Counseling Supervision Defined
A distinct intervention that is provided by a senior
member of a profession to a junior member or members
of that same profession. This relationship is evaluative,
extends over time, and has the simultaneous purposes of:
a)
b)
c)
enhancing the professional functioning of the
junior members,
monitoring the quality of professional services
offered to the clients he/she/they see(s) and,
serving as a gatekeeper for those who are to enter the
particular profession
(Bernard & Goodyear, 1992, p. 4)
Supervision Theory
Supervision is more than meeting once a week to
discuss whether or not your supervisee is doing it right.
Supervision is a process that looks different from
supervisee to supervisee.
Supervision is a process that looks different throughout
the supervisee’s professional development
Clinical supervision is recognized as a complex
exchange between supervisor and supervisee, with
supervisory models/theories developed to provide a
frame for it.
Determinants of Supervisor Behavior
Development and Validation of the Supervisory Styles Inventory, (Friedlander and Ward, 1984)
Assumptive World
Theoretical Orientation
Style-Role
Strategy-Focus
Format
Technique
Models of Supervision
Models Grounded
in Psychotherapy
Theory
Psychodynamic
Person-Centered
Cognitive Behavioral
Constructivist
Developmental
Models
Social Role
Models
Integrated
Development Model
(IDM)
The Loganbill, Hardy,
and Delworth Model
The Ronnestad and
Skovholt Model
The Discrimination
Model
(Bernard)
The Hawkins and
Shohet Model
The Holloway
Systems Model
Models Grounded in Psychotherapy Theory
Person-Centered
Rogers was the first to report using taped sessions for
supervision
 Counseling theory informed his supervision process
 Belief in growth potential
 Emphasis on facilitative conditions
 “No clean way” to differentiate supervision from therapy
 Profound trust that the supervisee has within him/herself the
ability and motivation to grow and explore both the therapy
situation and the self
 Person-centered supervision relies heavily on the supervisorsupervisee relationship to facilitate effective learning and
growth in supervision.

Models Grounded in Psychotherapy Theory
Cognitive Behavioral
1. Proficient counselor performance is more a function
of learned skills than a “personality fit”.
2. The counselor’s professional role consists of
identifiable tasks, each one requiring specific skills.
3. Counseling skills are behaviorally definable and are
responsive to learning theory, just as are other
behaviors.
4. Supervision should employ the principles of learning
theory within its procedures.
Models Grounded in Psychotherapy Theory
Constructivist (Solution-Focused)
Solution focused supervision validates the competence
and resources of the supervisee, emphasizes the
importance of clear incremental goals and identifies
pre-existing solutions and exceptions to problems in
the supervisee’s work … it focuses more on what the
supervisee is doing, rather than on client issues directly.
(O’Connell & Jones, 1997)
Models Grounded in Psychotherapy Theory
Constructivist (Solution-Focused)
Primary Principle: To coax and author expertise from
the life, experience, education and training of a
supervisee, rather than to deliver or teach expertise
from a hierarchically superior position.
(White & Epston, 1990)
Models Grounded in Psychotherapy Theory
Constructivist (Solution-Focused)
General Principles:

