable in most
situations
• less competitive
• prepared to wait and assess all
options when decisions need to be
made
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Module 2565 B2.1.8
Personality
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
STRUCTURE OF PERSONALITY - MARTENS
EXTERNAL
ROLE
RELATED
BEHAVIOUR
example :
good captain
DYNAMIC
TYPICAL RESPONSES
example : 'win at all costs'
- instrumental aggression
INTERNAL
Previous
PSYCHOLOGICAL CORE :
attitudes, values, beliefs, motives
example : achievement motivation
Next
CONSISTENT
Module 2565 B2.1.9
Personality
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
PERSONALITY STRUCTURE - HOLLANDER
PSYCHOLOGICAL CORE
• beliefs and values that remain more or
less permanent
• example : a sportsman’s belief that fair
play underlies his attitude on the field of
play
TYPICAL RESPONSES
• the way in which an individual responds
in certain situations
• example : stopping fighting at the bell
ROLE RELATED BEHAVIOUR
• in other situations we may behave
differently
• example : striking after the bell when
annoyed or frustrated
SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT
• how the behaviour and expectations of
others affect our role
• example : a player argues with the
referee because others have done so and
got away with it before
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Module 2565 B2.1.10
Personality
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
EYSENCK AND CATTELL’S HIERARCHICAL MODEL
EYSENCK'S
CATEGORIES
CATTELL'S
CATEGORIES
INTROVERSION
SURFACE
TRAITS
(secondary
factors)
(prefers to remain
independent /
isolated from others)
PRIMARY
TRAIT
SECONDARY
TRAIT
examples
rigidity
persistence
SOURCE TRAITS
(primary factors)
shyness
etc
HABITUAL
RESPONSES
no eye
contact
inability to speak
to strangers
avoids
groups
BEHAVIOURS
etc
SPECIFIC
RESPONSES
Previous
likes being
on his own
Next
enjoys fell
running
hates team
games
SPECIFIC
RESPONSES
Module 2565 B2.1.11
Personality
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
SHELDON’S SOMATOPERSONALITY TYPOLOGY
SOMATOTYPE
PERSONALITY TYPE
•
•
ectomorphy
linearity
•
•
•
cerebrotonia
tenseness
introversion
•
•
endomorphy
plumpness
•
•
•
•
viscerotonia
sociability
affection
comfort-loving
•
•
mesomorphy
muscularity
•
•
•
•
somatotonia
risk taking
adventure seeking
extroversion
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Module 2565 B2.1.12
Personality
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
MEASUREMENT OF PERSONALITY
INTERVIEWS
• before or after the event
• not directly related to
performance
• open ended and flexible
• transient feelings or
attitudes may be
expressed
• difficult to quantify
accurately
• may be influenced by the
interviewer
Previous
QUESTIONNAIRES
• before or after the event
• not directly related to
performance
• rigidly and systematically
set out
• transient feelings or
attitudes may be
expressed
• able to quantify
accurately
• would not be influenced
by another
• can be used to assess
specific traits
Next
OBSERVATION
• made during an actual event
• directly related to
performance
• varies according to the
competitive nature of the
event
• difficult to quantify accurately
• may be influenced by the
observer’s views and
attitudes
Module 2565 B2.1.13
Personality
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
THE STRUCTURE OF CATTELL’S 16PF QUESTIONNAIRE
suspecting - accepting
lax - controlled
relaxed - tense
high anxiety
low anxiety
adventurous - shy
mature - immature
timid - confident
extroversion
introversion
sociable - aloof
aggressive - mild
enthusiastic - prudent
tough minded
tender minded
self-sufficient - group
oriented
sensitive - tough
imaginative - practical
independence
subduedness
sophisticated unpretentious
conscientious - casual
mentally bright mentally dull
Previous
radical - conservative
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Module 2565 B2.1.14
Personality
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
PROFILE OF MOOD STATES (POMS)
MOODS
• are an important aspect of personality
which may influence sports performance
•
•
•
•
•
•
tension
depression
anger
vigour
fatigue
confusion
•
elite sportspeople show low
– tension
– depression
– confusion
high
– vigour
•
•
•
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unsuccessful sportspeople show high
– tension
– depression
– fatigue
– confusion
low
– vigour
Module 2565 B2.1.15
Personality
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
THE SELF-CONCEPT
The SELF-CONCEPT
• is the descriptive picture we have
of ourselves
SELF-ESTEEM
• the extent to which we value
ourselves
•
•
this may or may not match up to
the expectations of others
•
example :
– player may take pride in an
ability to tackle hard
– the referee may see this as
unnecessary aggression
•
•
including :
