Key Issues Do you know what they are? If you know what the key issue is for each approach That is BRILLIANT!! • Next you need to select some studies to use as evidence. In psychology, evidence is always required as it backs up the point you are making! • The Key issues allow you to apply what you have learnt to real life situations. Most psychological research would indicate that E.W.T. is not reliable (Loftus & Palmer 1975) This is really important Because if it is true it may mean that an innocent person goes to prison or a guilty person goes free One key issue of the Cognitive approach is whether Eye witness testimony is reliable or not Jill Dando was a well known presenter of Crime watch. She was murdered in 1999. The man charged with her murder, Barry George , was set free in 2008 because the evidence, much of it eye witness was deemed unsafe! Most of the evidence supporting the view that E.W.T. is not reliable comes from laboratory studies. (L & P 1975) More realistic studies indicate E.W.T. is fairly reliable especially on the non peripheral (important)details. Can you provide evidence from another study? Name that theory.... Name the psychologist Name the psychologist... Name the study.... On 27th Oct 2004 Staff Sergeant Ivan ‘Chip’ Frederick, aged 38 was sentenced to 8 years imprisonment for sexually and physically assaulting detainees (including carrying out a mock electrocution on an individual). Psychologists have simulated This type of behaviour and found many people behave this way when given direct orders . This has lead many to believe that it is fairly normal to obey even immoral orders given by a superior A key issue of the Social approach is Who was responsible for the torture of prisoners in Abu Ghraib Warrant Officer Kevin Kramer, a military intelligence officer referred to an email sent by US Command in Baghdad telling him to order his interrogators to be tough on prisoners. The email said that they “wanted the detainees to be broken”. In the army soldiers are trained to obey all orders without thinking too much about them and so the defence of Fredrick and others charged was that they were following orders and so not fully responsible Name that theory... Name the psychologist..... The Rwandan Genocide was the 1994 mass killing of around 800 000 of Rwanda's Tutsis by Hutu militia. Despite endless requests from the peace keeping group UNAMIR in Rwanda, the United Nations refused to help Another key issue of the Social approach is whether psychologists can explain the genocide in Rwanda This genocide was one in a very long line of mass murders committed by one group against another in countries throughout history all around the world Psychologists have tried to explain ethnocentric and other discriminatory behaviour , but the issue is whether they contribute at all to our understanding when things have escalated to mass murder Name another key issue from this approach Name that theory Name the psychologist Other issues in the social approach •Cult behaviour •Race riots •Football hooliganism Women's car insurance is less than men's indicating that insurance companies for one think that women are at least safer drivers which surely is a key component in good driving. Despite this very few men will concede that their partner is a better driver than them A key issue of the Biological approach could be whether or not women are bad drivers News papers regularly run stories on this issue and rather than safety the focus will often Be on parking ,for example Dec2009 story in the Telegraph focussed on a study done by Dr Claudia Wolf from Ruhr University in Germany, who found that men have better co-ordination and spatial awareness when parking than women. So is there any evidence of males being better drivers and if so can psychologists explain why this might be –what evidence can you think of? Can you identify another key Issue? Children as young as 4 are said to be behaving badly in ways they copy from TV according to an article in the telegraph 2009 reporting on claims made by ATL teaching union This bad behaviour is making. effective teaching more difficult and so is hampering learning and is detrimental to the environment for both staff and pupils. A key issue of the Learning approach is whether or not children copy violent behaviour from role models seen on T.V. It might be that bad behaviour and language witnessed in soaps is seen to be normal and so copied by children Or it may be that the adults are seen as role models by the children and so copied. Name that theory Alternatively a key issue could be the increase in female violence related to changing role models • There has been an increase in female violence, one cause of which could be cultural images that are copied. • It is thought that now, in the early twenty-first century, there has been an increase in female violence and in ‘ladette’ culture. In the 1990s, ‘ladettes’ were drunk and disruptive as only males were formerly. This in itself is not violence but female violence seemed to increase at around the same time. Lara Croft is a PC games ‘heroine’ who is violent and kills to get her way. ‘Bad girls’ occur in films, such as Daryl Hannah’s role in the film Kill Bill. Senior police officers in Scotland have said that there is an increase in actual violence among young women. This is backed up by the number of women being sent to prison in Scotland, which is rising at four times the rate of males. The rise in anorexia Interpretation of dreams is a multi million pound business. There are many books and DVDs and lectures taking place on the subject . There are many psychologists who use dream interpretation as a way of accessing peoples fears and worries ,or view dreams as actual access to the unconscious mind A Key issue of the psychodynamic approach is do dreams have meaning? There are some who think dreams have no meaning at all they are just a physiological result of things that happen in the brain while we are asleep. Those who believe this obviously think interpreting dreams is a totally pointless exercise And so the issue is Do dreams have meaning and if they do can a third party interpret another person’s dreams? Name another key issue from this approach Name that theory Or a key issue from the psychodynamic approach could be the Debate concerning the issue of how early childhood experiences may guide later sexual orientation Gender is a theme that has run through a number of approaches • Can you identify which ones? • Which explanation of gender do you find the most convincing? • Can you explain why?