Module 3
Philosophies and
Frameworks
1
Quiz
• What were the 5 definitions of quality?
– Transcendent (Excellence)
– Product-Based
– User-Based
– Value-Based
– Manufacturing-Based (Conformance, Little Q)
2
Medical Devices Case
• What is Happening? (The Trend)
• Margins for Improvement?
– Quality Checks?
– Feedback Analyses?
– Benchmarks?
• Transformations?
• Customers? End Users? Quality Recognition?
3
Deming Chain Reaction
Improve quality
Costs decrease
Productivity improves
Increase market share with better
quality and lower prices
Stay in business
Provide jobs and more jobs
4
Deming’s System
of Profound Knowledge
•
•
•
•
Appreciation for a system
Understanding variation
Theory of knowledge
Psychology
5
Appreciation for a System
• Most organizational processes are
cross-functional
• Parts of a system must work together
• Every system must have a purpose
• Management must optimize the system
as a whole
6
Knowledge of Statistical Theory
• Many sources of uncontrollable variation
exist in any process
• Excessive variation results in product
failures, unhappy customers, and
unnecessary costs
• Statistical methods can be used to
identify and quantify variation to help
understand it and lead to improvements
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Theory of Knowledge
• Knowledge is not possible without
theory (e.g. 2 + 2 = 4)
– Riding a bicycle (Tacit & Explicit)
• Experience alone does not establish a
theory, it only describes
• Theory shows cause-and-effect
relationships that can be used for
prediction
8
Knowledge of Psychology
• People are motivated intrinsically and
extrinsically
• Fear is “generally” demotivating
• Managers should develop pride and joy
in work
9
Deming’s 14 Points (Abridged) (1 of 2)
1. Create and publish a company mission
statement and commit to it.
2. Learn the new philosophy.
3. Understand the purpose of inspection.
4. End business practices driven by price alone.
5. Constantly improve system of production
and service.
6. Institute training.
7. Teach and institute leadership.
8. Drive out fear and create trust.
10
Deming’s 14 Points (2 of 2)
9. Optimize team and individual efforts.
10. Eliminate exhortations for work force.
11. Eliminate numerical quotas and management
by objectives (MBO). Focus on improvement.
12. Remove barriers that rob people of pride
of workmanship.
13. Encourage education and self-improvement.
14. Take action to accomplish the transformation.
www.deming.org
11
Juran’s Quality Trilogy
1) Quality planning, 2) Quality control, and
3) Quality improvement
The Juran Trilogy®
Quality Control (During Operations)
Sporadic Spike
(RCA/SCA)
40
Original Zone of
Quality Control
20
Quality
Improvement
Quality Planning
Operations
Begin
R6
New Zone of
Quality Control
Cost of Poor Quality
Chronic Waste
0
Time
0
Lessons Learned
12
Phillip B. Crosby
Quality is free . . . :
“Quality is free. It’s not a gift, but it is free. What
costs money are the unquality things -- all the
actions that involve not doing jobs right the first
time.”
13
Philip B. Crosby
Absolutes of Quality Management:
•
•
•
•
•
Quality means conformance to requirements
Problems are functional in nature
There is no optimum level of defects
Cost of quality is the only useful measurement
Zero defects is the only performance standard
www.philipcrosby.com
14
A.V. Feigenbaum
• Three Steps to Quality
– Quality Leadership, with a strong focus on
planning
– Modern Quality Technology, involving the entire
work force
– Organizational Commitment, supported by
continuous training and motivation
“Accountability for quality: Because quality is everybody's job,
it may become nobody's job—the idea that quality must be
actively managed and have visibility at the highest levels of
management.” ~ Feigenbaum
15
Kaoru Ishikawa
• Instrumental in developing Japanese
quality strategy
• Influenced participative approaches
involving all workers
• Advocated the use of simple visual tools
and statistical techniques
16
Kaoru Ishikawa
17
Genichi Taguchi
• Pioneered a new perspective on quality based
on the economic value of being on target and
reducing variation and dispelling the
traditional view of conformance to
specifications:
Loss
No Loss
0.480
0.500
Loss
0.520
Tolerance
18
Feedback Report
• Strengths - approaches or results that
demonstrate effective response to the
Criteria
• Opportunities for improvement - how
the applicant can better address the
purposes of the Criteria, or issues that
require clarification
19
Sample Feedback Report Types
20
ISO 9000:2000
• Quality system standards adopted by
International Organization for Standardization
in 1987; revised in 1994, 2000, and 2005.
• Technical specifications and criteria to be used
as rules, guidelines, or definitions of
characteristics to ensure that materials,
products, processes, and services are fit for
their purpose.
21
Objectives of ISO Standards (1 of 2)
• Achieve, maintain, and continuously improve
product quality
• Improve quality of operations to continually
meet customers’ and stakeholders’ needs
• Provide confidence to internal management
and other employees that quality
requirements are being fulfilled
22
Objectives of ISO Standards (2 of 2)
• Provide confidence to customers and other
stakeholders that quality requirements are
being achieved
• Provide confidence that quality system
requirements are fulfilled
23
Structure of ISO 9000 Standards
• 21 elements organized into four major
sections:
– Management Responsibility
– Resource Management
– Product Realization
– Measurement, Analysis, and Improvement
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ISO 9000:2005 Quality Management
Principles
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Customer Focus
Leadership
Involvement of People
Process Approach
System Approach to Management
Continual Improvement
Factual Approach to Decision Making
Mutually Beneficial Supplier Relationships
25
ISO 9001:2008
ISO 9001:2008 sets out the criteria for a quality
management system and is the only standard in the
family that can be certified (although this is not a
requirement).
Checking that the system works is a vital part of ISO
9001:2008. An organization must perform internal
audits to check how its quality management system is
working.
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