– physical attributes
– attitudes
– abilities
– roles
– emotions
representing how we see ourselves
which may not reflect reality or the
way others see us
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Module 2565 B2.1.16
Personality
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
STRUCTURE OF
SELF-CONCEPT
GLOBAL
SELF-CONCEPT
level 1
level 2
academic
social
physical
attitudes
etc
Previous
level 3
sports
competence
physical
appearance
level 4
tennis ability
physique
level 5
serving ability
slim hips
level 6
‘I can get this
serve in’
‘I look good
today’
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Module 2565 B2.1.17
Personality
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
FACTORS WHICH INFLUENCE
SELF-CONCEPT
OBJECTIVE SOURCES
• photos
• records
• results
• mirrors
SUBJECTIVE PERCEPTIONS
• reaction of others
• comparison with others
• identification with models
Previous
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
EXPERIENCES AND SELF-CONCEPT
existing
positive
self-concept
existing
negative
self-concept
positive
experience of
sport or PE
self-concept
enhanced
self-concept
may become
positive
negative
experience of
sport or PE
self-concept
may become
negative
self-concept
reinforced
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Module 2565 B2.1.18
Personality
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
THE SELF-CONCEPT WHEEL
successful
experience
anticipation of
future success
positive feedback
from significant
others
development
of positive self
esteem
development
of high self
esteem
continued
participation
high motivation
effective
learning
continued
positive
feedback
enhanced
performance
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Module 2565 B2.1.19
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
Attitudes
ATTITUDES IN SPORT
ATTITUDES
• a combination of beliefs and feelings about :
– objects
– people
– situations
– (called attitude objects)
• this predisposes us to behave in a certain way towards them
•
learned or organised through experience
•
•
•
evaluative
they lead us to think and behave positively or negatively
about an attitude object
•
•
•
tend to be deep seated
and enduring
but can change or be changed
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Module 2565 B2.1.20
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
Attitudes
FORMATION OF ATTITUDES
media
friends
peers
family
Previous
FORMATION OF
ATTITUDES
teachers
Next
past
experiences
prejudice
coaches
Module 2565 B2.1.21
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
Attitudes
COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDE - THE TRIADIC MODEL
COGNITIVE
knowledge and beliefs
example : fitness training
keeps me fit
ATTITUDE
to regular exercise
BEHAVIOURAL
AFFECTIVE
intended behaviour
example : I attend training
sessions regularly
feelings and emotions
example : I enjoy training
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Module 2565 B2.1.22
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
Attitudes
PREJUDICE AND SPORT STEREOTYPES
PREJUDICE
• a prejudgement of a person, group,
or situation
• usually based on inadequate
information
• or inaccurate or biased information
• which reinforces stereotypes
•
example :
– women are often excluded from
male dominated sports clubs or
events
NEGATIVE STEREOTYPES
• women in strength, endurance and
contact sports
•
participation of the disabled in
physical activity
•
older age groups interest and
ability at sport
•
participation of particular ethnic
groups in specific sports or
positions within teams
examples :
– the black quarterback in
American Football
– the black sprinter
– the white skier / swimmer
•
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Module 2565 B2.1.23
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
Attitudes
POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ATTITUDES TO SPORT
POSITIVE ATTITUDES
• has a positive physical self-concept
• satisfaction from participation in
sport
• believe sport promotes health
• success at sport
• willing to try new activities
• encouraged by significant others
• participates regularly
• opportunity to participate
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NEGATIVE ATTITUDES
• had negative experiences at
sport
• have lifestyle which makes regular
sport difficult
• find sport frustrating
• lack encouragement
• unlikely to participate in sport
• have a negative self concept
• find sport boring
Module 2565 B2.1.24
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
Attitudes
ATTITUDE CHANGE BY PERSUASION AND COGNITIVE DISSONANCE
PERSUASIVE COMMUNICATION
• the person must
– pay attention
– understand
– accept
– retain
– the message being given
•
•
COGNITIVE DISSONANCE
• the person must
– be consistent between
• cognitive
• affective
