INFANT TODDLER
INFANT TODDLER
ASSESSMENT
ASSESSMENT
Mary Ann Ellis EdS
Madonna University
Mary Ann Ellis EdS
Madonna University
Bronfenbrenner 1979
• “Traditional Assessment ..the strange behavior of children
in strange situations with strange adults for the briefest
possible periods of time.”
Screening
• Is a brief, formal assessment process where we take
a quick look to see if further evaluation is needed
• Not to be used for eligibility or diagnostics
• Professional administered or parent completed
Types of Infant/Toddler Assessment
• Screening
• Authentic Performance Based
• Diagnostic Evaluation
• Early On Comprehensive Evaluation
Recommended Screening Tools
Michigan Department of Education
Early On Reference Bulletin No. 11
March 24, 2011
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Ages and Stages Questionnaire
Child Development Inventories, The Ounce Scale
Birth to Three Assessment and Intervention System
2nd Edition (Btais-2)
Screening Test of Developmental Abilities
Battelle Developmental Inventory Screening test
Brigance Screens
Denver Developmental Screening Test II
Developmental Profile 3
ESP: Early Screening Profiles
Infant-Toddler and Family Assessment
Devereaux Early Childhood Assessment program
Modified- Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT)
PEDS: Developmental Milestones for children zero to eight years
• http://eotta.ccresa.org/Files/PDF/MDE_Bulletins/Screening_Refere
nce_Bulletin_March_2011.pdf
Authentic Performance Based Assessment
• Young children must be assessed individually
by adults they know in realistic settings and
situations that reflect children’s actual
performance.
• Inappropriate assessment can be harmful to
young children.
NAEYC Position Statement on Assessment:
http://www.naeyc.org/positionstatements/cape
Assessment is not about evaluation but
about getting info
• True authentic based assessment would occur in a
natural setting over a period of time by means of
systematic observation
• The intent is to know a child’s development, learning
styles and skills so we can determine what the child can
do and be able to provide learning experiences for the
next set of skills
ResultsMatter,Video library
http://www.cde.state.co.us/resultsmatter/RMVideoSeries.htm
Early Intervention-Authentic Assessment in Early Intervention
http://www.cde.state.co.us/resultsmatter/RMVideoSeries_EarlyIntervention
.htm#top
Best Practice:
Seeing the Child in the context of Family
Development is a Transactional Process
• Sensory
processing
• Muscle tone
• Genetics
• EEG & GI
functioning
• Socioeconomics
of the family
• Family Structure
• Home
arrangements
• Allergens
• Noise levels
• Personality traits
• Parental reactivity
• Depression/anxiety
• Beliefs/fears/fantasies
• Ease with emotions
Biological
Makeup
Parenting
Patterns
Environs
Cultural
Practices
• View of disability
• Gender beliefs
• Child rearing
customs
• Religious beliefs
Routines Based Assessment
• Developed at Vanderbilt Kennedy Center, Family
Research Program
• Robin McWilliam
http://www.siskin.org/www/docs/112.190/
• LeeAnn Jung, Interdisciplinary Early Childhood Education,
University of Kentucky
• http://yec.sagepub.com/content/9/2/2.extract
• Case Example
Diagnostic Evaluation
• Evaluation is a comprehensive procedure where specific
criterion or norm-referenced instruments are used by
qualified personnel to obtain a score for the purpose of
identification of unique needs, diagnosis or eligibility for
service
• Must provide a more comprehensive view of the child’s
functioning than Screening
• Must have fixed procedures of administration, scoring,
standard materials and instructions
Early On Comprehensive Evaluation
• What is Early On? –The delivery of services in Michigan
for children from birth to three years of age who have
developmental delays and or established conditions
www.1800earlyon.org
• Michigan’s comprehensive plan for Part C of Public Law
108-446 IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
2004
• http://eotta.ccresa.org/News.php?ID=171
Eligibility for Early On
• Developmental delay
• Established Conditions
•
http://eotta.ccresa.org/Files/PDF/MDE
_Bulletins/Reference_Bulletin_10_Eligibility%20Determination.pdf
Developmental Delay
• Children from birth through 2 years of age whose
development is delayed by 20% in one or more of the
following areas:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Cognitive
Communication
Social/emotional
Adaptive/Self-Help
Physical including vision and hearing
Approved Evaluation Instruments
• Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID II)
• Brigance Diagnostic Inventory of early Development – Revised
