Buddhist Empowerment
and Life Transformation
Douglas K. Chung,
LMSW, MA, Ph.D.
(Do not copy or distribute without the permission)
Copyright ©2013
Purposes of Workshop
 To
learn Samsara concept of death in
Buddhism for counseling and
treatment model building.
 To study Good Deed Approach as life
plan for empowerment and life
transformation.
 To integrate the spirituality with life
planning for life transformation.
Siddhārtha Gautama
Founder of Buddhism
 circa 563 BCE to 483
BCE *
 Various collections of
teachings attributed to
him were passed down
by oral tradition, and
first committed to
writing about 400
years later.

Buddhist Populations
While estimates vary between 200-500 million adherents, the generally agreed
number of Buddhists is estimated at around 350 million (6% of the world's
population). This makes Buddhism the world's fourth largest (in terms of number
of adherents) religion.
http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/history/bud_statwrld.htm
Buddhist Populations
 In
the USA:
– 301,139,947 (0.7% of the U.S.
Population.) ("CIA The World Factbook –
United States of America". Flagcounter.com.
Retrieved 20 November 2011.)
 In
Michigan (Census 2010)
– 11,568. (0.01% of Michigan Population)
(http://data3.tennessean.com/viewdatabase/religious-populations-by-state794/details/22.html)
Buddhist Worldview
All beings in this world
are under Samsara:

Samsara is considered
as a life process. After a
life passed, its
“consciousness” will
depart from the subject
and went through
certain process it may
enter another new born
subject. This new born
subject may be human
being, ghost, animal or
god to reach Nirvana.
Buddhist Worldview
All beings in this world are under Samsara:




Previous life’s Karma determined this current
life situation
Current life is an Outcomes of previous life &
determine the future life as Person, ghost, or
animal
Future life is contingent upon the karma
created in the current life
Nirvana: out of cycle of Samsara. an
ultimate state where free from samsara and
enjoying everlasting ultimate being.
(from Lu, Kevin “Discourse Analysis of Samsara in Buddhism
Investigation by the Debate between Buddhist and Nihilist in Payasi
Sutta)
Buddhist Ideal State:
Nirvana
There be a state of being that free from the
endless samsara that enjoying the
everlasting of the ultimate – Nirvana that
free from birth and death, old age and
sorrow and attain immortality.
This ideal state can be reached by engaging in
self-realization goal for transforming the
current life into higher quality of being
through samsara.
What is Buddhism?
(Jayaram V 2012)




Who is Buddha?
An Indian who
originally established
Buddhism
Focused on law &
principles in life
Self determination &
self discipline.



What is Buddhism?
A belief system that
intends to free people
from doubt, karma, &
bitterness in their
lives and transform
into an ultimate
spiritual world of
nirvana.
Buddhism believes no
soul while Hinduism –
all beings posses souls
Samsara – Wheel of Life
Samsara is considered as
a life philosophy to
explain the causal
dynamics of previous,
current, & future lives as
an endless process with
an equal opportunity to
transform into nirvana.
IMAGE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Samsara.jpg
What is Samsara?
Buddhist Religious Mark


After a life ended, its “consciousness” will
depart from the subject and went through
certain process it may enter another new
born subject. This new born subject may
be human being, ghost, animal or god to
reach Nirvana.
All living beings are transforming among
the above mentioned world according to
the principle of cause and effect and
ethical moral order, then restart a new
life.
During the process, the current living situation is called
current life, the previous transformed living situation is
called previous life while the next transformed living
situation is called future life.
http://www.dedroidify.com/samsara.htm
What is Samsara? (cont.)


The current life is an outcome of the previous
living condition while the future life is
contingent upon the current living conditions
according to cause effect principle in
samsara. The quality and quantity of karma
in one life determine the type & quality of
next life. The memory of previous life will be
deleted during the transformation process.
The life goes through birth, age, illness,
death & life after life as an endless cycling is
called samsara.
Process of Samsara in three lives

Previous life’s Karma
Positive
vs.
go
vs.
Nirvana (out of cycle) or

Negative
to
person, ghost, animal
Current life is an outcomes of previous life &
determines the future life:
– Nirvana (out of cycle) or Person, ghost, animal

Future life is contingent upon the karma created
in the current life. Offer another opportunity for
next cycle’s life transformation
– Nirvana (out of cycle) or Person, ghost, animal
(Organized from Buddhist perspective of samsara (1982) Kaohsiung.)
Historical Development of Samsara


Rgveda: described
soul conditions after
death – did not
mentioned about
transform into other
life.
Brhdaranyaka
Upanishads &
ChAndogda
Upanisad – 2 books
confirmed concepts of
cycles of previous,
current & future life samsara
Samsara became main
stream in India
 Life is a continuous
process – death is a
beginning of another
life.
 How to detach &
transform into nirvana
– key
 Two different views in
debate
(Lu, Kevin)

Debate for Samsara in Buddhism:
Two Rival View points(Lu, Kevin)
Eternalism
 Samsara does exist
 (sassatavada –
“normal bias” )
 Upanisads used
“self” as source of
universal “real self”
 Easy to be
accepted