• behavioural components
the coach must
– be expert
– be trustworthy
the
–
–
–
message must
be clear
be unambiguous
be balanced between emotion
and logic
– be balanced between pros and
cons
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•
the person must be consistent
between different elements
•
cognitive dissonance occurs
hence attitudes must change
– if two factual elements of
attitude conflict
– example : the smoker who
knows that smoking is bad for
health
Module 2565 B2.1.25
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
Attitudes
MEASUREMENT OF ATTITUDES
BY OBSERVATION
• related to actual events as they
are happening
• difficult to quantify or measure
• open to interpretation by
observer
USING PHYSIOLOGICAL TESTS
• indicators such as
– blood pressure
– skin conductivity
– brain activity (ECG)
• can be interpreted to indicate telling
the truth
– about an attitude object
• measurable
• independent of observer
• but takes a long time to set up
requiring special apparatus
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QUESTIONNAIRES
• only as good as the questions asked
• measurable using
– Thurstone scale
– Likert scale
– Osgood’s Semantic Differential
Scale
Module 2565 B2.1.26
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
Motivation
MOTIVES AND MOTIVATORS
MOTIVATORS
• the reasons why sportspeople
think and behave as they do
drive to
strive
persistence
continuity
intensity
MOTIVATION
performance
THEORIES
Previous
direction
social
perception
Next
goal
orientation
Module 2565 B2.1.27
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
Motivation
INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION
money
EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION
trophies
criticism
badges
positive and
negative
reinforcement
fame
praise
EXTRINSIC
MOTIVATION
MOTIVATION
the drive to
strive
INTRINSIC
MOTIVATION
INTRINSIC MOTIVATION
Previous
competence
Next
mastery
feeling good
Module 2565 B2.1.28
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
Motivation
EXTRINSIC REWARDS AND INTRINSIC SOURCES
INTRINSIC SOURCES
satisfaction
achievement
feeling good
INTRINSIC
SOURCES
money
EXTRINSIC REWARDS
trophies
badges
TANGIBLE
certificates
medals
EXTRINSIC
REWARDS
positive
praise
fame
winning
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INTANGIBLE
negative
criticism
defeat
Module 2565 B2.1.29
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
Motivation
MAJOR MOTIVES
FOR YOUTH SPORT PARTICIPATION
• fun
• being with friends
• thrills
• excitement
• success
• developing fitness
• improving skills
• being good at it
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FOR ADULT SPORT PARTICIPATION
• health factors
• weight loss
• fitness
• self-challenge
• feeling better
Module 2565 B2.1.30
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
Motivation
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION
DISADVANTAGES
• adding extrinsic reward to a situation which
already provided intrinsic motivation
• decreases the intrinsic motivation
• eventually replacing it
• so when rewards are no longer available
• interest in the situation (sports activity)
reduces
EXPLANATIONS
• the reward acts as a distraction
• to the sports person’s intrinsic desire to work at
his / her own pace
• rewards may turn play into work
• relationships with the person giving rewards
might change
• the nature of the activity changes
• people like to determine their own behaviour
• rewards may make them feel that someone
else is in charge
Previous
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APPLICATION OF EXTRINSIC
MOTIVATION
• to attract youngsters to an activity
• to revive flagging motivation
• to help a sportsperson over a bad
period in training
• to provide information about
levels of achievement and
competence
Module 2565 B2.1.31
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
Motivation
DEVELOPING AND ENHANCING MOTIVATION
MOTIVATION IS A COMBINATION OF
• personal characteristics
• situational aspects
MOTIVATION IS HIGHEST WHEN
• the performer is keen to participate
• the performer is keen to learn
• the performer is keen to perform
• the performer is keen to perform
effectively
• when the motivational climate is right
• when the training programme is
interesting and varied
MOTIVATION IS REDUCED BY
• routine
• competition between motives
Previous
PEOPLE
• have multiple motives
• share motives
• have unique motivational profiles
• need variation in training and
competition
• need variation in intensity and
competitiveness
• need structured coaching and
teaching environments
MOTIVES CHANGE OVER TIME
TEACHERS AND COACHES ARE
IMPORTANT MOTIVATORS
Next
Module 2565 B2.1.32
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
Motivation
ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION
ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION
• the drive to achieve success for its own
sake
• related to
– competitiveness
– persistence
– striving for perfection
NEED TO ACHIEVE (NACH)
Tendency to approach success (Ts)
• this personality type likes a challenge
• likes feedback
• is not afraid of failure
• has high task persistence
•
NEED TO AVOID FAILURE (NAF)
Tendency to avoid failure (Taf)
• this personality type avoids
challenges
• does not take risks
• often gives up
• does not want feedback
influenced by
– personality factors
• need to achieve
• need to avoid failure
– situational factors
• probability of success
• incentive value of success
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Module 2565 B2.1.33
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
Motivation
ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION - PERSONALITY COMPONENTS
A=
• someone with a high need to
achieve
• will probably have a low need to
avoid failure
• will choose difficult or demanding
tasks which are more risky
• the hard route up a rock face
B=
• someone with a high need to avoid
failure
• will probably have a low need to
achieve
• will choose tasks which are less
risky and more easily achieved
• the easy route up the rock face
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Module 2565 B2.1.34
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
Motivation
ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION - SITUATIONAL FACTORS
A=
• probability of success low
• (competing against the world
champion)
• therefore strive very hard to win
• (incentive high)
• (will be highly chuffed if win)
B=
• probability of success high
• (competing in local club match)
• therefore don’t need to try as hard
to win
• (incentive low)
• (and expect to win easily)
• (not so pleasing)
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Module 2565 B2.1.35
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
Motivation
AROUSAL AND DRIVE THEORY
AROUSAL
• this is the level of inner drives
• which forces the sportsperson to
strive to achieve
• it needs to be under control
• and at the right level depending
on the task
DRIVE THEORY
• the higher the arousal level
• the higher the achievement / performance
level
• the more likely that a well learned skill (a
dominant response) will be produced
RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM
• RAS is a system within the brain
which causes arousal
• extroverts have lower levels of
intrinsic arousal than introverts
• hence extroverts seek situations
of high arousal
• introverts seek low arousal
situations
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Module 2565 B2.1.36
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
Motivation
INVERTED U THEORY
INVERTED U THEORY
• there is an optimum arousal level
• if aroused more than this
• performance will decline
OPTIMUM AROUSAL DEPENDS ON
type of activity
• gross skills (weight lifting) require
high arousal
• fine skills (snooker) require low
arousal
skill level of the performer
• the more skilful the performer
• the higher the optimum arousal
could be
personality of the performer
• the more extrovert the performer
• the higher the arousal likely for
optimum performance
• whereas introverts would optimise
performance at lower arousal levels
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Module 2565 B2.1.37
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
Motivation
CATASTROPHE THEORY
CATASTROPHE THEORY
• here performance increases as
arousal increases
• but if arousal gets too high
• a complete loss of performance
occurs (the catastrophe)
•
example : the golfer who tries too
hard and completely misses the
fairway from his drive at the 18th hole
when in a winning position
•
example : the gymnast who
completely messes up her previously
well executed routine in a national
final
•
anxiety affects arousal
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Module 2565 B2.1.38
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
Groups and Teams
GROUPS
A GROUP IS
• two or more people
• interacting with one another
• so that each person influences and is
influenced by the others
• has a collective identity
• and a sense of shared purpose
Previous
•
•
•
a social aggregate
involving mutual awareness
and potential interaction with structured
patterns of communication
•
examples :
– crowd at a soccer match
– soccer team
– parents watching their children swim
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Module 2565 B2.1.39
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
Groups and Teams
STEINER’S MODEL
•
•
team success = potential for success - coordination and motivation problems
actual productivity = potential productivity - losses due to faulty processes
POTENTIAL FOR SUCCESS
• usually skilful individuals make the best team
