Learning
1
Definition
Learning is a relatively permanent change in an
organism’s behavior due to experience.
Learning is more flexible in comparison to the
genetically-programmed behaviors of Salmon,
for example.
2
How Do We Learn?
We learn by association. Our minds
naturally connect events that occur in
sequence.
2000 years ago, Aristotle suggested this
law of association. Then 200 years ago
Locke and Hume reiterated this law.
3
Stimulus-Stimulus Learning
Learning to associate one stimulus
with another.
4
Response-Consequence Learning
Learning to associate a response
with a consequence.
5
Response-Consequence Learning
Learning to associate a response
with a consequence.
6
Stimulus-Stimulus Learning
Learning to associate one stimulus
with another.
7
8
On your own paper, respond to the following
questions and turn them in today:
• Can you remember some example from your
childhood of learning through classical
conditioning? Perhaps salivating at the sound or
smell of some delicious food cooking in your
family kitchen?
• Can you remember and example of operant
conditioning, when you repeated (or decided not
to repeat) a behavior because you liked or hated its
consequence? Can you recall watching someone
else perform some act and later repeating or
avoiding that act?
9
Classical Conditioning
Sovfoto
Ideas of classical conditioning originate from old
philosophical theories. However, it was the
Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov who elucidated
classical conditioning. His work provided a basis
for later behaviorists like John Watson and B. F.
Skinner.
Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)
10
Pavlov’s Experiments
Before conditioning, food (Unconditioned
Stimulus, US) produces salivation
(Unconditioned Response, UR). However, the
tone (neutral stimulus) does not.
11
Pavlov’s Experiments
During conditioning, the neutral stimulus (tone)
and the US (food) are paired, resulting in
salivation (UR). After conditioning, the neutral
stimulus (now Conditioned Stimulus, CS) elicits
salivation (now Conditioned Response, CR)
12
Directions:
Rest for two minutes. Take pulse for 30 seconds
Pulse rate: ____x 2= ___
Tap Pencil 5 times
Participant hops on one foot for 30 seconds. Record pulse rate at the
end of the hoping. Repeat 5 times.
After the fifth time, tap the pencil 5 times and immediately record
the pulse rate (participant does not hop first).
13
Make your paper look like this:
You measure the heart rate for 30 seconds, and multiple it by 2*
Resting for one minute. Measure heart rate ___x 2=___
1) Tap Pencil. Hop 30 sec. Heart rate ___ x2 =_____
Wait 30 sec.
2) Tap Pencil. Hop 30 sec. Heart rate ___ x2 =_____
Wait 30 sec.
3) Tap Pencil. Hop 30 sec. Heart rate ___ x2 =_____
Wait 30 sec.
4) Tap Pencil. Hop 30 sec. Heart rate ___ x2 =_____
Wait 30 sec.
5) Tap Pencil. Hop 30 sec Heart rate ___ x2 =_____
Wait 30 sec.
6) Tap Pencil. DO NOT HOP Heart rate ___ x2 =_____
14
• Complete the classical conditioning worksheets on your
own paper, and turn them in today.
• Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS): A stimulus that
automatically and naturally triggers a response.
• Unconditioned Response (UCR): A unlearned, naturally
occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus, like
salivation in the dog when food is in the mouth.
• Conditioned Stimulus (CS): Originally a neutral stimulus
that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus,
comes to trigger a conditioned response.
• Conditioned Response (CR): A learned response to a
previously neutral conditioned stimulus.
15
Classical Conditioning Presentations
• You will be assigned a certain section of your text and provided a list
of questions to answer from the information found in your text.
• Answer each of the questions, and create a presentation to convey the
information to your classmates.
• One the presentation include:
– The facts that you obtained from answering each of the questions on your
worksheet.
– At least one picture
• You have 40 minutes to COMPLETE this activity.
• ALL members of your group must participate. I will be observing the
room to assess for participation and in-class work grades will be given
in accordance with my observations.