Annihilationism
Samsara does not
exist (ucchedavada
“serious bias”)
Question about 3 lives
samsara validity
Carried a negative
reputation of moral
order destruction
Become lokyata secularism
Theoretical Assumptions of
Buddhist Samsara (1)





Consciousness is everlasting which exists in the life
process.
Consciousness comes from the interaction of senses and
environment. Thus, it can be ended by the end of the
interaction. Therefore, the termination of samsara is
possible.
Universal movement is a process of samsara, from time
transformation, space transformation to life transformation.
Life is a process of continuation through birth, growth,
aging and death; it transform from the past life, this life to
next life. It is endless.
Egoless is the key to facilitate the life transformation.
(Organized from Buddhist perspective of samsara, 1982.
Kaohsiung & Lu, Kevin.)
Theoretical Assumptions of
Buddhist Samsara (2)



Life transformation is contingent upon the weight of positive
and negative karma. When good karma is larger than bad
karma, the life will transform toward or rebirth into three
good life channels (Heaven, person & god). Should the evil
karma far more than the positive karma, the next life will
transform into three evil life channels (hell, ghost, & animal)
for suffering.
Equality is the core value of life through samsara – previous
life conditioning this life and this life condition the next life
contingent upon the life performance of each life. Each one
has equal opportunity to be out of samsara and transform
into the spiritual world - Nirvana.
Self-determination is the key in samsara – positive thoughts
and conducts lead to positive side of life transformation.
Theoretical Assumptions of
Buddhist Samsara (3)


Death is not the end of the life. It is a beginning of
another life.
Death of the body also means the end of current life
memory (do not carry this life information into next
life).

Cannon reading for the death may facilitate the life
transformation toward the next life.

Moral conducts and positive associations in this life
promote well-being in next life under samsara.

The subject of samsara is life consciousness, not the
body.

The ultimate goal of life is out of the endless of
samsara and transform into a spiritual world –
nirvana.
Sources of Human Problems



Buddhist believe “Life have calamities of birth,
age, illness, and death because we are under
samsara – life transformation among human
being, ghost, animal or god to reach Nirvana.
Perceptions and desires are important sources
of human problems.
Taoist believe sources of human problems are
derived from the endless desires. Should the
ego be under controlled, what calamities can
we have?” (Tao Te Ching Ch 13.)
Christians. Paul “I find then a law, that, when
I would do good, evil is present with me.”
Romans 7:21
Sources of Human Problems



Solutions: self-actualization by
transforming the current life into
higher being until reach Nirvana.
Taoist: Abiding in the Tao – Being in
harmony with the Tao. Synchronizing
with the Tao, modeling the Tao/the
Nature.
Christian: revitalize the God’s Image
within us/salvation through Jesus.
Smoking & Samsara (1)
Secondhand smoke irritate lungs, it also
blacken mood
 Non-smokers exposed to cigarette smoke
at home or work are more than twice as
likely as those not exposed to have major
depression (American Psychosomatic
Society).
 The first U.S. study tying secondhand
smoke to depression; another in Japan
came up with a similar conclusion.

Smoking & Samsara (2)



Those exposed to smoke were far
more likely to have symptoms of
serious depression, (Frank Bandiera).
Working where smoking was allowed
in public places more than doubled
the risk of depression.
Smoking, negative inputs, thus, is an
evil karma in Samsara.
Strength of Buddhist Culture (1)





Buddhist highly values equality.
Buddhist samsara provides the life
with a positive opportunity of
transformation.
Empowerment is considered to be a
strong asset of samsara.
Suicide and any other negative
thoughts are considered as a negative
force (karma) in the samsara.
Religion is considered to be a strong
asset of the community
Strength of Buddhist Culture(2)




Helping others and any other positive
thoughts are considered to be the positive
forces within the cycle of samsara (principle
of cause/effect).
Hope exists within the seemly hopeless
samsara that enlighten the daily life.
Perceive the world as an environment with
very fair equal opportunity with principles of
cause effect & ethical order.
It is a strength-based life model.
Outcome Indicators
of Samsara Practice (1)
1.
2.
3.
4.
All lives are under life transformation
processes:
All cells are transforming from birth, age,
deterioration and death.
All lives are continuously transforming from
one life to another life. Its energy is never
lasting.
Time serves as the best judge.
The principle of birth, age, deterioration and
death serves as the best rule of equal
opportunity in life transformation.
Outcome Indicators
of Samsara Practice (2)
All lives are under life transformation
processes:
5.
6.
7.
Cause effect under samsara serves as the
equal opportunity for all beings.
All beings’ current life is conditioning by their
previous life conditions and will shape their
future life condition.
All beings have equal hope to reach Nirvana
under the self-determination and selfactualization.
(Organized from Buddhist perspective of
samsara, 1982. Kaohsiung)
Important Therapeutic
Concepts of Samsara (1)


Therapeutic concepts include: samsara, previous
life, current life, future life, nirvana, karma, self,
real self, life, bitterness, status, justice, faith,
dialectics, cause/effect, moralist, transformation
and reflective listening.
In this life science of samsara, we see that life as
an endless struggling process link of previous life,
current life, future life and nirvana. An individual
consciousness is struggling among karma
dictated destination toward different worlds of
person, ghost, and animal with the final hope to
transform into the spiritual world of nirvana,
suffering from previous life created karma
judgment under the cause and effect rule.
Important Therapeutic
Concepts of Samsara (2)


