JOINT AND COMBINED
COMMAND AND
CONTROL
The U.S. Perspective
Joint Pub 5-00.2
Joint Pub 3-16
Building New Command and
Control Relationships
 Joint-ness
legally mandated at the strategic,
operational and tactical levels
 At Issue: Definition / separation of
“command” and “operational” responsibilities
–
–
Moving from the traditional concept of “command”
To the concept of Command that delineates
between operational and administrative control
responsibilities and doesn’t presume both
functions have to be performed by the same
commander (or even the same service) and chain
of command.
Command Relationships
Combatant Command Authority - COCOM
(Strategic Level of Warfare)
(1) Exercised by a unified or specified commander
appointed by the President with a broad continuing
mission (regional or functional)
• Cannot be delegated
(2) Authoritative direction for all Military Operations,
joint training and logistics necessary to accomplish
assigned missions
• Organize and employ Commands and Forces
• Assigns tasks and designation of objectives
(3) Normally exercised through subordinate Joint task
force or functional component commanders
Command Relationships
Operational Control - OPCON (Operational or
Tactical Levels of Warfare)
(1) Inherent in Combatant Command Authority
(2) Authoritative direction for all Military Operations
and Training
• Organize and employ Commands and Forces
• Assigns tasks and designation of objectives
(3) Normally exercised through subordinate Joint task
force or functional component commanders
•Suspend / reassign subordinate commanders
(4) Does not include authoritative direction for logistics,
admin, discipline, unit training or internal organization
Command Relationships
Tactical Control - TACON (Operational or
Tactical Levels of Warfare)
• Inherent in OPCON
• Detailed local direction and control of movements
• Typical in functional command structures
• Does not include:
– organizational authority
– administrative and logistics support
Command Relationships
Support
- established by a superior joint commander when
one organization should aid, protect, complement, or
sustain another. Answers directly to supported force’s
request for assistance
• Provides an effective means to weight (and ensure
unity of effort) for various operations
Supported commander
Command Relationships
Support
- established by a superior joint commander when
one organization should aid, protect, complement, or
sustain another. Answers directly to supported force’s
request for assistance
• Provides an effective means to weight (and ensure
unity of effort) for various operations
Supported commander
designates and prioritizes
determines timing and duration of support
determines other coordination requirements
Command Relationships
Supporting Commander
Types of Support
Command Relationships
Supporting Commander
Retains OPCON of assigned forces
Prescribes tactics, methods,
communications, and procedures
Coordinates with the supported commander
Keeps the supported commander informed
Provides LNOs to supported commander
Types of Support
Command Relationships
Supporting Commander
Retains OPCON of assigned forces
Prescribes tactics, methods,
communications, and procedures
Coordinates with the supported commander
Keeps the supported commander informed
Provides LNOs to supported commander
Types of Support
Mutual Support - unit support to each other
General Support - support provided to an entire force
Direct Support - direct responsibility to another force
Close Support - “supporting” force activities
sufficiently near the “supported” force
Other Authorities
Administrative Control
Includes organization of service forces, control of resources
and equipment, personnel management, unit log, readiness,
discipline and other matters not included in operational missions.
Subject to command authorities of combatant commanders
Coordinating Authority
A consultation relationship. The authority to require, but not
compel, agreement. More applicable to planning and similar
activities.
Direct Liaison Authorized (DIRLAUTH)
The authority to coordinate or consult with agencies inside or
outside the granting command
Command Relationships
“... there should be no mistaking the fact that
the greatest obstacles to unity of command
during UNOSOM II were imposed by the United
States on itself . . . command arrangements had
effectively created a condition that allowed no
one to set clear, unambiguous priorities in
designing and executing a comprehensive force
package.”
Somalia Operations: Lessons
Learned Jan 95, Page 60
JTF C2 Considerations





Planning Stages - C2 arrangements and
relationships during planning should be specified in
the initiating directive
Employment - C2 for employment should be clearly
established in appropriate JTF, component and
subordinate TF OPORDs
Termination - Termination C2 should be addressed
in planning from beginning
Transition - C2 changes need to be anticipated in
continuing operations
Redeployment - C2 should remain with the CJTF
until relieved of operational responsibilites
JTF Component Structure
(Service)
CINC
Capabilities
or functions
do not
overlap
Simplicity in a
Time Compressed
Environment
JTF
NAVFOR
AFFOR
ARFOR
MARFOR
JSOTF
JTF Component Structure
(Functional)
Unity
of
Effort
CINC
Organize by
capabilities
or
functions
CJTF
JFMCC
JFACC
JFLCC
JSOTF
JPOTF
JCMOTF
Subordinate TF Structure
Unity
of
Effort
CINC
Geographic
or
Mission
Specific
CJTF
TF
TRANS
TF
MED
TF Eng
JSOTF
JPOTF
JCMOTF
JFACC ?

“The JFC will normally designate a JFACC. The JFC will
base the decision to designate a JFACC on several
factors such as:”
– Mission
– Concept of Operations
– Tasks to Subordinate Units
– Forces Available
– Duration and Nature of Air Operations Desired
– Degree of Unity of C2 of Joint Air Ops Required
Combined or
Multinational
Force Operations
JTF Organization
Multinational Operations
“Nothing that I have ever been taught
prepared me for the mental jump needed to go
from being Chief of Operations in NATO army
group to being Chief of Staff of a UN Operation,
where I had to bring together the staff from ten
different nations and staff the deployment in less
than three weeks from the Security Resolution.”
Major General R.A.
Cordy-Simpson UKAR
C2 of US Forces in MNF
Operations
The U.S. President retains command authority
over US forces. This includes the authority
and responsibility for effectively using
available resources and for planning
employment, organizing, directing,
coordinating, controlling and protecting
military forces for the accomplishment of
assigned missions
C2 of US Forces in MNF
Operations
 Command
authority - never delegated
 OPCON (as defined by our doctrine) - may be
delegated
–
–
for small deployments on a case-by-case basis
under UN auspices or ad hoc coalitions