• Presentations of the information will be today
Acquisition
Acquisition is the initial stage in classical
conditioning in which an association between a
neutral stimulus and an unconditioned
stimulus takes place.
1. In most cases, for conditioning to occur, the
neutral stimulus needs to come before the
unconditioned stimulus.
2. The time in between the two stimuli should
be about half a second.
17
Acquisition
The CS needs to come half a second before the US
for acquisition to occur.
18
Extinction
When the US (food) does not follow the CS
(tone), CR (salivation) begins to decrease and
eventually causes extinction.
19
Spontaneous Recovery
After a rest period, an extinguished CR (salivation)
spontaneously recovers, but if the CS (tone) persists
alone, the CR becomes extinct again.
20
Stimulus Generalization
Tendency to respond to
stimuli similar to the CS is
called generalization. Pavlov
conditioned the dog’s
salivation (CR) by using
miniature vibrators (CS) on
the thigh. When he
subsequently stimulated
other parts of the dog’s
body, salivation dropped.
21
Stimulus Discrimination
Discrimination is the learned ability to distinguish
between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that
do not signal an unconditioned stimulus.
22
https://youtu.be/yJulnBmHtjQ (4:31)
classical conditioning video
23
Extending Pavlov’s Understanding
Pavlov and Watson considered consciousness,
or mind, unfit for the scientific study of
psychology. However, they underestimated the
importance of cognitive processes and
biological constraints.
24
Cognitive Processes
Early behaviorists believed that learned
behaviors of various animals could be reduced
to mindless mechanisms.
However, later behaviorists suggested that
animals learn the predictability of a stimulus,
meaning they learn expectancy or awareness of a
stimulus (Rescorla, 1988).
25
Biological Predispositions
Pavlov and Watson believed that laws of
learning were similar for all animals.
Therefore, a pigeon and a person do not differ
in their learning.
However, behaviorists later suggested that
learning is constrained by an animal’s biology.
26
Biological Predispositions
Courtesy of John Garcia
Garcia showed that the duration
between the CS and the US may be
long (hours), but yet result in
conditioning. A biologically adaptive
CS (taste) led to conditioning and not
to others (light or sound).
John Garcia
27
Biological Predispositions
Even humans can develop classically to
conditioned nausea.
28
Pavlov’s Legacy
Pavlov’s greatest contribution
to psychology is isolating
elementary behaviors from
more complex ones through
objective scientific
procedures.
Ivan Pavlov
(1849-1936)
29
• Little Albert
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xt0ucx
OrPQE (2:35)
30
Treatment of Phobias
31
Uses for ranchers
32
Psychoneuroimmunology
33
As a joke
• http://youtu.be/2c4_l2oe22U (1:10)
34
Applications of Classical
Conditioning
Brown Brothers
Watson used classical
conditioning procedures to
develop parenting strategies
and advertising campaigns
for a number of
organizations, including
Maxwell House, making the
“coffee break” an American
custom.
John B. Watson
35
Operant & Classical Conditioning
1. Classical conditioning
forms associations
between stimuli (CS
and US). Operant
conditioning, on the
other hand, forms an
association between
behaviors and the
resulting events.
36
Operant & Classical Conditioning
2. Classical conditioning involves respondent
behavior that occurs as an automatic
response to a certain stimulus. Operant
conditioning involves operant behavior, a
behavior that operates on the environment,
producing rewarding or punishing stimuli.
37
Skinner’s Experiments
Skinner’s experiments extend Thorndike’s
thinking, especially his law of effect. This law
states that rewarded behavior is likely to occur
again.
Yale University Library
38
law of effect
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BDujD
OLre-8#action=share (2:21)
39
Using Thorndike's law of effect as a starting
point, Skinner developed the Operant chamber,
or the Skinner box, to study operant
conditioning.
Walter Dawn/ Photo Researchers, Inc.