Life is absolutely fair under this universal law
under a critical examination of its previous
created karma, its limitations, and its related fair
opportunity for future life planning and reaching
nirvana.
Bitterness and suffering are described and
interpreted as previous life karma caused
situations in the current life while one’s future life
is contingent upon the performance of the
current life in terms of its different weights in
negative and positive karma in the life.
Important Therapeutic
Concepts of Samsara (3)



Status of life may be changed as the karma
changed in a life which reflects in next life’s
status and type of life. Justice and equal
opportunity are warranted under this cause and
effect rule and moral order dynamics.
Hope seems to be insured under the cause effect
mode with ultimate transforming into the spiritual
world of Nirvana.
It is helpful to assist the consciousness of the
death with chanting Buddhist cannon during the
process of transforming into next life. Therefore,
it is good to have this service during the funeral
service.
(from Buddhist perspective of samsara. Nov. 21,1982. author unknown, in Kaohsiung,
Taiwan.)
Important Therapeutic
Concepts of Samsara (4):


Detachments from the desires and ego seemed to
be very difficult when samsara became a ruling
law for many clients. Cause-effect seemed to
work but certainly there were excepts while
people were caught in these situations or
especially there were no way to verify the cause
effect of one’s previous karma and current
suffering. Current life assessment may be
necessary under the situation. A combination
assessment may be more acceptable.
Moral order certainly is needed; however, when it
became an unsure and unfair application, an
advocator is definitely needed.
Important Therapeutic
Concepts of Samsara (5):



Some suffering clients may develop into low selfesteem due to the cause/effect interpretation of
samsara. Search for positive future life is an
important therapeutic concept.
The most important concept may be empathic
and reflective listening skills to the client. These
therapeutic concepts and their related concepts
were examined to develop a faith-based
counseling model for culturally competent
counseling practice.
Encourage the client for self-exploration, selfdetermination and self-actualization is the key in
Buddhist Model.
Buddhist Principles of Counseling
based on Samsara (1)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Samsara is a strength-based life model.
Death is not an ending. It is another beginning
of life – a new opportunity.
Positive inputs in the life lead to positive
outcomes of the life.
All counseling should focus on the positive
direction, ie should not consider suicide as an
alternative because it will create an evil karma
in your future life.
Empowerment by motivating to conduct more
positive inputs in this life for future life
investment.
Buddhist Principles of Counseling
based on Samsara (2)
6. The nature of cognition, attitude, mental and spiritual
conducts in this life condition the future life condition.
This is the key principle for designing and
programming for future life. Cognitive-Behavioral
Therapy, therefore, is adequate for preventive,
therapeutic & developmental model for life planning.
7. Future life planning is extremely important.
8. There is a great hope to free from samsara by various
means of positive inputs in this life to reach Nirvana.
9. After reach the spiritual world of Nirvana, one may
consider to come back to the world of samsara to
rescue the other beings to reach nirvana.
10. Counselor must listen to the client/counselee to be
aware of the client’s needs, problems & wishes and
how these realities related to the belief systems.
Buddhist Principles of Counseling
based on Samsara (3)
11. Counselor must accept the client as s/he is without
any judgments. Client can believe it but counselor
cannot judge any client’s sufferings as an outcome
of samsara.
12. Counselor must have their own life experience to
share with the client’s life situation in order to have
sympathy in the counseling process.
13. Counselor must serve the client with care, love and
sympathy (with positive karma inputs).
14. Counselor should allow the client to raise the
challenge questions and providing counseling from
questioning, redirecting and answering to enable the
client’s growth.
15. Counselor should facilitate individual insights to
empower the client’s potential development
(cause/effect perceptions) in this life as well as next
life.
Buddhist Principles of Counseling
based on Samsara (4)
16. Counselor should guide the client to go through the
processes of self awareness, understanding, and
acceptance (both self-acceptance and acceptance of
others) to enable the change.
17. Bitterness in the life should be interpreted as a fair
treatment as the client’s belief system as a life
philosophy and counseling guide. Suffering in the life,
such as scarce resources, is an opportunity to explore
the internal strength for potential development both in
this life & future life. (respect but not blame the vit.)
18. The individual in the environment should be
encouraged to accept the challenges of the life as a
cause effect outcome which may turn on the
individual strength and potential. This is an important
Buddhist counseling principle to operationalize its
belief & strength in daily life.
Buddhist Principles of Counseling
based on Samsara (5)
19. The individual in the environment needs a counselor
to advocate his/her needs for next (current) life
planning.
20. Human being is spiritual, they are born with strength
and potential for the life. Therefore, spiritual
development for reaching Nirvana (hope) is an
important process of transforming out of samsara
(endless problems).
21. Suffering leads the person to reconsider or evaluate
the (previous & current) life of the self. Therefore,
suffering serves as a means, process and path to
problem-solving, potential development and
transformation which leads to future life planning with
fruits and blessing in the life.
Buddhist Principles of Counseling
based on Samsara (6)
22. Dialogue with the self (i.e. who was/am I in the
previous life and how it related to my current life)
may lead to personal insights for depth understanding
of life meaning and facilitating personal
transformation. Dialogue with the self where the
future life or nirvana searching is the starting point of
self-realization. Life assessment extends to two lives
(previous and current ones).
23. Spiritual counseling does not need to respond to the
encountered question or situation. Let the client to
decide for when and how s/he is going to search for it.
Challenge thinking may lead to advanced perception
for further development.
Buddhist Principles of Counseling
based on Samsara (7)
24. Challenging the client to develop the individual potential
and personal strength to observe, describe, explain and
evaluate the encountered situation in daily life may lead
to self care, self awareness, self understanding, self
acceptance, personal transformation, and future life
planning (current life included).
25. Challenging the client to detach from the ego or selfattached perspective may facilitate an advanced
cognition of the observed facts from purely negative or
ego-attached perspective into another aspect of positive
or ego-detached perspective to reach an integrated
perspective with positive future self development, i.e.
transforming suffering into a future strength.
Buddhist Principles of Counseling
based on Samsara (8)
26. Human being has a “whole mind” with logical
(left brain) and intuitive (right brain) thinking. We
are both a subject which perceives and an object
which is perceived. Our perceived “suffering” is the
application of what we are with the
subject/cognizer or object/cognized. The counselor
may utilize the strength of this human potential to
pilot the client from partial cognition to the whole
mind cognition, ie. from negative to positive
concept; from this current life to the future life.
Buddhist Principles of Counseling
based on Samsara (9)
27. Although the human profound understanding
should be recoverable from what we are and
what we are not, in the reality, our
understanding can only result from the
functioning of what we are. Therefore, it is
advisable that counselor may not approach the
client from the functioning of what we are not. In
other words, guide the client to “see” what they
“can see”, guide the client to plan the future life
(both in this life & future life). Use good deed
approach to develop the client’s strength is better
than any problem-solving.
Buddhist Principles of Counseling
based on Samsara (10)
28. Buddhist counseling with cause-effect mode
and moral ethical order may run into certain
limitations and not be helpful for the client.
Therefore, counselors may need to understand
the impacts of Buddhist counseling during the
counseling processes. Training for Samsara
counseling are, therefore, very important.
29. Samsara enables human growth. Counselors
should facilitate it through life empowerments,
such as: “If you want to have a better future life,
you shall create more positive karmas in this life
now;
Buddhist Principles of Counseling
based on Samsara (11)
30. Guide the client to plan for “future life” which
may solve the current problem and establish the
foundation of the ideal self instead of “what
caused me” endless exploration of previous life.
How to plan the future life is more practical than
“what caused me” challenge which consumes a
lot energies without constructive answer.
31. Counselors should guide & integrate the current
life and the next life planning into a holistic
“future life” planning.
Buddhist Empowerment & Life
Transformation Model (BELTM)(1)




