Psychology for sport
Personality Part 2
BTEC National
Miss McLaren
To be able to describe Social learning
theory, situational and interactional
To be able to explain the link between
personality and sports performance using
different theories.
‘Personality is widely agreed to be the total
of an individual’s characteristics that make
anyone unique or different from their peers.’
Social Learning Theory
 Social learning approach states that our personality characteristics are
learned not genetically predetermined.
 Social learning involves the influences of others on a persons behaviour.
We observe and imitate role models but only those who are significant to
This happens through a process of modelling and reinforcement.
Modelling : model themselves on people they can relate to.
Reinforcement: if rewarded they will use this behaviour
For example:
Reactions to situations in sport are often based on how others have reacted in
similar situations.
People tend to imitate/copy those they want to be like. Negative role models
like Wayne Rooney, Mario Balotti, Roy keane etc
Social Learning Videos
Situational – Centred View
 Suggests that behaviour is dependent on your situation
or environment.
 For example and sports person can be an introvert in
normal life but can display aggressive traits in a sporting
Interactional Approach
 Believes that trait theory and social learning theory have some value
but only when they work together.
 Personality changes depending on whether they are and who they
are with. Our personality changes depending on our environment!
 For example:
 Rugby player during pre match warm up would be aggressive and
rowdy with his team mates, however when they are at home with
their family they are quiet and reserved.
Type A – Type B Personality
Type A
 Lacks patience
 Strong urge for competition
 Desire to achieve goals
Type B
 Tend to be more tolerant
towards others
 More relaxed and reflective
than their type A counterparts
 Rush to complete tasks
 Happy to multi –task if under time
 Lacks tolerance towards others
 Experience higher levels of
 Experience lower levels of
anxiety and display higher
levels of imagination and
Athlete Vs Non Athletes
Athletes that take part in team sports are more EXTROVERED when
compared with Non – athletes.
Athletes who take part in individual sports tend to be more introverted. You
need to consider the sport before reaching meaningful conclusions.
Individual Vs Team Sports
Successful athletes display lower levels of depression, fatigue, confusion and
anger, but higher levels of vigour.
P1 & M1: Describe personality and explain 6
different theories of personality.
 Support this with sporting examples. Give
examples of who in sport is introverted,
extroverted and the types of sport they play and
why they are best suited to these sports.
 Finish for homework!
You must include the following….
1 Know the effect of personality and motivation on sports performance
Personality: definition; theories (Marten’s schematic view, psychodynamic
theory, trait theory, situational approach, interactional approach); types (type A
and type B); effects on sports performance (athletes versus non athletes,
individual versus team sports, elite versus non-elite athletes, type A versus type
Motivation: definition; views (trait centred, situation centred, interactional view);
types (intrinsic and extrinsic); theories eg achievement motivation, attribution
theory; effects on sports performance (positive, negative, future expectations of
success and failure); developing a motivational climate