40
From The Essentials of Conditioning and Learning, 3rd
Edition by Michael P. Domjan, 2005. Used with permission
by Thomson Learning, Wadsworth Division
Operant Chamber
Skinner Conditioning
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TtfQlk
GwE2U (1:21)
41
Operant Chamber
The operant chamber,
or Skinner box, comes
with a bar or key that
an animal manipulates
to obtain a reinforcer
like food or water. The
bar or key is connected
to devices that record
the animal’s response.
42
Shaping
Shaping is the operant conditioning procedure
in which reinforcers guide behavior towards the
desired target behavior through successive
approximations.
Fred Bavendam/ Peter Arnold, Inc.
Khamis Ramadhan/ Panapress/ Getty Images
A rat shaped to sniff mines. A manatee shaped to discriminate
objects of different shapes, colors and sizes.
43
Types of Reinforcers
Any event that strengthens the behavior it
follows. A heat lamp positively reinforces a
meerkat’s behavior in the cold.
Reuters/ Corbis
44
Primary & Secondary Reinforcers
1. Primary Reinforcer: An innately reinforcing
stimulus like food or drink.
2. Conditioned Reinforcer: A learned
reinforcer that gets its reinforcing power
through association with the primary
reinforcer.
45
Immediate & Delayed Reinforcers
1. Immediate Reinforcer: A reinforcer that
occurs instantly after a behavior. A rat gets a
food pellet for a bar press.
2. Delayed Reinforcer: A reinforcer that is
delayed in time for a certain behavior. A
paycheck that comes at the end of a week.
We may be inclined to engage in small immediate
reinforcers (watching TV) rather than large delayed
reinforcers (getting an A in a course) which require
consistent study.
46
Reinforcement Schedules
1. Continuous Reinforcement: Reinforces the
desired response each time it occurs.
2. Partial Reinforcement: Reinforces a
response only part of the time. Though this
results in slower acquisition in the
beginning, it shows greater resistance to
extinction later on.
47
Conditioning
• https://youtu.be/qy_mIEnnlF4 (2:45)
• https://youtu.be/EWyZHSZf3TM (1:44)
48
Ratio Schedules
1. Fixed-ratio schedule: Reinforces a response
only after a specified number of responses.
e.g., piecework pay.
2. Variable-ratio schedule: Reinforces a response
after an unpredictable number of responses.
This is hard to extinguish because of the
unpredictability. (e.g., behaviors like
gambling, fishing.)
49
Interval Schedules
1. Fixed-interval schedule: Reinforces a
response only after a specified time has
elapsed. (e.g., preparing for an exam
only when the exam draws close.)
2. Variable-interval schedule: Reinforces a
response at unpredictable time
intervals, which produces slow, steady
responses. (e.g., pop quiz.)
50
Schedules of Reinforcement
51
Variable ratio schedule
• https://youtu.be/I_ctJqjlrHA (3:57)
Punishment
An aversive event that decreases the behavior it
follows.
53
Punishment
Although there may be some justification for
occasional punishment (Larzelaere & Baumrind,
2002), it usually leads to negative effects.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Results in unwanted fears.
Conveys no information to the organism.
Justifies pain to others.
Causes unwanted behaviors to reappear in its
absence.
5. Causes aggression towards the agent.
6. Causes one unwanted behavior to appear in
place of another.
54
Negative reinforcement
• https://youtu.be/LhI5h5JZi-U (2:30)
55
Extending Skinner’s Understanding
Skinner believed in inner thought processes and
biological underpinnings, but many
psychologists criticize him for discounting
them.
56
Cognition & Operant Conditioning
Evidence of cognitive processes during operant
learning comes from rats during a maze
exploration in which they navigate the maze
without an obvious reward. Rats seem to
develop cognitive maps, or mental
representations, of the layout of the maze
(environment).
57
Latent Learning
Such cognitive maps are based on latent
learning, which becomes apparent when an
incentive is given (Tolman & Honzik, 1930).
58
Motivation
Intrinsic Motivation:
The desire to perform a
behavior for its own
sake.
Extrinsic Motivation:
The desire to perform a
behavior due to
promised rewards or
threats of punishments.