From Buddhist Samsara’s perspective: Life
issues are a constellation of symptoms caused by
previous life karma that affect the current life,
including emotions, attitudes, mental and
spiritual well-being.
Good deeds therapy can be designed to create
more positive karma/life forces to enable the
Buddhist clients for holistic life transformation.
Good deeds therapies may include self care and
cares for others (include environments).
Self care may include: water, sound, diet,
Qigong, meditation, Tai Chi, meridian, etc.
(from Chung, 2010. Energy Therapies)
Good Deed Therapy under Buddhist
Empowerment & Life Transformation
Model (2)






Good Deeds Therapy:
Understand dynamics
of karma – create
good but not negative
karma in this life
Conquering desires
Life saving –ie don’t
kill to save
Financial donations
Volunteer services








Comforting people
Honoring parents
Assist needed
Be a good doer
Evidence-based P.
Upward transform
within samsara
Transform into
nirvana
Others
Evidences of Good Deed Therapy
 Cognition
shift to the future planning
 Focuses on creating positive
thoughts, emotions & behaviors
 Aware & understand the cause-effect
of own life situation
 Tempt to control & reduce desires
 Indicators of good behaviors to the
self, others & environments etc.
Buddhist Empowerment & Life
Transformation Model (3)




3 Important questions
to ask:
What do you think the
causes of the
problem(s)?
What do you want to
be?
How do you plan to
get there?









Model processes:
Assessment
Planning
Implementation
Evaluation
Ultimate goal, subgoals, objectives
Strategies
Tactics
Current & future life
integrated
Case Story of Samsara
A
& B are living next to each other.
 A is a monk;
 B is a butcher;
 Both need to get up early;
 Both agreed to wake up each other;
 Time passed by & both died;
 During interim, monk found that;
 Monk bring the case to the court;
 Judge: You help him to kill, while
Characteristics of BELT Model







It can serve as an Advanced Generalist Model for
International Social Work
Systemic systems operation through life transformation,
cause-effect norms and moral orders.
Multi-level: individual, family, group, to society
Multi-theory: consciousness, rebirth, life transformation
among previous, current & future, nirvana, justice,
equality, Systems Theory, Empowerment etc.
Multi-approach: good deed approach, behavioral
management, life review and planning, cause-effect
interpretation, etc.
Evidence-based, truth-based, strength-based
Culturally competent with the world view.
Challenges & Limitations of BELT








