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Kendall & Kendall
Systems Analysis and Design, 9e
Human-Computer
Interaction
Kendall & Kendall
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Learning Objectives
• Understand human-computer
interaction (HCI)
• Interface options for smartphones and
tablets
• Design a variety of user interfaces
• Design effective onscreen dialog for HCI
Kendall & Kendall
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
14-2
Learning Objectives (continued)
• Understand the importance of user
feedback
• Understand HCI concerns ecommerce
websites
• QBE and SQL queries
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Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
14-3
Major Topics
• Understanding human-computer interaction
• Designing for cognitive styles of individual
users
• Physical considerations in HCI design
• User interfaces
• Dialog design
• Feedback
• Queries
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14-4
Understanding Human-Computer
Interaction
• The basis of Human-Computer
Interaction:
• Interplay between users, tasks,
technology, and the environment in which
the systems are used
Kendall & Kendall
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14-5
Task
• Complex tasks that require human,
system, and task interaction are
supported by technology, inside and
outside of the organization
• Can be structured and routine, or illdefined and without apparent structure
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Performance and Well-Being
• A combination of the efficiency involved
in performing a task and the quality of
the work that is produced by the task
• Concern for a human’s overall comfort,
safety, health, and psychological
attitudes
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14-7
Usability
• Designers evaluate the systems and
interfaces that thoroughly addresses HCI
concerns
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System status visibility
User control and freedom
Consistency and standards
Error prevention
Reconnection rather than recall
Aesthetic and minimalist design
Diagnosis and recovery from errors
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14-8
Evaluating Interfaces
• Training period for users should be acceptably
short
• Interfaces should be consistent
• Users should be able to enter commands with
little to no help from the manual
• Users should be able to relearn the system
quickly
• The interface should lead to correct data entry
• The error-recovery time from errors should be
short
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14-9
Usability Survey
(Figure 14.1)
• Used after
interaction with a
prototype
• Measures
usability and
ergonomic factors
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Designing for Cognitive Styles of
Individual Users
• Making sure data is made available in
different forms
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Kendall & Kendall
Tables
Graphs
Text
Different times
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14-11
Pivot Tables
• Allows a user to arrange data in a table
in any way they choose
• Gives users greater control over how
they look at data in different ways
within a table
Kendall & Kendall
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
14-12
A Pivot Table Template Can Make It Easier for Users to
See Information Displayed in Different Ways
(Figure 14.2)
Kendall & Kendall
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14-13
Visual Analysis of Databases
• Support visual thinking
• Extend the user’s cognitive capabilities
• Increase the chances of making an
appropriate decision
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When Different Graphs or Tables Are Displayed On the
Same Page, It Resembles a Dashboard (Figure 14.6)
(Courtesy of www.tableausoftware.com.)
Kendall & Kendall
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14-15
Physical Considerations in HCI
Design
• Vision
• Hearing
• Touch
Kendall & Kendall
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14-16
Considering Human Limitations,
Disabilities, and Design
• An individual with a disability is a person
who:
• Has a physical or mental impairment that
substantially limits one or more major life activities
• Has a record of such impairment
• Is regarded as having such an impairment
• US employers are required to make
reasonable accommodation to qualified
disabled applicants or employees, if it would
not impose an undue hardship on the
operation of the business
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14-17
Interface Design Objectives
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Match the user interface to the task
Make the user interface efficient
Provide appropriate feedback to users
Generate usable queries
Improve productivity of computer users
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Types of User Interfaces
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Natural-language interfaces
Question-and-answer interfaces
Menus
Form-fill interfaces
Command-language interfaces
Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs)
Web interfaces
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Interfaces for Smartphones and
Tablets
• Touch-sensitive screens allow a user to
interact with finger gestures (tapping,
swiping and pinching)
• Gyroscopic and acceleration sensors can
detect tilting and shaking
• GPS enabled models can report
geographic location
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Alerts, Notices, Queries, and
Badges
• Alerts are for critical information that
the user needs to know in a timely
manner
• Notifications convey non-critical
information to a user
• Queries ask questions of the user
• Badges (red circles on apps) quietly and
passively notifies users of updates
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Voice Activated Assistants
• Users can interact with voice activated assistants
without prior training
• Based on DARPA’s CALO (Cognitive Assistant that
Learns and Organizes) project (May 2003 to August
2008)
• Microsoft Tellme, introduced in August 2011, used on
Xbox 360
• Apple Siri, introduced in October 2011
• Google Now, introduced in June 2012, used on
Android smartphones
• Samsung S Voice, introduced May 2012, used on
Samsung smartphones
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Guidelines for Dialog Design
• Meaningful communication
• Minimal user action
• Standard operation and consistency
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Meaningful Communication
• The system should present information
