The Dynamic Principles of
Human Performance
Technology
Joanne Rein
Member
Key Principles of HPT
• What are the key
principles of
human
performance
technology (HPT)?
HPT
?
?
?
?
Key Principles of HPT
• What are the key
principles of
human
performance
technology (HPT)?
HPT
Focus
on
Results
?
?
?
Key Principles of HPT
• What are the key
principles of
human
performance
technology (HPT)?
HPT
Focus
On
Results
Take
Systems
Viewpoint
?
?
Key Principles of HPT
• What are the key
principles of
human
performance
technology (HPT)?
HPT
Focus
on
Results
Take
Systems
Viewpoint
Add
Value
?
Key Principles of HPT
• What are the key
principles of
human
performance
technology (HPT)?
HPT
Focus
on
Results
Take
Systems
Viewpoint
Add
Value
Establish
Partnerships
Key Principles of HPT
• Focus on results
– Customize intervention
• Take systems viewpoint
– Consider all aspects
• Add value
– Make a difference
• Establish partnerships
– Communicate
Key Principles of HPT
• Focus on results
– Customize intervention
• Take systems viewpoint
– Consider all aspects
• Add value
– Make a difference
• Establish partnerships
– Communicate
Key Principles of HPT
• Focus on results
– Customize intervention
• Take systems viewpoint
– Consider all aspects
• Add value
– Make a difference
• Establish partnerships
– Communicate
Key Principles of HPT
• Focus on results
– Customize intervention
• Take systems viewpoint
– Consider all aspects
• Add value
– Make a difference
• Establish partnerships
– Communicate
HPT Dynamics
• Systematic process
– Nonlinear
– Diverse
• Systems approach
– Organizational setting
– Individual requirements
HPT Dynamics
• Systematic process
– Nonlinear
– Diverse
• Systems approach
– Organizational setting
– Individual requirements
HPT Dynamics
• Dynamic principles
– Sytematic process
– Systems approach
•
•
•
•
Focus on results
Take systems viewpoint
Add value
Establish partnership
HPT Dynamics
• Dynamic principles
– Sytematic process
– Systems approach
•
•
•
•
Focus on results
Take systems viewpoint
Add value
Establish partnerships
HPT Dynamics
• Dynamic principles
– Sytematic process
– Systems approach
•
•
•
•
Focus on results
Take systems viewpoint
Add value
Establish partnerships
HPT Dynamics
• Dynamic principles
– Sytematic process
– Systems approach
•
•
•
•
Focus on results
Take systems viewpoint
Add value
Establish partnerships
HPT Dynamics
• Dynamic principles
– Sytematic process
– Systems approach
•
•
•
•
Focus on results
Take systems viewpoint
Add value
Establish partnerships
Key Principles of HPT
•
•
•
•
Focus on results
Take systems viewpoint
Add value
Establish partnerships
Results-driven
• How do HPT
professionals focus
on results?
Results
?
?
Results-driven
• How do HPT
professionals focus on
results?
Results
– Link HPT to business
• Needs
• Goals
Needs
?
Results-driven
• How do HPT
professionals focus on
results?
Results
– Link HPT to business
• Needs
• Goals
Needs
Goals
Results-driven
• More than one
viewpoint
– All-inclusive
• Forward-looking
• Individualized
application of
principles
Results-driven
• More than one
viewpoint
– All-inclusive
• Forward-looking
• Individualized
application of
principles
Results-driven
• More than one
viewpoint
1
– All-inclusive
• Forward-looking
• Individualized
application of
principles
3
2
Key Principles of HPT
•
•
•
•
Focus on results
Take systems viewpoint
Add value
Establish partnerships
Systems Viewpoint
• What does a
systems viewpoint
take into
consideration?
System
?
?
?
Systems Viewpoint
• What does a
systems viewpoint
take into
consideration?
System
– Worker
– Process
– Organization
Worker
?
?
Systems Viewpoint
• What does a
systems viewpoint
take into
consideration?
System
– Worker
– Process
– Organization
Worker
Process
?
Systems Viewpoint
• What does a
systems viewpoint
take into
consideration?
System
– Worker
– Process
– Organization
Worker
Process
Organization
Key Principles of HPT
•
•
•
•
Focus on results
Take systems viewpoint
Add value
Establish partnerships
Value-added Solutions
• What is a valueadded solution?