If the # of lives are fitted, why the # of animals & human
being are increased?
Would the cause-effect be able to interpret all social
phenomena ?
Can human being control its fate by creating good karma?
How much the individual client can understand the Samsara
concept and commit to its life planning?
Would Buddhists & their beliefs gain the acceptance and
respect?
How much the social systems can support the operation of
the model operation? Ie social norms, laws & rules etc.
Reactions of social mechanisms toward the model operation?
Ie:election,rotation, sunset laws,... etc. led to social
justice, mutual support etc. key social values.
Degree of main stream support?
Buddhist Culturally Competent
Practice: Case documented



Wei Yang School – Monk Wei Shan before his death
D: “Where are you going to for future life?”
W: “Going to be a cow down in the mountain.”
D: “With your deeds, how can you transform into
cow?”
W: “If you don’t belief, check it out on the left low rib
of the cow, you will find the name of Wei Shan
Monk.”
Disciples found the cow with name on it. Bought the
cow back to temple & treated it as master. Cow
refused to eat.
After return the cow to farmer, the cow works and
eats happily.
(from Buddhist perspective of samsara (Nov. 21,1982) author unknown, in
Kaohsiung, Taiwan.)
Story of Samsara (1):
Jen 5th Generation







Hong Jen story:
His previous life was a pine tree planter in Po-To M. He
requested Jen 4th G. to accept him as his monk. (too old) He
was told to transform into next life and come to see Tao-Sien
(4th G. Jen School.) again.
Hong Jen left and saw a beauty girl beside a river and asked:
- “Can I stay in your house tonight?”
- “Ask my father,….”
- “I will but you must agree.” Girl nodded.
Girl got pregnant after that night. Was kicked out by family…
7 years old boy asked Tao-Sien (Jen 4th G.)
“Last time was too old and this time is too young, When …?”
Hong Jen was accepted and became – Jen 5th G.
(from Buddhist perspective of samsara (Nov. 21,1982) author unknown, in Kaohsiung,
Taiwan.)
Story of Samsara (2):
Yun Chie Legacy by Su, Tung-Po






Yun Chie monk & Lee,
yuan were good friend,
both wanted to visit YoMei mountain.
Yun Chie- Land
Lee, Yuan – water
In Nan-po saw a
pregnant woman
Yuan Chie – 3 days & 12
years apt. died
(from Buddhist
perspective of Samsara,
11/21/1982)



Three days later, Lee,
yuan visited the woman,
baby smiled to him
13 later, Lee, yuan visited
Tien-Chien temple in HanChou
A teen cow boy sing to
him, “…come visit from
long distance but see the
different body with same
personality/consciousness.
”
Story of Samsara (3):
Huang, San-Kou, Chian-Si






Chian-Si, Shui-Shu county document:
Huang, San-Kou (Huang, Ting-Chien) at age of 26,
serves as governor of Wu-Fu. One day in his dream,
he saw an old woman workshoped with a bowl of
noodle. He ate it.
2nd day in his nap, he got same dream. Follow the
dream, he arrived a village and saw the same thing.
Huang asked the woman & was told it was her
daughter’s 26th annual death date which is Huang’s
age.
Daughter’s favor dish, documents and activities = H
Huang took his previous life mother and treated her
as mother accordingly.
(From Buddhist perspective of samsara author unknown (Nov. 21,
1982) in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.)
Story of Samsara (4):
Wang, Yang-Ming: Ming Dynasty
Wang visited King Shan
Temple and found the scenes
are so familiar with
 He walked to an independent
house and felt that he had
lived there before. He asked
accompanied monk
to open the door
“Sorry, this house was sealed
due to our grand master was
passed away here”





Under the insisted request,
door opened.
Wand found an old monk
similar to self.
Wall with a poem, “50
years later, Wang YM
Who closed/opened the
door
(From Buddhist perspective of samsara author unknown (Nov. 21, 1982) in Kaohsiung,
Taiwan.)
Conclusion






Samsara offers a meaningful life explaination to
its believers.
Buddhist Counseling model is developed to
assess, plan, implement and evaluate the client’s
life situation as mentioned.
Principles of counseling prescribed and how to
guide the client to transfer out the endless
samsara is the key for counseling according to
the client’s belief system.
Assist the client to plan the future life by
establishing good deeds in this life is essential.
Good deeds therapies may include self care and
care for others in both this life and future life.
Empower the client to reach the ideal world of
nirvana by Good Deed Therapy.
Implications of Samsara



The above mentioned Buddhist Model can serve
as a culturally competent counseling for Buddhist
clients.
Trainings, coursework, and current practice to
operationalize this model is urgently needed to
establish the ability to be revamped and updated,
injecting these new findings into current practice
techniques.
By providing means for a more culturally
competent model, the field of social work will
prove to gain knowledge and understanding of
the diverse nature of the human being.
For More Information about
Related Programs: ie
Training for Samsara Counseling

Please contact
Douglas K. Chung, LMSW, MA, Ph.D.:
 E-mail: [email protected]
 Website: www.asiancenter.org
 Telephone: (616)301-3087
References (1)