clearly to the user
• Users with less skill with a computer
require more communication
• Easy to use help screens
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14-24
Minimal User Action
• Keying codes instead of whole words
• Enter only data not already stored on
files
• Supply editing/formatting characters
• Use default values for fields
• When the first few characters of a name
or item description is entered, display
matching records
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14-25
Minimal User Action (continued)
• Provide shortcut keystrokes for pulldown menus
• Use radio buttons and drop-down lists
to control displays of web pages or to
change web forms
• Move cursors to the next field when the
right number of characters has been
entered
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Standard Operation and
Consistency
• Put titles, date, time, and feedback
messages in the same places on all
displays
• Exit each program by the same key or
menu option
• Cancel transactions consistently
• Obtain help in a standardized way
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Standard Operation and
Consistency (continued)
• Standardize use of icons for similar
operations
• Use consistent terminology in a display
or website
• Provide consistent navigation
• Use consistent font alignment, size, and
color on a web page
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14-28
Feedback for Users
• All systems require feedback to monitor
and change behavior
• Feedback compares current behavior
with predetermined goals, and
describes the gap between actual and
intended performance
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Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
14-29
Feedback in Design
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Reinforces user learning processes
Improves user performance
Increase motivation to produce
Improves the fit between the user, task,
and technology
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Types of Feedback
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Acknowledge acceptance of input
Acknowledge correct input
Notification of incorrect input
Explain delay in processing
Acknowledge request completion
Notification of an incomplete request
Offer for more detailed feedback
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A Variety of Help Options
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Pressing a function key, such as F1
A GUI pull-down menu
Context-sensitive help
Icon mouse hover help
Wizards
Online help or help lines
Software forums
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Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
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E-commerce website navigation aids
• Rollover menus
• Hierarchical and Sitemap
• Navigational bars from most used
categories
• Search function
• E-mail contact and feedback
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14-33
Easy Navigation for Ecommerce
Websites
• Create flexibility in navigation
• Help users with different cognitive
processing, or interests
• Keep customers on the website
• Give customers reasons to return to the
website
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14-34
Mashups
• Combines data or services from two or more
websites to create new services
• Integrates the application programming interfaces
(API) and data sources to make existing data more
useful
• Programmable Web (2009): Three new mashups
registered per day
• Examples:
• Google-Youtube mashup: http://my-bilingual.com/maps/
• Weather graphs and maps: http://weatherspark.com/
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14-35
Designing Queries
• Help reduce users’ time spent in
querying the database
• Help them find the data they want
• Result in a smoother user experience
overall
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It Is Possible to Perform Six Basic Types of Queries on a
Table That Contains Entities, Attributes, and Values
(Figure 14.12)
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Query Notation
V is value, E is entity, A is attributes,
variables in parentheses are given:
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Kendall & Kendall
Query
Query
Query
Query
Query
Query
type
type
type
type
type
type
1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
V  (E, A)
E  (V, A)
A  (V, E)
all V  (E, all A)
all E  (V, all A)
all A  (V, all E)
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Query Methods
• Query By Example (QBE)—the database fields
are selected and displayed in a grid, and
requested query values are either entered in
the field area or below the field
• Structured Query Language (SQL)—uses a
series of words and commands to select the
rows and columns that should be displayed in
the resulting table
Kendall & Kendall
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
14-39
Query By Example Using
Microsoft Access (Figure 14.14)
Kendall & Kendall
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Structured Query Language (SQL) for the CUSTOMER
NAME Parameter Query (Figure 14.16)
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Summary
• Human-computer interaction (HCI)
• Usability
• User-Interface (UI) design objectives
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Kendall & Kendall
Match UI to task
Make UI efficient
Provide feedback
Generate usable queries
Improve productivity
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
14-42
Summary (continued)
• Designing the user interface
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Natural language
Question-and-answer
Menus
Form-fill and Web-based form-fill
• Designing interfaces for smartphones
and tablets
Kendall & Kendall
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14-43
Summary (continued)
• Feedback to tell users if:
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Kendall & Kendall
input is being accepted
input is or is not in the correct form
processing is going on
requests can or cannot be processed
more detailed information is available and
how to get it
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14-44
Summary (continued)
• Designing ecommerce websites
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Rollover menus
Hierarchical displays of links
Site maps
Navigation bars
• Queries
• QBE and SQL
Kendall & Kendall
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
14-45
Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall
14-46
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Human-Computer Interaction