59
Biological Predisposition
Photo: Bob Bailey
Biological constraints
predispose organisms to
learn associations that
are naturally adaptive.
Breland and Breland
(1961) showed that
animals drift towards
their biologically
predisposed instinctive
behaviors.
Marian Breland Bailey
60
Skinner’s Legacy
Skinner argued that behaviors were shaped by
external influences instead of inner thoughts and
feelings. Critics argued that Skinner
dehumanized people by neglecting their free will.
Falk/ Photo Researchers, Inc
.
61
Applications of Operant
Conditioning
Skinner introduced the concept of teaching
machines that shape learning in small steps and
provide reinforcements for correct rewards.
LWA-JDL/ Corbis
In School
62
Applications of Operant
Conditioning
Reinforcement principles can enhance athletic
performance.
In Sports
63
Applications of Operant
Conditioning
Reinforcers affect productivity. Many companies
now allow employees to share profits and
participate in company ownership.
At work
64
Applications of Operant
Conditioning
In children, reinforcing good behavior increases
the occurrence of these behaviors. Ignoring
unwanted behavior decreases their occurrence.
65
Operant vs. Classical Conditioning
66
I am going to a picnic game
Learning by Observation
© Herb Terrace
Higher animals,
especially humans,
learn through observing
and imitating others.
©Herb Terrace
The monkey on the
right imitates the
monkey on the left in
touching the pictures in
a certain order to obtain
a reward.
68
children see children do
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KHi2dx
Sf9hw (1:32)
Reprinted with permission from the American
Association for the Advancement of Science,
Subiaul et al., Science 305: 407-410 (2004)
© 2004 AAAS.
Mirror Neurons
Neuroscientists discovered mirror neurons in
the brains of animals and humans that are active
during observational learning.
70
Learning by observation
begins early in life. This
14-month-old child
imitates the adult on TV
in pulling a toy apart.
Meltzoff, A.N. (1998). Imitation of televised models by infants.
Child Development, 59 1221-1229. Photos Courtesy of A.N. Meltzoff and M. Hanuk.
Imitation Onset
71
Bandura's Bobo doll
study (1961) indicated
that individuals
(children) learn
through imitating
others who receive
rewards and
punishments.
Courtesy of Albert Bandura, Stanford University
Bandura's Experiments
72
bandura video
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zerCK0
lRjp8 (5:17)
Applications of Observational
Learning
Unfortunately,
Bandura’s studies
show that antisocial
models (family,
neighborhood or TV)
may have antisocial
effects.
74
Positive Observational Learning
Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works
Fortunately, prosocial (positive, helpful) models
may have prosocial effects.
75
Gentile et al., (2004)
shows that children in
elementary school
who are exposed to
violent television,
videos, and video
games express
increased aggression.
Ron Chapple/ Taxi/ Getty Images
Television and Observational
Learning
76
Modeling Violence
Children modeling after pro wrestlers
Glassman/ The Image Works
Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works
Research shows that viewing media violence
leads to an increased expression of aggression.
77
Types of learning and the bobo
beatdown:
• https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=128Ts5r
9NRE (9:34)
Observational Learning
Article Review
• Review the articles provided and summarize the findings. Answer the
following questions in your summary:
• 1. What is the problem or question's) this research concerns? You
should be able to identify the central focus. If there are additional
secondary problems, identify these too. (1-4 sentences)
2. What is the source of the data? (That is, questionnaire, intensive
interview, documents, existing statistical information, observations,
laboratory manipulations, field manipulations, etc.) In some studies
there are two or more sources of data. Give a brief overview of how
the data were acquired. (2-5 sentences)
3. Briefly, what do the key findings turn out to be? (1-5 sentences)
Different Types of Learners
• Temple Grandin, diagnosed with autism as a child,
talks about how her mind works — sharing her
ability to "think in pictures," which helps her solve
problems that neurotypical brains might miss. She
makes the case that the world needs people on the
autism spectrum: visual thinkers, pattern thinkers,
verbal thinkers, and all kinds of smart geeky kids.
