Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 8/e
Stephen P. Robbins
Chapter 10
Leadership and
Creating Trust
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© 2005 Prentice-Hall
After reading this chapter, you should be able to:
1) Summarize the conclusions of trait
theories
2) Identify the limitations of behavioral
theories
3) Describe Fiedler’s contingency
model
4) Summarize the path-goal theory
5) List the contingency variables in the
leader-participation model
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After reading this chapter, you should be able to:
6) Differentiate transformational from
transactional leadership
7) Describe the pros and cons of
charismatic leadership
8) Explain the role of emotional intelligence
in leadership effectiveness
9) Identify situations when leadership may
not be relevant
10)Summarize how leaders can build trust
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Leadership
• Ability to
influence a group
toward the
achievement of
goals
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Trait Theories – 1990s
Seven traits seemed to differ leaders
from non-leaders:
• ambition and
energy
• desire to lead
• honesty and
integrity
• self-confidence
• intelligence
• high selfmonitoring
• job-relevant
knowledge
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• Researchers began organizing
traits around the Big Five
personality framework
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• Resulted in
consistent and
strong support
for traits as
predictors of
leadership
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• Traits do a better job at
predicting the emergence of
leaders than in actually
distinguishing between effective
and ineffective leaders
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Behavioral Theories
• Assumes people can be trained
to lead
• Researched the behaviors of
specific leaders
• Provides the basis of design for
training programs
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Ohio State Studies
• Developed two categories of
leadership behavior
– Initiating structure - attempts to
organize work, work relationships,
and goals
– Consideration - concern for
followers’ comfort, well-being, status,
and satisfaction
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University of Michigan Studies
• Employee-oriented - emphasize
interpersonal relations
• Production-oriented emphasize the technical or task
aspects of the job
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Limitations of Behavioral
Theories
• Did not identify consistent
relationships between leadership
behavior and group performance
• Missing consideration of the
situational factors that influence
success and failure
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Contingency Theories
• Fiedler
• Path-goal
• Leader-participation
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Fiedler Leadership Model
• Effective group performance depends
on the proper match between the
leader’s style of interacting with
subordinates and the degree to which
the situation gives control and
influence to the leader
• Least-preferred co-worker (LPC)
questionnaire
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Fiedler Contingency Dimensions
• Leader-member relations
• Task structure
• Position power
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Fiedler Model
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Leader-Member Exchange Theory
• Leaders do differentiate among
followers
• Disparities are far from random
• Followers with in-group status have:
– higher performance ratings
– lower turnover intentions
– greater satisfaction with their superiors
– higher overall satisfaction than those in the
out-group
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Path-Goal Theory
• Leader’s job is to assist followers in
attaining their goals and to provide
the direction and support needed to
ensure that their goals are compatible
with the overall objectives of the
organization
• Acceptable, Motivational
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Path-Goal Theory
•
•
•
•
Directive leader
Supportive leader
Participative leader
Achievement-oriented leader
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Path-Goal Theory
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Leader-Participation Model
• Leader behavior must adjust to
reflect the task structure
• Sequential set of rules that should
be followed in determining the form
and amount of participation in
decision making
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Transactional
Transformational
leaders - motivate
leaders - inspire
their followers in
followers to transcend
the direction of
their own selfestablished goals
interests for the good
by clarifying role
of the organization
and task
requirements
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Charismatic Leadership Theory
• Followers make attributions of
heroic or extraordinary leadership
abilities when they observe certain
behaviors
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Charismatic Leaders
• Have vision
• Willing to take risks to achieve that
vision
• Sensitive to both environmental
constraints and follower needs
• Exhibit behaviors that are out of the
ordinary
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How Charismatic Leaders
Influence Followers
• Articulates an appealing vision
• Communicates high performance
expectations
• Conveys, through words and actions, a
new set of values
• Makes self-sacrifices and engages in
unconventional behavior to demonstrate
convictions about the vision
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Increasing body of research shows
impressive correlations between
charismatic leadership and high
performance and satisfaction
among followers
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Contemporary Issues
• Role of emotional intelligence in
leadership effectiveness
• Ethical implications in leadership
• Need to modify leadership style to
cultural differences
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Emotional Intelligence (EI)
• Recent studies indicate that EI is
the best predictor
of who will
emerge as a
leader
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What is Trust?
• A positive expectation that another
will not--through words, actions, or
decisions--act opportunistically
• Familiarity, Risk
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Trust Dimensions
Integrity
Competence Consistency
Loyalty
Openness
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Three Types of Trust
• Deterrence-based
• Knowledge-based
• Identification-based
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How to Build Trust
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Practice openness
Be fair
Speak your feelings
Tell the truth
Show consistency
Fulfill your promises
Maintain confidences
Demonstrate competence
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Summary
1) Summarized the conclusions of trait
theories
2) Identified the limitations of behavioral
theories
3) Described Fiedler’s contingency model
4) Summarized the path-goal theory
5) Listed the contingency variables in the
leader-participation model
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© 2005 Prentice-Hall
Summary
6) Differentiated transformational from
transactional leadership
7) Described the pros and cons of
charismatic leadership
8) Explained the role of emotional
intelligence in leadership effectiveness
9) Identified situations when leadership
may not be relevant
10)Summarized how leaders can build trust
10-35
© 2005 Prentice-Hall