1. Rather than being didactic, help the supervisee to draw on
his or her own resources, and learn to behave
independently
2. Establish a collaborative relationship
3. Focus on supervisee’s strengths and successes rather than
failures
4. Take advantage of the snowball effect and work toward
small changes, rather than only the large ones
5. Work to achieve what is possible
6. Accept that there is no one correct way
Models Grounded in Psychotherapy Theory
Constructivist (Solution-Focused)
Solution-Focused Supervision is
 Collaborative
 Curious
 Respectful
 Based on the same premises as SFBT
 Client/Supervisee defines goals
 Rapid change is possible
 Different views are each as valid
 Focus on what is possible and changeable
Models Grounded in Psychotherapy Theory
Constructivist (Solution-Focused)
The Use of Exceptions
 Identify and amplify the supervisee’s exceptional behavior,
punctuating them using compliments
 Help supervisees focus on those times when things went well
– or at least not as badly
 Prevent supervisees from awfulizing
 Identify areas of competence
Models Grounded in Psychotherapy Theory
Constructivist (Solution-Focused)
Ideas and techniques within solution-based therapies
that are applicable in the supervisory relationship
 The use of scales
 Focused questions
 Looking for exceptions
 Constructive feedback
 Follow-up tasks
Adopt the stance of a curious inquirer
Models Grounded in Psychotherapy Theory
Constructivist (Solution-Focused)
Dialogue Questions in Solution-Focused Supervision
 What aspect of your counseling have you noticed getting
better since we last met?
 Tell me about the best thing you did with your client this
week.
 As you begin to get better at dealing with this situation, how
will you know that you have become good enough at it so
you can take it on your own?
 What will you be doing differently?
 When you get to the point at which you won’t need to deal
with this issue in supervision anymore, how will you know?
Models Grounded in Psychotherapy Theory
Constructivist (Solution-Focused)
Dialogue Questions in Solution-Focused Supervision
 On a scale of 1 to 10, with 1 being that the problem is at its
absolute worst, and 10 being that the problem is completely
solved, where would you say you are today?
 When you are on your way to a (the next highest number to
the one named), how will you know?
 What, in particular, will be different about the way you handle
that situation?
 How will you have changed as a counselor?
 The Miracle Question
Developmental Models
Primary focus is on how supervisees change as they
gain training and supervised experience
Two primary assumptions:
1. In the process of moving toward competence,
supervisees move through a series of stages that
are qualitatively different from one another.
2. Each stage requires a qualitatively different
supervisory environment if optimal supervisee
satisfaction and growth are to occur.
Developmental Models
 The Ronnestad and Skovholt Model
 Articulates the ways that counselors continue to develop across
the life-span
Phase 1: The Lay Helper Phase
Phase 2: The Beginning Student Phase
Phase 3: The Advanced Student Phase
Phase 4: The Novice Professional Phase
Phase 5: The Experienced Professional Phase
Phase 6: The Senior Professional Phase
Developmental Models
 The Loganbill, Hardy, and Delworth Model
Issues in Supervision
Integration
Stagnation
Confusion
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Supervisory Relationship
Competence
Emotional Awareness
Purpose and Direction
Autonomy
Personal (e.g., Blind Spots)
Respect for Individual Differences
Professional Ethics
Motivation
Identity
Developmental Models
 Integrated Developmental Model (IDM)
 Counselor development occurs across four stages with three
overriding structures
 Self-Other Awareness
 Motivation
 Autonomy
Level 1: Supervisees have limited training
Level 2: Supervisees are transitioning away from high dependence
Level 3: Supervisees are focusing more on a personalized approach
Level 3i: Supervisees are integrating across all three domains
Integrated Developmental Model (IDM)
 Best known and most widely used model
 Both descriptive of trainee process and prescriptive with respect
to supervisor interventions
 Describes counselor development as occurring through
three stages in three overriding structures
 Self-Other Awareness: Where the supervisee is in terms of
self-preoccupation, awareness of the client’s world, and
enlightened self-awareness
 Motivation: Reflects the supervisee’s interest, investment,
and effort expended in clinical training and practice
 Autonomy: Reflects the degree of independence that the
supervisee is manifesting
Integrated Developmental Model (IDM)
 Level 1: These supervisees have limited training, or at least
limited experience in the specific domain in which they are
being supervised
 Awareness: High self focus, with limited self-awareness;
apprehensive about evaluation.
 Motivation: Both motivation and anxiety are high; focused on
acquiring skills. Want to know the “correct” or “best”
approach with clients.
 Autonomy: Dependent on supervisor. Wants to leave major
decision making to supervisor. Needs structure, positive
feedback, and little direct confrontation.
Integrated Developmental Model (IDM)
 Level 2: Supervisees at this level are making the transition
from being highly dependent, imitative, and unaware in
responding to a highly structured, supportive, and largely
instructional supervisory environment
 Awareness: Greater ability to focus on and empathize with
client. However, balance is still an issue. Problem can be
veering into enmeshment with the client.
 Motivation: Supervisee vacillates between being very
confident to self-doubting and confused
 Autonomy: Although functioning more independently,
supervisee experiences conflict between autonomy and
dependency. Can manifest as resistance to the supervisor.
Integrated Developmental Model (IDM)
 Level 3: Supervisees at this level are focusing more on a
personalized approach to practice and on using and
understanding of “self” in therapy.
 Awareness: Supervisees are now able to remain focused on the
client while also stepping back to attend to their own personal
reactions to the client.
 Motivation: Supervisee begins to integrate own style of therapy
and work on strengths and weaknesses. Seesawing slows, and
he or she feels more consistent about skills. Id freely able to
receive feedback from supervisor.
 Autonomy: Feels comfortable functioning more independently.
When doubts arise, supervisee feels he or she can consult with
others without losing his or her sense of professional identity.
Integrated Developmental Model (IDM)
Level of Development and Supervisee Characteristics
(Awareness, Motivation, Dependency)
High
Medium
Low
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Social Role Models
Supervisory Roles








Teacher
Monitor evaluator
Counselor
Coach
Colleague
Boss
Expert technician
Manager of administrative
relationships
Hawkins and Shohet, 2006
Three Widely Accepted Roles
 Teacher
 Counselor
 Consultant

