• Aligning people towards common goals and
empowering them to take actions needed to
reach them.
Historically important studies
The Iowa Leadership Studies
Important features:
• 1st attempt to experimentally determine
effect of leadership styles on groups
• Experimentally crude
• Results showed that different style of
leadership can produce different reactions
from similar group.
The Experiment (R.Lippitt & R.K.White,
• 10 years old boys were subjected to
different leadership styles in hobby classes
• Styles of leadership: authoritarian,
democratic & Laissez-Faire.
• Purpose: examine patterns of aggressive
behavior in the boys
• Authoritarian leadership:aggressive or
apathetic reaction resulting from frustration.
• Laissez-faire leadership: greatest number of
aggressive acts.
• Democratic leadership: fell in between the
two extremes
The Ohio State Leadership Study
Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire
(LBDQ) was developed and used to analyze
leadership in various groups and situations.
• Two dimensions of leadership emerged
1. Consideration (recognition of individual needs
or relationships). High scorers were:
Open & friendly with subordinates
Treat subordinates as equals
Helped them solve personal/work problems
2. Initiating Structure (goal/task orientation). High
scorers were:
put pressures to meet deadlines
Maintain standards of performance
Individuals who achieved ‘high-high’ were able
to achieve higher levels of performance & job
First study to emphasize importance of both task
& human dimensions in assessing leadership
Leadership was studied without being
The Early Michigan Leadership Studies
• Prudential life insurance company
• Twelve high-low productivity pairs of sections
were kept under observation.
• Each pair consisted of one high producing
section and one low producing section.
• Other factors were constant.
• 24 supervisors & 419 workers were
• Leadership behavior was categorized in two
• Employee-Oriented: emphasizes importance of
inter-personal relations. High scorers:
– personal interest in subordinate needs
– accept individual differences among members
• Production-Oriented: concerned with tasks &
goals. Employees are means to achieve goals.
Lead to lower motivation & productivity
• Employee-Oriented leaders achieve higher
job satisfaction & higher group productivity.
• Production-Oriented leaders achieve lower
job satisfaction & group productivity.
Traditional theories of leadership
Trait Theories
• Concerned with identifying personality
traits of leaders
The great person theory
• Leaders are born with certain traits that
allows them to emerge out of situations and
become leaders.
• “Intelligence” :the only common trait.
Group & Exchange theories
• In ‘Group approach’ leadership is viewed in
terms of leader’s behavior & how it
affects/is affected by groups.
• Classic Exchange theory means that there
should be a positive exchange between
leaders & followers.
The Leader-Member Exchange Theory
• Leaders treat individual subordinates
• Develop a dyadic (two-person) relationship
• Leader develops a ‘in-group’ & an ‘out-group’
of subordinates & treats tem accordingly
• Research shows that ‘In-group’ subordinates:
– Report fewer difficulties with leader
– Perceive leader to be responsive to their needs
– Assume greater responsibility & are high
• The leaders tend to:
• ‘supervise’ those in the ‘out-group’
• Spend more time ‘leading’ those in the ‘Ingroup’.
• The basis for choosing groups:
Similar attitudes & personality
Higher competence
Better performance
• LMX is reciprocal process
• Leaders help subordinate to achieve goals.
Contingency theory of leadership
• Leaders are viewed as products of time & situation
• Leaders have to change their style depending on the
Fiedler’s Contingency model of Leadership
• Relationship between leadership style & favorableness
of the situation
• Under very favorable/unfavorable situations, taskdirected / authoritarian leader is most effective
• For moderately favorable: human oriented / democratic
leader is most effective
• Situational favorableness is described in
terms of three dimensions:
• The leader-member relationship (extent to
which leader is accepted& respected by
• The degree of task-structure (task is highly
structured & everything is ‘spelled-out’
• The Leader’s position (authority & power
attributed to leader’s position)
Narrow focus on one trait of leadership
Ambiguity in dimensions’ measurement
First contingency theory
Emphasizes importance of situation &
leader’s characteristics for measuring
Stimulated a great deal of research
Path-Goal Leadership theory
• Explains the impact of leader behavior on
subordinate motivation, satisfaction &
• Four styles of leadership (House):
Directive Leadership
Supportive leadership
Participative leadership
Achievement oriented leadership
• Using one of the styles, leaders provides
support & guidance to subordinates to achieve
• Attempts to influence subordinate
perceptions & motivate them.
