Motivation I:
Needs, Job
Design, and
Satisfaction
Chapter Six
McGraw-Hill/Irwin
© 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2012 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
After reading the material in this chapter,
you should be able to:
LO6.1 Discuss the integrated model of
motivation.
LO6.2 Contrast Maslow’s and McClelland’s
need theories.
LO6.3 Describe three conceptually different
approaches to job design.
6-2
After reading the material in this chapter,
you should be able to:
LO6.4 Review the personal and contextual factors
that contribute to employee engagement and
its consequences.
LO6.5 Discuss the causes and consequences of job
satisfaction.
LO6.6 Identify the causes of counterproductive work
behavior and measures to prevent it
6-3
Fundamentals of Employee
Motivation
Motivation
 psychological processes cause the arousal,
direction, and persistence of voluntary actions
that are goal directed
6-4
An Integrated Model of Motivation
6-5
Question?
What type of employee does American
Express recruit?
A.High technical skills
B.Neutral attitude
C.Positive attitude
D.Trainable
6-6
Need Theories of Motivation
Needs
 Physiological or
psychological
deficiencies that
arouse behavior.
6-7
Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory
Motivation is a function of five basic needs –
physiological, safety, love, esteem, and selfactualization
Human needs emerge in a predictable stairstep fashion
6-8
McClelland’s Need Theory
Need for achievement
 Desire to accomplish something difficult.
Need for affiliation
 spend more time maintaining social
relationships, joining groups, and wanting to be
loved
Need for power
 Desire to Influence, coach, teach, or encourage
others to achieve.
6-9
McClelland’s Need Theory
Achievement-motivated people share three
common characteristics:
1. Preference for working on tasks of
moderate difficulty
2. Preference for situations in which
performance is due to their efforts
3. Desire more feedback on their successes
and failures
6-10
Question?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Rachel has the desire to accomplish
something difficult? This relates to
McClelland's need for
Affiliation
Achievement
Power
Glory
6-11
Motivating Employees Through
Job Design
Job Design
 any set of activities that
involve the alteration of
specific jobs or
interdependent systems
of jobs with the intent of
improving the quality of
employee job experience
and their on-the-job
productivity
6-12
Top-Down Approaches
Scientific management
 that kind of management which conducts a
business or affairs by standards established by
facts or truths gained through systematic
observation, experiment, or reasoning
6-13
Top-Down Approaches
Job enlargement
 putting more variety into a job
 Horizontal loading
Job rotation
 moving employees from one specialized job to
another
 stimulate interest and motivation while
providing employees with a broader
perspective of the organization
6-14
Herzberg’s Motivator-Hygiene
Model
6-15
Top-Down Approaches:
Job Enrichment
Motivators
 job characteristics
associated with job
satisfaction
Hygiene factors
 job characteristics
associated with job
dissatisfaction
6-16
Top-Down Approaches:
Job Enrichment
Job enrichment
 Modifying a job such that an employee has the
opportunity to experience achievement,
recognition, stimulating work, responsibility, and
advancement
6-17
Question?
In an effort to redesign jobs, Herman, manager of
Perfect Printing, Inc., added various tasks to
Amber’s job. In addition to copying, now Amber is
also responsible for collating, putting covers on
each job and stapling. This can be described as
an example of ____________.
A. Job rotation
B. Job enlargement
C. Mechanistic approach
D. Job enrichment
6-18
The Job Characteristics Model
6-19
The Job Characteristics Model
Intrinsic motivation
 Occurs when an individual is “turned on to
one’s work because of the positive internal
feelings that are generated by doing well,
rather than being dependent on external factors
(such as incentive pay or compliments from the
boss) for the motivation to work effectively.”
6-20
The Job Characteristics Model
Core job
characteristics
 job characteristics
found to various
degrees in all jobs
Skill variety
Task
identity
Task
significance
Autonomy
Feedback
6-21
Bottom-Up Approaches
Job crafting
 “the physical and cognitive changes individuals
make in the task or relational boundaries of
their work”
6-22
Forms of Job Crafting
Table 6-1
6-23
Idiosyncratic Deals (I-Deals)
Idiosyncratic deals (i-deals)
 Represent “employment terms individuals
negotiate for themselves, taking myriad forms
from flexible schedules to career development.”
6-24
Cultivating Employee Engagement
Employee engagement
 “the harnessing of organization members’
selves to their work roles; in engagement,
people employ and express themselves
physically, cognitively, and emotionally during
role performance.”
6-25
What Contributes to Employee
Engagement?
PE Fit
 the compatibility between an individual and a
work environment that occurs when their
characteristics are well matched.
6-26
What Contributes to Employee
Engagement?
Sense of meaningfulness
 task purpose is important and meaningful
Sense of choice
 ability to use judgment and freedom when
completing tasks
6-27
What Contributes to Employee
Engagement?
Sense of competence
 feelings of accomplishment associated with
doing high-quality work
Sense of progress
 feeling that one is accomplishing something
important
6-28
Question?
Donna has positive feelings for doing her job
well. We would say she:
A.Is satisfied with her job
B.Balances her work and family
C.Is intrinsically motivated
D.Has a proactive personality
6-29
Practical Takeaways
Budget resources to measure, track, and
respond to surveys of employee
engagement
Consider assessing the individual traits
associated with employee engagement
during the hiring process
6-30
Practical Takeaways
Top-down approaches to job design can be
used to redesign jobs so that they contain
the four psychological states highlighted by
Ken Thomas
Increase engagement levels by relying on
job crafting to create the psychological
states recommended by Thomas
6-31
Causes of Job Satisfaction
Job satisfaction
 an affective or
emotional response
toward various facet’s
of one’s job
6-32
Causes of Job Satisfaction
Need fulfillment
 extent to which the characteristics of a job allow
an individual to fulfill his or her needs
Discrepancies
 satisfaction is a result of met expectations
Value attainment
 Extent to which a job allows fulfillment of one’s
work values
6-33
Causes of Job Satisfaction
Equity: satisfaction
 is a function of how “fairly” an individual is
treated at work
Dispositional/Genetic Components
 satisfaction is partly a function of both personal
traits and genetic factors
6-34
Correlates of Job Satisfaction
Table 6-2
6-35
Correlates of Job Satisfaction
Organizational commitment
 reflects the extent to which an individual
identifies with an organization and is committed
to its goals
Organizational citizenship behavior
 employee behaviors that exceed work-role
requirements
6-36
Question?
Denise works at Harvest Hope Food Bank
and is committed to doing all she can to
help the organization fulfill its mission. She
is high in ______________.
A.Withdrawal cognition
B.Organizational commitment
C.Organizational citizenship behavior
D.Job equity
6-37
Correlates of Job Satisfaction
Withdrawal
cognitions
 Represent an
individual’s overall
thoughts and
feelings about
quitting
6-38
Counterproductive Work Behavior
Counterproductive work behavior
 represent types of behavior that harm
employees, the organization as a whole, or
organizational stakeholders such as customers
and shareholders.
 theft, gossiping, back-stabbing, drug and
alcohol abuse, destroying organizational
property, violence, tardiness, sabotage, and
sexual harassment
6-39
Video Case: Motivation Convention
Are people fundamentally different today than in
the past? Why do workers need to be “buttered
up” more today?
What are some different types of incentives
employees are given today to “motivate” them?
What have you received in terms of different
incentives from your employers?
Why is motivating employees so important - do
you think it makes that big of a difference?
6-40
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Needs, Job Design, and Satisfaction