–
mission cannot be changed
forces cannot be deployed outside designated AOR
units/resources cannot be separated or divided from each other
US commanders are required to maintain the capability
to report separately to higher US and foreign military
authorities
 Coordinating
authority - also an acceptable means
of accomplishing a MNF “planning” mission
MNF Command Structures
 No
single command structure best fits the needs
of all alliances (long term) and coalitions (short
term)
–
should strive to achieve unity of command
 Alliance
–
–
command structures
integrated
lead nation
 Coalition
–
–
–
command structures
parallel command structures: least desirable
lead nation
combination
“Integrated” Command
Structure
MULTINATIONAL
FORCE
COMMANDER
CARFOR
US
ARFOR
CNAVFOR
Allied
ARFOR
US
NAVFOR
Allied
NAVFOR
DMFC
CAFFOR
US
AFFOR
Allied
AFFOR
When Used: Common Language, National Objectives,
Good Interoperability
“Lead Nation” Command Structure
International
Alliance Auth
Combined CMD
MULTINATIONAL
FORCE
COMMANDER
Allied
Command
Allied Nation
Other
Components
Allied Nation
Army
Component
Nat’l COCOM
U.S.
Command
U.S.
Army
Component
U.S.
Naval
Component
When Used: Significant Language or National Objective
Differences or Poor Interoperability
U.S.
Air Force
Component
Lead Nation Concept in MultiNational Coalition Operations
(MIC White Paper)
 The
Multinational Interoperability Committee
(MIC) provides a multinational environment for
identifying and articulating actions which, if
nationally accepted and implemented, would
contribute to more effective coalition operations.
 It seeks to identify essential factors that the Lead
Nation and the coalition commander and his staff
should consider for the effectiveness and
efficiency of the coalition.
Lead Nation Concept
 Factors
in the selection of a “Lead Nation”
Lead Nation Concept
 Factors
–
in the selection of a “Lead Nation”
Above all the Lead Nation must be a politically
acceptable choice for the other coalition partners.
 Lead
Nation Responsibilities
Lead Nation Concept
 Factors
–
Above all the Lead Nation must be a politically
acceptable choice for the other coalition partners.
 Lead
–
–
–
–
–
–
in the selection of a “Lead Nation”
Nation Responsibilities
provide the command structure and strategic guidance
coordinate for, create, or provide communications and
information management structures
lead the development of the coalition’s political
objectives
act as sponsor and spokesman for the coalition’s
operations in the world community
lead coordination and building of consensus during
the coalition’s planning and execution phases
be competent to carry out the anticipated operation
Lead Nation Concept
 The
most flexible and responsive command
authority under which the coalition
commander can act is to have national forces
assigned to under his operational control
(OPCON).
 least
desirable command arrangement is a
parallel command structure
Lead Nation Concept
 Provide
unity of command for the operation to
the maximum extent possible, with missions,
tasks, responsibilities, and authorities clearly
defined and understood by all participants
 Although
coalition participants may have
similar political mandates, each nation is
likely to bring to the coalition a different set of
national Rules of Engagement (ROE)
Lead Nation Concept
 The
actual "mechanics" of this planning
process will be vastly simplified if coalition
partners provide a "Planning Liaison Cell(s)"
early on which essentially can be "folded into"
the Lead Nation’s planning process.
 The
formation of a Planning Liaison Cell(s)
will also facilitate this process by providing a
mechanism for exchange of detailed
information regarding the capabilities of each
partner and the willingness and/or ability of
each to commit resources.
Lead Nation Concept
 The
execution of coalition logistics is most
effective if it is made a collective responsibility
of the coalition force.
 When possible, mutual logistics support
should be developed for economy of effort.
Functional Lead nation for logistics
responsibility can preclude duplication of
effort.
 Once planning for a coalition operation has
begun, the Commander of the multinational
force must establish standard operating
procedures (SOP) whenever appropriate.
Lead Nation Concept

Formation of a fully integrated command
structure is most likely to achieve a high
degree of unity of command.

Combination command structures exist when
both Lead Nation and parallel command
structures exist simultaneously; this occurs
when two or more nations serve as Lead
Nation for a mix of multinational forces
Lead Nation Concept

Lead Nation command characterized by an
integrated staff and multinational subordinate
forces allowing the commander to draw upon
the expertise of alliance partners in areas
where the lead nation may have less
experience.

Demand a robust liaison structure to facilitate
operations. Early establishment reduces the
fog and friction caused by incompatible
communications systems, doctrine, and
operating procedures.
Lead Nation Concept
 Coordination
Centers can also facilitate
control of multinational operations, which
require interaction with a variety of agencies,
both military and nonmilitary. A coordination
center can assist in command and control as
well as to organize and coordinate a variety
of functions, including logistics and civilmilitary operations.
 A central
coalition coordination center may be
established as well as a number of functional
coordination centers
Lead Nation Concept
 As
a minimum under any command
arrangement a National Command Element
(NCE) of some sort will be established for
each national contingent, and will continue as
a minimum to exercise administrative and
other support functions during the operation.
Lead Nation Concept
 Assignment
of national forces under OPCON
may be qualified from the respective nations.
Further assignment in an OPCON status by
the coalition force commander is normally
subject to approval by the respective national
command authorities. Details should normally
be spelled out in a Transfer of Authority (TOA)
agreement.
JOINT AND COMBINED
COMMAND AND
CONTROL
The U.S. Perspective
Joint Pub 5-00.2
Joint Pub 3-16
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Joint and Combined Command and Control