References:
Author unknown, “Buddhist perspective of Samsara”, 11/21/1982 in Chung Chien Culture Center, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
Beck, A.T., Rush, A.J., Shaw, B.F. & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive Therapy of Depression. New York: The Guilford Press.
Capra, F. (1991). The Tao of Physics. Boston: Shambhala.
Chen, K.K.S. (1973). Buddhism in China A Historical Survey. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Chung, D. (1989). “A Cultural Competent Social Work Practice for Asian Americans.” Paper presented at the 1989
NASW Annual Conference in San Francisco.
Chung, D. (1990). “Social transformation model for cross-cultural generalist social work practice.” Paper presented to
the Council on Social Work Education 1990 Annual Program Meeting, Reno, Nevada.
Chung, D. (1992a). “Confucian Model of Social Transformation.” In Social Work Practice with Asian Americans, ed. R.
Biswas, D. Chung, K. Murase, and F. Ross-Sheriff. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Chung, D. (1992b). “Asian Cultural Commonalities: A Comparison with Mainstream American Culture.” In Social Work
Practice with Asian Americans, ed. R. Biswas, D. Chung, K. Murase, and F. Ross-Sheriff. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Chung, D. (1993a). “Chung Model of Family Conflict Management.” Paper presented at the Second International
Symposium on Families: East and West, August 22–24, 1993, University of Indianapolis.
Chung, D. (1993b). “Using Confucian Role Approach and Yin-Yang Theory to Understand and Help South-East Asian
Refugee Families in Cultural Transition.” Paper presented at the Second International Symposium on Families East and
West, August 22–24, 1993, University of Indianapolis.
Chung, D. (1994). “Overcoming Poverty by Confucian Role Approach and Yin Yang Theory” Paper presented at the
fortieth Annual Program Meeting, Council of Social Work Education, Atlanta, Georgia, March 5–8, 1994.
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
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Chung, D., (2010) Energy Therapies : A Self-Care Approach for Helping
Professionals. Grand Rapids, MI: Chung Institute.
Chung, D. (2000). “Qigong Therapies: A Self-Care Approach.” Grand Rapids: Chung
Institute.
Chung, D. (2001). Tai Chi Movement. Chung Institute, Grand Rapids, MI.
Chung, D. (2002). “Confucianism.” In Spiritualities and Social Work Practice, ed. M.
Van Hook. New York: Cole.
Chung, D. (2003). “Confucianism.” In International Encyclopedia of Marriage and
Family (second edition), ed. James J. Ponzetti, jr. Volume 1 2003 Macmillan
Reference USA. New York: Thomson Gale.
Chung, D. (2001). “Yin Yang Theory.” Workshop presentation and a chapter in the
coming text of Meridian Therapies. Chung Institute, Grand Rapids, MI.
Chung, D. Capra, F. (1991). The Tao of Physics. Boston: Shambhala.
Chen, K.K.S. (1973). Buddhism in China A Historical Survey. Princeton: Princeton
University Press.
Chopra, D. (1990 ). Perfect Health. Harmony Books.
Chopra, D. (1990 ). Magical Mind Magical Body. Audiocassettes by Nightingale
Conant.
Chung, D. (1992). "The Confucian Model of Social Transformation" in Social Work
Practice With Asian Americans edited by Furuto, Biswas, Chung, Murase, and RossSheriff. Newbury Park:Sage.
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Cleary, T. (Trans.) (1989). I Ching Mandalas: A Program of Study for The Book of Changes.
Boston: Shambhala.
Das, S. (1997). Awakening The Buddha Within. New York: Broadway Books.
Epstein, M. (1995). Thoughts without a thinker: Psychotherapy from a Buddhist perspective.
Sausalito, CA:Institute of Noetic Sciences.
Flynn, J. P. (1987). Social agency policy analysis and presentation for community practice.
Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
Gil, D. (1981). Unravelling social policy. Cambridge, Ma: Schenkman.
Gilbert, N. & Specht, H. (1986). Dimensions of social welfare policy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: PrenticeHall.
Govinda, A. (1960). Foundations of Tibetan mysticism. New York: E.P. Dutton & Co. Inc.
Heus, M. & Pincus, A. (1986). The creative generalist: A guide to social work practice. Barneveld,
Wis:Micamar.
Jansson, B.S. (1984). Theory and practice of social welfare policy. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Karger, H.J. & Stoesz, D. (1990). American social welfare policy.
New York: Longman.
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J. Rothman, & J.E. Tropman (Eds.), Strategies of community organization (pp.311326).
Itasca, IL: F.E. Peacock.
Linehan, M.M. (1993). Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder. New
York: The Guilford Press.
Linehan, M.M. & Heard, H.E. (1993). Impact of treatment accessibility on clinical course of
parasuicidal patients: In reply to R.E. Hoffman (Letter to the editor). Archives of General
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Linehan, M.M., Heard, H.E., & Armstrong, H.E. (1994). Naturalistic follow-up of a behavioral