• usually individual success (of team members) correlates with overall team success
COORDINATION PROBLEMS (for players)
• occur if there is a high level of interaction between them
• if one player is being selfish or aggressive
• if a defence is not working together
• hence overall team performance suffers
MOTIVATION PROBLEMS
• people seem to work less hard in a group than they do on their own
• example : in rowing, times of winning double sculls are often only slightly faster than
single sculls
• this is social loafing ‘the Ringlemann Effect’
MOTIVATIONAL LOSSES
• individuals may not share the same motives, this leads to loss of group cohesion
• example : some players may play a game for social reasons, others in order to win
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Module 2565 B2.1.40
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
Groups and Teams
SOCIAL LOAFING, INTERACTION AND COHESION
SOCIAL LOAFING
• individuals reduce their effort when in a group
• and can hide their lack of effort amongst the effort of other group members
• can be eliminated if the contribution of an individual can be identified
• as with player statistics (American Football, Rugby League, Cricket, Basketball)
• the need for interaction between players varies between sports
• cooperation between players can be significant
COHESION
• selection of less skilled but more cooperative players
• the extent to which members of a group exhibit a desire to achieve common goals and
group identity
• friendship groups can have negative effects
• cohesion has both task and social elements
TASK COHESION
• people who are willing to work together whether or not they get on personally
• have the potential to be successful
SOCIAL COHESION
• teams with high social cohesion but low task cohesion are less successful
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Module 2565 B2.1.41
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
Groups and Teams
COHESION
CARRON’s CONCEPTUAL MODEL
• four factors affect the development of cohesion
ENVIRONMENTAL
environmental
• factors binding members to a team
factors
– contracts, location, age, eligibility
• avoid star system, provide opportunities for socialising
PERSONAL
• factors which members believe are important
– motives for taking part
• give opportunities for motives to be realised
• develop ownership feelings and social groupings
within the team
LEADERSHIP
• the behaviour of leaders and coaches
– coaches should use all leadership behaviours to
influence different individuals
personal
factors
COHESION
leadership
factors
team
factors
TEAM
• factors relating to the group
– team identity, targets, member ability and role
• creation of team short and long-term goals
• rewarding of individual and team efforts
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Module 2565 B2.1.42
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
Leadership
LEADERSHIP
A LEADER
• can influence the behaviour of others
towards required goals
• will influence effective team cohesion
• will help fulfil expectations of a team
• develops an environment in which a
group is motivated rewarded and helped
towards its common goals
•
•
emergent leaders come from within a
group
– because of their skill and abilities
– or through nomination / election
prescribed leaders
– are appointed by a governing body
– or agency outside the group
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LEADERSHIP
• the ‘great man’ theory
• NATURE
• leaders are born not made
• leaders have relevant innate personality
qualities
•
•
•
•
social learning theory
NURTURE
leaders learn their skills through watching
and imitating models
leaders are formed throughout life
– by social or environmental
influences
– observation of a model
– high status of a model
– imitation or copying of behaviour
Module 2565 B2.1.43
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
Leadership
FACTORS AFFECTING LEADER EFFECTIVENESS
LEADERSHIP QUALITIES
• communication
• respect for group members
• enthusiasm
• high ability
• deep knowledge
• charisma
LEADER
CHARACTERISTICS
qualities
styles - autocratic,
democratic, laissez-faire
LEADER CHARACTERISTICS
LEADER
EFFECTIVENESS
THE SITUATION
MEMBER’S CHARACTERISTICS
THE SITUATION
individuality
tradition
time
size of group
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MEMBER's
CHARACTERISTICS
expectations
preferred leadership style
Module 2565 B2.1.44
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
Leadership
LEADERSHIP STYLE
FIEDLER’S CONTINGENCY THEORY
• there is a continuum between :
CHELLADURAI CONTINUUM
• between :
task-centred leadership
• best for most favourable or
• least favourable situations
autocratic authoritarian
• leader who makes all the decisions
democratic
• leader who shares the decisions