• Situational factors that effect leaders
• Personal characteristics of subordinates
• Environmental demands & pressures facing
The Path-Goal Relationship
Modern theoretical processes of leadership
Charismatic Leadership Theories
• Who by the force of their personal abilities
are capable for having profound &
extraordinary effect on subordinates
• Characteristics of charismatic leaders (Robert
Self confidence & confidence in subordinates
High expectations from subordinates
Leading by example
Bass included:
• Superior debating & persuasive skills
• Technical expertise
• Fostering of attitudinal, behavioral &
emotional changes in followers.
Transformational leadership theory
• James MacGregor Burns identified two types of
political leadership:
• Transactional (involves an exchange relationship
between leaders & followers)
• Transformational (leader’s shifting the values,
beliefs & needs of their followers)
Transactional leaders:
• Contingent rewards
• Management by Exception(active/passive)
• Laissez-faire
Transformational Leaders:
Intellectual stimulation
Individual consideration
Transactional leadership leads to mediocrity in
many situations & transformational leadership
leads to superior performance (Bass)
Characteristics of effective transformational
Identify themselves as change agents
Believe in people
Value driven
Lifelong learners
Have the ability to deal with complexity,
ambiguity & uncertainty
• visionaries
Classic Leadership Styles
Blake & Mouton’s Managerial grid
Hersey & Blanchard’s Situational
Two major styles of leaders:
• Task style
• Relationship style
• Maturity level of the followers was incorporated .
Criteria for maturity:
– Degree of achievement orientation
– Willingness to take responsibility
– Amount of education/expertise
• Effective leaders match up the situation to
appropriate style of leadership
• Styles of leadership:
1. Telling style (high task; low relationship;
effective when followers have low
2. Selling style (high task; high
relationship;followers have low maturity)
3. Participating style (low task; high
relationship; high maturity of followers)
4. Delegating style (low task; low
relationship; very high maturity in
Vroom’s Leadership-Participation model
• Relationship between leadership behavior &
decision making style.
• Leaders must adjust their behavior
depending on the situation
• Provides a sequential set of rules for
ascertaining the types and amount of
participation required in decision making in
different situations.
Problem attributes
Leader should assess a situation in terms of the
problem attributes.
Two categories (for 12 attributes):
Decision Quality: cost consideration, information
availability,nature of problem structure
Employee- acceptance: need for commitment,
prior approval, conflicts, goal congruence
(personal & orgn).
Others: subordinate information level, time
constraint, geographical distance with
subordinates, leaders’ motivation
Leadership styles:
After identifying the nature of the problem,
leader can adopt one of the following styles
of leadership:
Autocratic I
Autocratic II
Consultive I
Consultive II
Group II
• Leaders can precisely classify problems by
following the decisions tree format
• Leaders are willing to and can adapt their
style as per the situation
• Employees accept leader’s classification of
the situation & the leadership styles adopted
Leadership styles
• The way in which leaders influence their
Various styles:
• Autocratic
• Consultative
• Laissez-faire or subordinate-oriented
• Democratic
• Manipulative
• Expert
Likert’s four systems of management
System 1 management : ‘exploitiveauthoritative’ style
System 2 management: ‘benevolent
authoritative’ style
System 3 management: ‘consultative’ style
Style 4 management: ‘participative’ style
What skills do leaders need?
Skills needed in the glogal economy:
Cultural flexibility
Communication skills
HRD skills
Self-management of learning
Whetten & Cameron’s list for effective leaders:
Verbal communication
Managing time & stress
Managing individual decisions
Recognizing, defining & solving problems
Motivating & influencing others
Setting goals & articulating a vision
Team building
Managing conflict
Characteristics of these skills:
• The skills are behavioral
• Skills are contradictory or paradoxical
• Skills are inter-related & overlapping.