• https://www.ted.com/talks/temple_grandin_the_w
orld_needs_all_kinds_of_minds#t-61160
Kinesthetic Learning
• Kinesthetic Learning (also known as Tactile
Learning) is a learning style in
which learning takes place by the student carrying
out a physical activity, rather than listening to a
lecture or watching a demonstration. People with a
preference for kinesthetic learning are also
commonly known as "do-ers". Tactile/kinesthetic
learners make up about five percent of the
population.
Visual learning
• Visual learning is a teaching and learning
style in which ideas, concepts, data, and
other information are associated with
images and techniques. It is one of the three
basic types of learning styles in the widely
used
Auditory learning
• Auditory learning is a learning style in which a
person learns through listening. An auditory
learner depends on hearing and speaking as a main
way of learning. Auditory learners must be able to
hear what is being said in order to understand and
may have difficulty with instructions that are
drawn but if the writing is in a logical order it can
be easier to understand . They also use their
listening and repeating skills to sort through the
information that is sent to them
Take Learning Styles Assessment
• Total the score for each section.
• A score of 21 points or more in a modality indicates a
strength in that area. The highest of the 3 scores indicates
the most efficient method of information intake. The
second highest score indicates the modality which boosts
the primary strength.
• For example, a score of 23 in visual modality indicates a
strong visual learner. Such a learner benefits from the text,
from filmstrips, charts, graphs, etc.
• If the second highest score is auditory, then the individual
would benefit from audio tapes, lectures, etc.
• If you are strong kinesthetically, then taking notes and
rewriting class notes will reinforce information.
Three Types of Learners
Visual
· Mind sometimes strays during
verbal activities
· Observe rather than acts or
talks
· Likes to read
· Usually a good speller
· Memorizes by seeing graphics
or pictures
· Not too distractible
· Finds verbal instruction
difficult
· Has good handwriting
· Remembers faces
· Uses advanced planning
· Doodles
· Quiet by nature
· Meticulous, neat in appearance
· Notices details
Auditory
· Talks to self aloud
· Enjoys talking
· Easily distracted
· Has difficulty with written
directions
· Likes to be read to
· Memorizes sequentially
· Enjoys music
· Whispers to self while reading
· Distracted by noise
· Hums or sings
· Outgoing by nature
Kinesthetic
· Likes physical rewards
· In motion most of the time
· Likes to touch people when
talking
· Taps pencil or foot when
studying
· Enjoys doing activities
· Reading not a priority
· Poor speller
· Likes to solve problems by
physically working through
them
· Will try new things
· Outgoing by nature; expresses
emotions by physical means
· Uses hands while talking
· Dresses for comfort
Toy development
•
You are a marketing psychologist and you have been hired to design and build a new educational toy.
Your new toy will be marketed across the nation this summer.
•
Your Design Team has 40 minutes to accomplish the following tasks:
•
1 – Think of a prototype of a new toy. You will need to decide the following:
–
–
–
–
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
What do you want to teach with your toy?
What method of learning will your toy use to teach whatever you have decided to teach with the toy? (Classical
conditioning, Operant Conditioning, or Observational Learning?
What learning style will the toy appeal to? (Visual, Tactile, Kinesthetic?)
What age group will the toy be geared towards?
2 – Create a poster-sized magazine ad with the following elements:
_____ The name of the new toy your group designed
_____ A hand-drawn picture of the toy
_____ The price of the toy
_____ The name of your Design Team
_____ The targeted age for your toy
(3-5 years; 6-8 years; 9-11 years; 12+ years)
_____ A slogan, jingle, or catch-phrase for your new toy
_____ Persuasive comments that would convince parents to purchase the new
toy for their child(ren).
_____ Remember: your poster should look like a magazine ad and should
convince parents to purchase your new toy!
4 – Be prepared to give a 2-3 minute oral presentation to the class, demonstrating your
your ad poster. Each member of the team should speak during this presentation.
Download

File - Danielle Moore Psych Class