• (with members of group or team)
• seeks advice
• is prepared to change his / her mind
based on advice
person (or relationship) centred
leadership
• best for moderately favourable
situations
favourableness depends on
• whether relationships are warm
• if the task has a clear structure
• if the leader is powerful
• pressure of time
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laissez faire
• leader who lets others make decisions
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each type can be effective depending on
the situation
Module 2565 B2.1.45
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
Leadership
SITUATIONAL FACTORS
SITUATIONAL FAVOURABLENESS
•
•
•
•
•
•
TEAM SPORTS
• leader should be directive
• and organises and structures group tasks
if things are going well for the
team
or things are going badly
(poor facilities, no support)
then a leader needs to be
TASK-ORIENTED
INDIVIDUAL SPORTS
• look for a person oriented leader
SIZE OF GROUP
• affects leadership style
• the more members in a group
• the less likely individual needs will be
taken into account
if things are going moderately well
then a leader needs to be
PERSON-CENTRED
DECISION NEEDS TO BE MADE QUICKLY
• autocratic style of leader
TRADITION
• members resent change
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Module 2565 B2.1.46
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
Leadership
MEMBER’S CHARACTERISTICS
A GOOD LEADER will adapt to
– expectations
– knowledge
– experience
– of group members
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•
•
if group is hostile
leader adopts autocratic style
•
•
•
if group is friendly
leader adopts more democratic
person-centred style
•
problems arise if strategies for
preparation used by leader do not
match group expectations
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Module 2565 B2.1.47
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
Leadership
CHELLADURAI’S MULTIDIMENSIONAL MODEL
LEADER
CHARACTERISTICS
ACTUAL LEADER
REQUIRED
BEHAVIOUR
BEHAVIOUR
the way in which the coach
normally goes about his job
what is expected by team
management of the coach
performance /
satisfaction
PREFERRED LEADER
BEHAVIOUR
the way in which members prefer
their coach to relate to them
SITUATION
CHARACTERISTICS
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MEMBER's
CHARACTERISTICS
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Module 2565 B2.1.48
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
Leadership
CHELLADURAI’S FIVE TYPES OF LEADER BEHAVIOUR
TRAINING AND INSTRUCTION
• behaviour aimed at improving performance
• strong on technical and tactical aspects
DEMOCRATIC APPROACH
• allows decisions to be made collectively
AUTOCRATIC APPROACH
• personal authority
• least preferred if coach does not show he / she is
aware of athlete’s needs and preferences
SOCIAL SUPPORT
• concern shown for well-being of others
• preferred by youngsters
REWARDS
• leader uses positive reinforcement
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Module 2565 B2.1.49
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
Mental Preparation for Sport Performance
MENTAL PREPARATION FOR SPORT PERFORMANCE
COMMITMENT
SELF-CONFIDENCE
CONCENTRATION
EMOTIONAL
CONTROL
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Module 2565 B2.1.50
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
Commitment
GOAL SETTING
GOAL STRUCTURE
• easily attained initially
• progressively more difficult
• training goals should be planned
around overall goals
• short-term / medium-term / long-term
• goal setting as a means of managing
anxiety / stress
• goal setting to increase motivation
GOALS ARE EITHER
• outcome oriented
– towards the end result of the
sporting activity
– example : to win a race
• performance oriented
– judged against other performances
– example : to beat best time
• process oriented
– improvement in techniques
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GOALS SHOULD BE
• stated positively
• specific to the situation and the
performer
• time phased
• challenging
• achievable
• measurable
• negotiated between sportsperson and
coach
• progressive, from short-term to longterm
• performance oriented rather than
outcome oriented
• written down
• reviewed regularly (with downward
adjustment if necessary - in the case of
injury)
Module 2565 B2.1.51
OCR A2 Level Physical Education A 7875
Commitment
SMARTER GOALS (NCF)
SPECIFIC
• directly related to sporting situation
MEASURABLE
• progress can be assessed
ACCEPTED
• by both performer and coach
REALISTIC
• challenging but within capability of performer
TIME PHASED
• a date is set for completion
EXCITING
• inspiring and rewarding to the performer
RECORDED
• written down
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Module 2565 B2.1.52