• Infant-Toddler Developmental Assessment (IDA)
• Early Intervention Developmental Profile (EIDP)
• Hawaii Early Learning Profiles (HELP)/HELP Strands
• Battelle Inventory
Established Conditions
Children from birth through age two who
have a diagnosed physical
or mental condition that
has a high probability of
resulting in
developmental delay
http://eotta.ccresa.org/Files/PDF/MDE
_Bulletins/Reference_Bulletin_10_Eligibility%20Determination.pdf
Establish Condition Categories
• The categories of established conditions are (but not
limited to):
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Chromosomal anomaly/genetic disorder
Neurological disorder
Congenital malformation
Inborn error of metabolism
Sensory disorder
Atypical developmental disorder
Severe toxic exposure
Chronic illness
Severe infectious disease
Evaluations/Reports
• Limited in how we follow recommended practices for
Infant Toddler Assessment when we are looking for
eligibility for Early On
Diagnostic nature requires standardization
2. Timeline of 45 days
3. Actual written law requiring formal assessment
http://eotta.ccresa.org/Files/PDF/MDE_Bulletins/Reference_Bulletin
_7_Comp_Evaluations.pdf
1.
Early On Authentic Assessment
Components
• Natural environment
• Several sources of information
• Parent child observation including recommended practice
of parent participation in evaluation
• Parental input of developmental history and concerned
• Option of Informed Clinical Opinion (ICO)
Comprehensive Evaluations/Integrative
Reports
• Comprehensive evaluations must contain:
1. Developmental history which includes medical history
2. Parent-child observation
3. Recent health status report that is with 3 months for children 018 months and within 6 months for children 18 months through
2 years old
4. An appropriate formal evaluation measure.
Integrative Report
• Descriptive info re: agency, child and evaluator
• Referral/ Evaluation info re: who, what, where and why
• Developmental & Health History
• Observational discoveries
• Developmental levels & descriptions
• Summary
• Recommendations re: eligibility including parental
concerns etc.
• Signatures and titles of evaluators
• Integrative Reports Template.doc
Informed Clinical Opinion
• “Informed opinion (e.g. clinical judgment)is a
recommended practice authorized in the Individuals with
Disabilities Act (IDEA) to (1) document the often
unrecognized capabilities and subtle dimensions of the
development and behavior infants and toddlers with
special needs…” (Neisworth,Bagnato 2011)
Guidelines for ICO
• Used for determining eligibility based on developmental
delay regarding difficult to measure aspects of current
developmental status and the potential need for early
intervention
ICO is used for
• Children whose age is under 2
months and therefore a 20%
delay is difficult to measure
• Children over 2 months when
delay is suspected but
traditional tools do not show
the delay.
ICO
• Is not a means to circumvent the eligibility criteria for
Early On
• A multidisciplinary team must synthesize and interpret
information from
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Clinical Interview with parents
Evaluation of the child at play
Observation of the parent-child interaction
Information of the caregivers that spend significant time with the
child
Neurodevelopmental and other physical examinations
Additional psychometric and diagnostic data
ICO
• An ICO must:
1. Be compiled into a written integrative report
2. Identify what sources of information were used
3. Identify who provided the information
4. Identify the estimated % of delay
5. Contain recommendations related to the IFSP
6. Be attached to the IFSP(to ensure it is captured as part of the
IFSP development)
Student Assignments/Activities to Develop
Skill Base
• Observation of video clips to take anecdotal notes and
score on sections of assessments or evaluations
• Observation/participation in sample assessment as a
group in class including writing integrative report
• Developmental observational assessment or
evaluation/report of a young child
• Play based evaluation and plan of action of a young child
with unique needs in a classroom
Resources
• WEBINAR ON ASSESSMENT RESOURCES
Thank you for attending
Presenter: Mary Ann Ellis EdS
Infant/Toddler Developmental Specialist
Madonna University
Early Childhood Education
[email protected]
(734) 729-7247
For further information:
Early On Training and Technical Assistance www.eotta.ccresa.org
& Early on Center for Higher Education www.earlyoncenter.org
Or call: 866.334.5437
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PowerPoint File - CCRESA Early On Training & TA