Intro Music: “Mad World” As performed by Michael Andrews & Gary Jules In this presentation, you will learn about the following: •Definition – What the disorder is? •Symptoms – What is characteristic of the disorder? •Causes – What causes the disorder? •Treatments – What are the treatments available and is there a “cure?” Schizophrenia is a dysfunction of the brain that is “considered the most chronic and disabling of the severe mental disorders” (Beebe, 2003). Your textbook defines schizophrenia as “a group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions” (Myers, 2010). •Translated literally into “split mind”: -Describes how the afflicted patient is “split off” from reality. -Does not have multiple personalities, but a single personality that simply has difficulty staying rooted in reality. •A person with schizophrenia may have very “random” and irrational thought patterns. -Fragmented Thinking/Speech 1.) Selective Attention: “Irrelevant, minute stimuli…may distract [the patient’s] attention” (Myers, 2010). 2.) Word Salad: “liberationary movement with a view to the widening of the horizon will ergo extort some wit in lectures” (Myers, 2010) 3.) Paranoia •May experience sensations that are not real. 1.) Hallucinations: “sensory experiences without sensory stimulation” (Myers, 2010). “Most often…the hallucinations are auditory, frequently voices making insulting remarks or giving orders” (Myers, 2010). •Acting irrationally or behaving inappropriately. 1.) Flat Effect: “Lack of emotional expression, including a flat voice, lack of eye contact, and black or restricted facial expressions” (www.helpguide.org) 2.) Crying, laughing, or becoming angry for no apparent reason. •“Research has replicated that schizophrenia is related to neurological damage” (Lambert, 2001). •In both children and adults with schizophrenia, there is apparent autonomic nervous system arousal and problems with the visual tracking of objects (Lambert, 2001). •Dopamine over-activity may be related to developing schizophrenia. Thus, using drugs that increase dopamine levels may put a person at higher risk (Myers, 2010). •Genetic Predisposition •Environmental/Lifestyle Factors http://dictionary-psychology.com Because of schizophrenia’s wide diagnosis, the treatments vary. •The treatments are based off of several models which target the different aspects of what is contributing to the disorder (Beebe, 2003). 1.) Biological (Genetic) Model 2.) Environmental Model 3.) Vulnerability Model Medication to reduce dopamine activity •Antipsychotic medications “act primarily to block dopamine receptors and increase dopamine destruction (Beebe, 2003). •By reducing dopamine activity, the brain will not react as impulsively to stimuli. •Medication also can help dispel hallucinations, anxiety, and paranoia. Interpersonal relationships and adaptation •Stress and Coping Theory: “Specifies stressors and moderators that may influence the course of schizophrenia (Beebe, 2003). •Social support groups gives practical and emotional support. •Supportive counseling showed a decline in negative symptoms in a 2 year follow-up of treatment patients (Tarrier et al., 2000). Identify the target groups prone to schizophrenia. •Helps to group peoples diagnosed with schizophrenia into different ‘classes’ so that they may be treated properly (Beebe, 2003). •Links the environment and biological models of treatment together. In this presentation, you will learn about the following: •Definition – What the disorder is? •Symptoms – What is characteristic of the disorder? •Causes – What causes the disorder? •Treatments – What are the treatments available and is there a “cure?” •Controversy – What are the problems with the disorder? “Any people, given over to the power of contagious passion, may be swept by desolation, and plunged into ruin.” – Charles W. Upham, 1867 Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) is defined as a disorder with two or more distinct personalities which are said to control a person’s behavior (Myers, 2010). •Formerly called “Multiple Personality Disorder (MDP). •Said to afflict a tenth of all Americans. That’s more than twenty-six million individuals (Piper, 1998). •A very controversial disorder. 1.) Dissociation: As defined by APA: “disruption in one or more mental operations that constitute the central idea of “consciousness”: forming and holding memories, assimilating sensory impressions and making sense of them, and maintaining a sense of one’s own identity” (Piper, 1998). 2.) Alternate Personalities “Each personality has its own voice and mannerisms. Thus the person may be prim and proper one moment, loud and flirtatious the next” (Myers, 2010). 3.) Memory Loss The causes of DID are highly debated. •Extraordinary childhood traumas -Sexual or abusive •Overused defense mechanisms of detachment and dissociation to cope with abuse or stress (Piper, 1998). •Active substance abuse •Posttraumatic Stress Disorder •Depression •Eating disorders Due to the patient’s “polysymptomatology, patients with dissociative disorders typically take multiple psychiatric medications” (Brand et al., 2009). -Studies show that with treatment, about 2/3 of DID patients can be reintroduced to society (Brand et al., 2009). -Common treatments are one-on-one therapy sessions with a psychiatrist, antipsychotic drugs, and occasional hypnosis (Brand et al., 2009). The wide range of controversy (which is very complex) stems from claims that DID is no more than a consciously created disorder between patient and psychiatrist/psychologist (Myers, 2010). The difficulty comes in proving that brain activity is truly altered or split into another personality. Multiple cases have been proven (or admitted) fraudulent. -ex. “The Hillside Strangler” (Myers, 2010) Beebe, L.H. (2003). Theory-based research in schizophrenia. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 39 (2), 67. Academic OneFile. Web. 23 Apr. 2010. <http://find.galegroup.com> Lambert, L.T. (2001). Identification and management of schizophrenia in childhood. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 14 (2), 73. Academic OneFile. Web. 23 Apr. 2010. <http://find.galegroup.com> Tarrier, N., Kinney, C., McCarthy, E., Humphreys, L., Wittkowski, A., Morris, J. (2000). Two-year follow up of cognitive-behavioral therapy and supportive counseling in the treatment of persistent symptoms in chronic schizophrenia. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68 (5), 917-922. DOI: 10.1037/0022-006X.68.5.917 HelpGuide Organization (n.d.). Understanding schizophrenia: signs, symptoms, causes, and effects. Retrieved 17 Feb. 2010, from <http://www.helpguide.org> Meyers, D.G. (2010). Psychology, 9th ed. New York: Worth Publishers. Brand, B., Classen C., Lanins, R., Loewenstein R., McNary, S., Pain, C., Putnam, F. (2009). A naturalistic study of dissociative identity disorder and dissociative disorder not otherwise specified patients treated by community clinicians. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 1 (2), 153-171. DOI: 10.1037/a0016210 Piper, A., Jr. (1998). Multiple personality disorder: witchcraft survives in the twentieth century. Skeptical Inquirer, 22 (3), 44. Academic OneFile. Web. 23 Apr. 2010. <http://find.galegroup.com> Meyers, D.G. (2010). Psychology, 9th ed. New York: Worth Publishers.