treatment for chronically suicidal borderline patients. Archives of General Psychiatry.
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Liu I-ming. (1796). The Taoist I-Ching. (T. Cleary trans. 1986). Boston:Shambhala.
Mu Chun, Taishen (1989). Mahayana Buddhism. Yen, Pei (trans.) Taipei: Heavenly
Lotus Publishing Co.
Ou-i, Chih-hsu. (1987). The Buddhist I Ching. (T. Cleary, Trans.). Boston:
Shambhala. (Original work published 1599-1655).
Pierce, D. (1984). Policy for the social work practitioner. New York: Longman.
Pirsig, R.M., (1985). Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance. New York: Bantam
Books.
Prigmore, C.S. & Atherton, C.R. (1986). Social welfare policy analysis and
formulation. Lexington, Ma: D.C. Heath and Company.
Sinorama. Vol 17 No. 9 September 1992, pp. 7-17. Zen (Chan).
The Teaching of Buddha Bukkyo Dendo Kyokai Buddhist Promoting Foundation
Toppan Printing Co. (1966)
The Holy Bible New International Version. (1978). Zondervan Bible Publishers. Grand
Rapids, Michigan.
Thomlison, B. & Thomlison, R. (1996). Behavior theory
and social work treatment. In Turner, F.J. (4th ed.) Social work treatment:
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Vigilante, J. L. (1982). Between values and science:education for the profession
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Fundamentals of
social work practice. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Walshe, Maurice (1987). The Long Discourses of the Buddha. Boston: Wisdom
Publications. P. 351.
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2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Author unknown, “Buddhist perspective of Samsara”, 11/21/1982 in Chung Chien Culture
Center, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
Beck, A.T., Rush, A.J., Shaw, B.F. & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive Therapy of Depression. New
York: The Guilford Press.
Chung, D. (1989). “A Cultural Competent Social Work Practice for Asian Americans.” Paper
presented at the 1989 NASW Annual Conference in San Francisco.
Chung, D. (1990). “Social transformation model for cross-cultural generalist social work
practice.” Paper presented to the Council on Social Work Education 1990 Annual Program
Meeting, Reno, Nevada.
Chung, D. (1992a). “Confucian Model of Social Transformation.” In Social Work Practice with
Asian Americans, ed. R. Biswas, D. Chung, K. Murase, and F. Ross-Sheriff. Newbury Park, CA:
Sage.
Chung, D. (1992b). “Asian Cultural Commonalities: A Comparison with Mainstream American
Culture.” In Social Work Practice with Asian Americans, ed. R. Biswas, D. Chung, K. Murase,
and F. Ross-Sheriff. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Chung, D. (1993a). “Chung Model of Family Conflict Management.” Paper presented at the
Second International Symposium on Families: East and West, August 22–24, 1993, University
of Indianapolis.
Chung, D. (1993b). “Using Confucian Role Approach and Yin-Yang Theory to Understand and
Help South-East Asian Refugee Families in Cultural Transition.” Paper presented at the Second
International Symposium on Families East and West, August 22–24, 1993, University of
Indianapolis.
Chung, D. (1994). “Overcoming Poverty by Confucian Role Approach and Yin Yang Theory”
Paper presented at the fortieth Annual Program Meeting, Council of Social Work Education,
Atlanta, Georgia, March 5–8, 1994.
Chung, D., (2010) Energy Therapies : A Self-Care Approach for Helping Professionals. Grand
Rapids, MI: Chung Institute.
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James J. Ponzetti, jr. Volume 1 2003 Macmillan Reference USA. New York: Thomson Gale.
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Therapies. Chung Institute, Grand Rapids, MI.
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About the Author
Dr. Douglas Chung comes from Taiwan where he was born into a
community of multi-culture practicing Confucianism, Taoism, and
Buddhism. His grandfather was a martial arts master and practitioner
of the Traditional Chinese herbal medicine. He learned Qiqong , the
Chinese equivalent of yoga, from various Buddhist, Confucian, and
Taoist traditions. As an adept and teacher of Qiqong, Dr. Chung has
produced videos and several books about this practice of meditation
and energy management for preventive, therapeutic, and
developmental medicine. As President of the Asian Center and
professor of social work at Grand Valley State University, he has
taught extensively about Taoist and Confucian cultures and how
they're related to Qigong. He will give an overview of the essentials
of Taoist philosophy, the principles of energy management under the
philosophy teachings by Lao Tzu and the Tao Te Ching, the symbols
Yin and Yang and its application of energy systems balance for holistic
health, the enduring impact upon of these ideas upon Chinese culture
and religion .
ON THE
NATURE
OF
GOD
ON
CREATION
ON
TIME
ON LIFE
AFTER
DEATH
ON
SACRED
LITERATURE
ON
PROPHETS
AND
FOUNDERS
BUDDHISM