Supervision is a separate
skill similar to teaching –
but different; similar to
counseling – but different;
and similar to consulting –
but different. (Douce, 1989)
Social Role Models

The Hawkins and Shohet Model

The role of the supervisor is driven by the mode of focus:
Mode 1: Content of the Supervision Session
Mode 2: Strategies and Interventions
Mode 3: Therapy Relationship
Mode 4: Counselor’s Process
Mode 5: Supervisory Relationship
Mode 6: Supervisor’s Own Process
Mode 7: Wider Context
Social Role Models
The Holloway Systems Model
Perhaps the most comprehensive model of supervision
Emphasis on Tasks and Functions of supervision
Tasks:
Monitoring – Evaluating
Instructing – Advising
Modeling
Consulting
Supporting – Sharing
Functions:
Counseling Skill
Case Conceptualization
Professional Role
Emotional Awareness
Self-Evaluation
Social Role Models
The Discrimination Model
 Attends to three separate areas of focus as well as three
supervisor roles
 Foci
1. Intervention Skills
2. Conceptualization Skills
3. Personalization Skills
 Supervisor Roles
1. Teacher
2. Counselor
3. Consultant
Bernard’s Discrimination Model
Another “best” known model of supervision with
strong empirical support (Ellis & Dell, 1986).
Forms a matrix or grid of supervisor roles – teacher,
counselor, and consultant with supervisor’s focus for
each role.
Discrimination Model Matrix
(With Examples)
Supervision
Focus Area
Supervisor Roles
Counseling
Teacher
Counselor
Performance Help supervisee Work on skills
Skills
to practice
needed to
various
respond to client
What a
interventions
challenges,
supervisee does and techniques. delivered in an
during a
empathic manner.
counseling
session
Consultant
Help
supervisee to
generate ideas
about other
interventions
that might
work with a
client.
Discrimination Model Matrix
(With Examples)
Supervision
Focus Area
Cognitive
Counseling
Skills
How a
supervisee
thinks before,
during, and
after a session
Supervisor Roles
Teacher
Counselor
How does a
Reframe client’s
family history
challenging
of substance behaviors as selfabuse influence
protection.
client’s current
behavior?
Consultant
Work on
understanding
why a
particular
intervention
didn’t work
with a family.
Discrimination Model Matrix
(With Examples)
Supervision
Focus Area
Self
Awareness
Supervisee’s
recognition of
personal issues,
beliefs, and
motivations
Supervisor Roles
Teacher
Explain how
supervisee’s
reactions to
client are
informative
about the
client’s self
presentation.
Counselor
Consultant
Help supervisee
Respond to
identify feelings
supervisee’s
of defensiveness
request to
in response to a
explore
client’s
negative
challenging
feelings about a
behavior.
client.
Discrimination Model Matrix
(With Examples)
Supervision
Focus Area
Supervisor Roles
Professional
Teacher
Counselor
Consultant
Behaviors Explain how an
Explore
In an ethical
ethical standard
supervisee’s
situation, help
Adherence to
applies to a
conflicting
generate
ethical, legal, client situation.
feelings about
options for
and
needing to break responding to a
professional
confidentiality.
client.
guidelines
Supervisor Inquiry Questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
What do you wish you had said to him or her?
How do you think he or she would have reacted if you had said
that?
What would have been the risk in saying what you wanted to
say?
If you had the chance now, how might you tell him or her what
you are thinking and feeling?
Were there any other thoughts going through your mind?
Supervisor Inquiry Questions
6.
7.
How did you want the other person to perceive you?
Were you aware of any feelings? Does that feeling have any
special meaning for you?
8. What did you want him or her to tell you?
9. What did you think he or she wanted from you?
10. Did he or she remind you of anyone in your life?
Limitations of Supervision Models





Too simplistic
Too prescriptive
Do not provide ‘the answers’!
All supervisees are different
Research seems to be suggesting two themes
 In a crisis we all need structure
 The most important factor in effective supervision
is the relationship (Norcross, 2002)
Clinical Supervision
“The competent clinical supervisor must embrace not
only the domain of psychological science but also the
domains of client service and supervisee development.
The competent supervisor must not only comprehend
how these various knowledge bases are connected, but
also apply them to the individual case”
(Holloway & Wolleat, 1994, p. 30).
Clinical Supervision
Two Major Themes in all Supervision Models
1. Relationship
o Your relationship with the supervisee is central to effective
supervision
2. Process/Development
o Different modes/styles/levels/etc. of supervision are
necessary throughout the supervisory relationship
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2011 Supervision Workshop