Interpersonal
Communication:
Perception
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Listening:
“the process of receiving,
constructing meaning from, and
responding to spoken and/or
nonverbal messages.” p. 175
Perception
The process of selectively attending to
sensory information and assigning
meaning to it. (pg. 30)
Our perception becomes our reality.
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Attend
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Three psychological factors that
influence selection/attending:
1.
Our needs
2.
Our interests
3.
Our expectations
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A sensory test of expectations:
Paris
Once
Bird
in the
in a
in the
the springtime
a lifetime
the hand
Attend
Organize
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Organization
 Simplicity--the brain simplifies complex stimuli
into a commonly recognized form (what we
expect to perceive)
 Pattern -- the brain organizes information
according to patterns, sets of characteristics that
differentiate some things from others.
(differentiating by forming patterns)
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521-4456
080-44-7889
5360-7856-8834-3278
i.e. telephone #’s, SS #’s, credit card #’s
3-4
3-2-4
4-4-4-4
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Attend
Organize
Interpret
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Interpretation
The process of assigning meaning
to the information that has been
selected and organized
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Social Perception
aka Social Cognition
A set of processes by which people
perceive themselves and others.
13
Pause Here
Self-concept –
Self-esteem -
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Self-concept - the idea or
mental image that we have about our
skills, abilities, knowledge,
competencies, and personality
Self-esteem - our overall
evaluation of our competence and
personal worthiness
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Positive Self-Esteem
Perception of having a characteristic
+
Personal belief that the characteristic
is of positive value
=
Positive self-esteem
-Mruk
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Some Concept Definitions
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1 - Incongruence
The gap between our inaccurate
self-perceptions and reality
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2 - Self-fulfilling Prophecies
Events that happen as the result of
being foretold, expected, or talked
about and that serve to reinforce an
individual’s self-concept
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Presenting Self
We present our
self-image to others
through various
roles we enact.
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3 - Role – A pattern of learned
behaviors that people use to meet
the perceived demands of a
particular context
4 - Working self-concept –
The specific aspects of your identity that
are activated by the role you are enacting at
a particular time
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5 - Stereotypes
Simplified and standardized
conceptions about the characteristics
or expected behavior of members of
an identifiable group
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1.
6.
2.
7.
3.
8.
4.
9.
5.
10.
Prejudice –
Discrimination –
Racism, Sexism, Ageism, &
Able-ism –
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Prejudice – a preconceived judgment,
belief or opinion that a person holds
without sufficient grounds ( + or - )
Discrimination – treating members of
one group differently from members of
another in a way that is unfair or harmful
Racism, Sexism, Ageism,
Able-ism – belief that the behaviors or
characteristics of one group are inherently
superior to those of another
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Factors that Influence Our Social
Perceptions
 Physical characteristics, social behaviors,
emotional states
 Cultural backgrounds
 Stereotyping
 Who we are and what our experiences have
been
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Improving Social Perceptions
 Come in Thursday prepared with a list of how we
can “Improve Social Perceptions.”
 HINT: Read the textbook.
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Improving Social Perceptions
 Seek more information
 Actively question the accuracy of perceptions
(avoid mind reading)
 Realize that perceptions change
 Check perceptions verbally
 Realize that perception check is descriptive rather
than judgmental
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