300 MILLION
6.2% WORLD
POPULATION
Many god-like
beings, all
subject to the
law of Dharma
(rebirth). NO
omnipotent
Creator God.
Cyclical,
endless
becoming and
dissolving
according to
the law of
Dharma. No
specific point of
Creation.
Cyclical
and not
very
important
as the
cycle of
rebirth
continues
on from
one the
existence
to the next
Life
continues
after death
in another
form.
Enlighten
ment
Can break
this cycle
and lead
to
NIRVANA
Tripitaka (Three
Baskets), canon
of Buddhist
literature:
discourses of the
Buddha or his
disciples.
The Buddha,
Siddhartha
Gautama, born
566 or 563
B.C., achieved
complete
enlightenment
at 35 years.
CHRISTIANI
TY
15,480
MILLION
32.4%
WORLD
POPULATION
Single,
omnipotent
Creator God,
seen as a
Trinity: God the
Father, Son
(Jesus Christ)
and the holy
spirit.
Existence
created by God
at a specific
point in time
and will end at
a definite point
in time.
Linear,
either
leads to
the
Kingdom
of God on
Earth or
conflict
through
the
appearanc
e of the
antichrist.
One life
only. At
the end of
time souls
and bodies
will be
raised and
judged by
God (Day
of
Judgment)
The Bile,
consisting of the
Old Testament
and the New
Testament.
Written c. 280
A.D. by Apostles.
Jesus Christ,
born in
Palestine c. 4
B.C. and
crucified c. 29
A.D. believed
to have been
the Son of
God.
Dimensions
Spiritualities
Dimensions
Spiritualities
ON THE
NATURE
OF
GOD
ON
CREATION
ON
TIME
ON LIFE
AFTER
DEATH
ON
SACRED
LITERATURE
ON
PROPHETS
AND
FOUNDERS
BUDDHISM
300 MILLION
6.2% WORLD POPULATION
Many god-like
beings, all
subject to the
law of Dharma
(rebirth). NO
omnipotent
Creator God.
Cyclical, endless
becoming and
dissolving
according to the
law of Dharma.
No specific point
of Creation.
Cyclical
and not
very
important
as the
cycle of
rebirth
continues
on from
one the
existence
to the next
Life
continues
after death
in another
form.
Enlightenm
ent
Can break
this cycle
and lead to
NIRVANA
Tripitaka (Three
Baskets), canon
of Buddhist
literature:
discourses of the
Buddha or his
disciples.
The Buddha,
Siddhartha
Gautama, born
566 or 563 B.C.,
achieved
complete
enlightenment
at 35 years.
CHRISTIANITY
15,480 MILLION
32.4% WORLD
POPULATION
Single,
omnipotent
Creator God,
seen as a Trinity:
God the Father,
Son (Jesus
Christ) and the
holy spirit.
Existence
created by God
at a specific
point in time
and will end at a
definite point in
time.
Linear,
either leads
to the
Kingdom of
God on
Earth or
conflict
through
the
appearance
of the
antichrist.
One life
only. At
the end of
time souls
and bodies
will be
raised and
judged by
God (Day
of
Judgment)
The Bile,
consisting of the
Old Testament
and the New
Testament.
Written c. 280
A.D. by Apostles.
Jesus Christ,
born in Palestine
c. 4 B.C. and
crucified c. 29
A.D. believed to
have been the
Son of God.
HINDUISM
647 MILLION
13.5% WORLD
POPULATION
Single Godhead,
divides into
many forms
including:
Brahma
(Creator), Vishnu
(sustainer),
Shiva (destroyer)
Cyclical,
creation of
universe
followed by
destruction of
universe:
Brahma, Vishnu,
Shiva.
Cyclical,
universe
passes
through
various
stages,
eventually
is
destroyed
and
recreated
Ultimate
escape
from cycle
of rebirth
by uniting
the
individual
Soul with
the
Supreme
Being.
Bhagavadgita- c.
2nd century A.D.
part of the
Mahabharata.
Most popular book
of Hindu
Scripture.
Many thousands
of
gurus(teachers
who have
gained
enlightenment
through
knowledge and
practice)
ISLAM
817 MILLION
17.1% WORLD
POPULATION
Single, allpowerful,
indivisible
Creator God.
Speaks to
humanity
through
prophets.
God creates,
gueides, and
directs all
things.
Linear, at
the end of
time God
proclaims
the
Judgment
Day. All
will be
judged
and the
world
ends.
On life
only. After
death the
individual
awaits
Judgment
Day.
Some then
may enter
Paradise,
some may
not.
The Qur’an, 7th
century A.D.
dictated by an
angel to the
prophet
Mohammad.
Many prop
including
Abraham,
Moses, Je
Final and
important
Mohamma
born C. 57
JUDAISM
18 MILLION
0.4% WORLD
POPULATION
One eternal, all
knowing
Creator God
who guides
human
existence.
(Name must
not be spoken).
God created
the world
according to
the Book of
Genesis.
Linear, the
Messiah
will come
at some
point in
the future
and begin
an era of
world
peace.
One life
only.
After
death the
individual
soul faces
Judgment.
The Hebrew
Bible, Torah
(Five Books of
Moses), Mishnah
and Tallmud.
God gave
Moses the
by which
Israelites
live by. G
chose Jew
his specia
people.
TAOISM
188 MILLION
3.9% WORLD
POPULATION
The chaos of
nature divides
into two
universal
forces: yin and
yang. No single
creator God
Creation is a
byproduct of
the opposing
forces of yin
and yang.
Existence is a
mere pattern
in chaos.
Time is
undefined.
Heaven
and earth
are
unchangin
g
essences.
At death,
the soul
separates
into yin
and yang.
After a
period it
may rejoin
in a new
configurati
on.
Tao Te Ching
(The way and its
Power), 4th
Century B.C.
Various w
including
Tzu, 5th
century B
and the bo
of the
Confucian
canon.
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Buddhist Empowerment & Life Transformation