Intro Music: “Mad World”
As performed by
Michael Andrews & Gary Jules
In this presentation, you will learn about the
•Definition –
What the disorder is?
•Symptoms –
What is characteristic of the disorder?
•Causes –
What causes the disorder?
•Treatments – What are the treatments available and
is there a “cure?”
Schizophrenia is a dysfunction of the brain that is “considered the most
chronic and disabling of the severe mental disorders” (Beebe, 2003).
Your textbook defines schizophrenia as “a group of
severe disorders characterized by disorganized and
delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and
inappropriate emotions and actions” (Myers, 2010).
•Translated literally into “split mind”:
-Describes how the afflicted patient is “split off”
from reality.
-Does not have multiple personalities, but a single
personality that simply has difficulty staying
rooted in reality.
•A person with schizophrenia may have very “random”
and irrational thought patterns.
-Fragmented Thinking/Speech
1.) Selective Attention:
“Irrelevant, minute stimuli…may distract [the
patient’s] attention” (Myers, 2010).
2.) Word Salad:
“liberationary movement with a view to the widening
of the horizon will ergo extort some wit in lectures”
(Myers, 2010)
3.) Paranoia
•May experience sensations that are not real.
1.) Hallucinations:
“sensory experiences without sensory stimulation”
(Myers, 2010).
“Most often…the hallucinations are auditory, frequently
voices making insulting remarks or giving orders”
(Myers, 2010).
•Acting irrationally or behaving inappropriately.
1.) Flat Effect:
“Lack of emotional expression, including a flat voice, lack of
eye contact, and black or restricted facial expressions”
2.) Crying, laughing, or becoming angry for no
apparent reason.
•“Research has replicated that schizophrenia is related to
neurological damage” (Lambert, 2001).
•In both children and adults with schizophrenia, there is
apparent autonomic nervous system arousal and
problems with the visual tracking of objects
(Lambert, 2001).
•Dopamine over-activity may be related to developing
schizophrenia. Thus, using drugs that increase
dopamine levels may put a person at higher risk
(Myers, 2010).
•Genetic Predisposition
•Environmental/Lifestyle Factors
Because of schizophrenia’s wide diagnosis, the
treatments vary.
•The treatments are based off of several models which
target the different aspects of what is contributing to
the disorder (Beebe, 2003).
1.) Biological (Genetic) Model
2.) Environmental Model
3.) Vulnerability Model
Medication to reduce dopamine activity
•Antipsychotic medications “act primarily to block
dopamine receptors and increase dopamine
destruction (Beebe, 2003).
•By reducing dopamine activity, the brain will not
react as impulsively to stimuli.
•Medication also can help dispel hallucinations,
anxiety, and paranoia.
Interpersonal relationships and adaptation
•Stress and Coping Theory: “Specifies stressors and
moderators that may influence the course of
schizophrenia (Beebe, 2003).
•Social support groups gives practical and emotional
•Supportive counseling showed a decline in negative
symptoms in a 2 year follow-up of treatment patients
(Tarrier et al., 2000).
Identify the target groups prone to schizophrenia.
•Helps to group peoples diagnosed with
schizophrenia into different ‘classes’ so that they may
be treated properly (Beebe, 2003).
•Links the environment and biological models of
treatment together.
In this presentation, you will learn about the
•Definition –
What the disorder is?
•Symptoms –
What is characteristic of the disorder?
•Causes –
What causes the disorder?
•Treatments – What are the treatments available and
is there a “cure?”
•Controversy – What are the problems with the
“Any people, given over to the power of contagious passion, may be swept
by desolation, and plunged into ruin.” – Charles W. Upham, 1867
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) is defined as a
disorder with two or more distinct personalities
which are said to control a person’s behavior (Myers,
•Formerly called “Multiple Personality Disorder (MDP).
•Said to afflict a tenth of all Americans. That’s more
than twenty-six million individuals (Piper, 1998).
•A very controversial disorder.
1.) Dissociation:
As defined by APA: “disruption in one or more mental
operations that constitute the central idea of “consciousness”:
forming and holding memories, assimilating sensory impressions
and making sense of them, and maintaining a sense of one’s own
identity” (Piper, 1998).
2.) Alternate Personalities
“Each personality has its own voice and mannerisms. Thus
the person may be prim and proper one moment, loud and
flirtatious the next” (Myers, 2010).
3.) Memory Loss
The causes of DID are highly debated.
•Extraordinary childhood traumas
-Sexual or abusive
•Overused defense mechanisms of detachment and
dissociation to cope with abuse or stress (Piper, 1998).
•Active substance abuse
•Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
•Eating disorders
Due to the patient’s “polysymptomatology, patients
with dissociative disorders typically take multiple
psychiatric medications” (Brand et al., 2009).
-Studies show that with treatment, about 2/3 of DID
patients can be reintroduced to society
(Brand et al., 2009).
-Common treatments are one-on-one therapy sessions
with a psychiatrist, antipsychotic drugs, and occasional
hypnosis (Brand et al., 2009).
The wide range of controversy (which is very
complex) stems from claims that DID is no more
than a consciously created disorder between patient
and psychiatrist/psychologist (Myers, 2010).
The difficulty comes in proving that brain activity is
truly altered or split into another personality.
Multiple cases have been proven (or admitted)
-ex. “The Hillside Strangler” (Myers, 2010)
Beebe, L.H. (2003). Theory-based research in schizophrenia. Perspectives in
Psychiatric Care, 39 (2), 67. Academic OneFile. Web. 23 Apr. 2010.
Lambert, L.T. (2001). Identification and management of schizophrenia in childhood.
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 14 (2), 73. Academic OneFile.
Web. 23 Apr. 2010. <>
Tarrier, N., Kinney, C., McCarthy, E., Humphreys, L., Wittkowski, A., Morris, J. (2000).
Two-year follow up of cognitive-behavioral therapy and supportive counseling in the
treatment of persistent symptoms in chronic schizophrenia. Journal of Consulting and
Clinical Psychology, 68 (5), 917-922. DOI: 10.1037/0022-006X.68.5.917
HelpGuide Organization (n.d.). Understanding schizophrenia: signs, symptoms,
causes, and effects. Retrieved 17 Feb. 2010, from <>
Meyers, D.G. (2010). Psychology, 9th ed. New York: Worth Publishers.
Brand, B., Classen C., Lanins, R., Loewenstein R., McNary, S., Pain, C., Putnam, F.
(2009). A naturalistic study of dissociative identity disorder and dissociative disorder
not otherwise specified patients treated by community clinicians. Psychological
Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 1 (2), 153-171. DOI:
Piper, A., Jr. (1998). Multiple personality disorder: witchcraft survives in the twentieth
century. Skeptical Inquirer, 22 (3), 44. Academic OneFile. Web. 23 Apr. 2010.
Meyers, D.G. (2010). Psychology, 9th ed. New York: Worth Publishers.

Schizophrenia & Disassociative Disorder Presentation