Before HPT
Solution
Value-added Solutions
• What is a valueadded solution?
– Add value to the
organization
• Make a difference
Before HPT
Solution
After HPT
Solution
Value-added Solutions
• What is a valueadded solution?
– Add value to the
organization
• Make a difference
Before HPT
Solution
After HPT
Solution
Value-added Solutions
• Customized assessment of human
performance
• Not pre-packaged business productivity
solutions
Key Principles of HPT
•
•
•
•
Focus on results
Take systems viewpoint
Add value
Establish partnerships
Partnerships
• What partnerships
are effective in
HPT?
Partnerships
?
?
Partnerships
• What partnerships
are effective in
HPT?
Partnerships
– Clients
– Other HPI
professionals
Clients
?
Partnerships
• What partnerships
are effective in
HPT?
Partnerships
– Clients
– Other HPI
professionals
Clients
Other HPI
Professionals
Partnerships
• Share
– Creativity
– Knowledge
– Skills
– Successes
Creativity
Knowledge
Successes
Skills
Partnerships
• Share
– Creativity
– Knowledge
– Skills
– Successes
Creativity
Knowledge
Successes
Skills
Partnerships
• Share
– Creativity
– Knowledge
– Skills
– Successes
Creativity
Knowledge
Successes
Skills
Partnerships
• Share
– Creativity
– Knowledge
– Skills
– Successes
Creativity
Knowledge
Successes
Skills
Partnerships
• Share
– Creativity
– Knowledge
– Skills
– Successes
Creativity
Knowledge
Successes
Skills
HPT Dynamics
• How is HPT
a systematic process?
• How is HPT
a systems approach?
HPT Dynamics
Systematic Process
HPT Body of Knowledge
Grounded Theory
Tiered hierarchically
Tiered hierarchically
Accessed as needed
Accessed as needed
Searched systematically
Applied systematically
HPT Dynamics
Systematic Process
HPT Body of Knowledge
Grounded Theory
Tiered hierarchically
Tiered hierarchically
Accessed as needed
Accessed as needed
Searched systematically
Applied systematically
HPT Dynamics
• Tiered hierarchically
Canon
Canon
Peer-reviewed
Peer-reviewed
Everything Else
HPT Body of Knowledge
Grounded Theory
HPT Dynamics
Systematic Process
HPT Body of Knowledge
Grounded Theory
Tiered hierarchically
Tiered hierarchically
Accessed as needed
Accessed as needed
Searched systematically
Applied systematically
HPT Dynamics
• Accessed as needed
Canon
Peerreviewed
Everything
Else
HPT Body of Knowledge
Peer-reviewed
Canon
Grounded Theory
HPT Dynamics
Systematic Process
HPT Body of Knowledge
Grounded Theory
Tiered hierarchically
Tiered hierarchically
Accessed as needed
Accessed as needed
Searched systematically
Applied systematically
HPT Dynamics
• HPT body of
knowledge
Canon
– Searched
systematically
Everything
Else
Peerreviewed
• Grounded theory
– Applied
systematically
Canon
Peerreviewed
HPT Dynamics
• How is HPT
a systematic process?
• How is HPT
a systems approach?
HPT Dynamics
• Take systems
viewpoint
?
– Provide
comprehensive
analysis
Comprehensive
Analysis
?
?
HPT Dynamics
• Take systems
viewpoint
Organization
– Provide
comprehensive
analysis
• Organization
• Process
• Worker
Comprehensive
Analysis
?
?
HPT Dynamics
• Take systems
viewpoint
Organization
– Provide
comprehensive
analysis
• Organization
• Process
• Worker
Comprehensive
Analysis
?
Process
HPT Dynamics
• Take systems
viewpoint
Organization
– Provide
comprehensive
analysis
• Organization
• Process
• Worker
Comprehensive
Analysis
Worker
Process
HPT Dynamics
• Systematic process
• Systems approach
HPT Dynamics
• Systematic process
• Systems approach
HPT Dynamics
• HPT mindset
– Systematic process
• Micro analysis
– Systems approach
• Macro analysis
The Nine Performance Variables
The 3 Performance Needs
The 3 Levels of
Performance
Goals
Design
Management
Organization Level
Organization Goals
Organization Design
Organization
Management
Process Level
Process Goals
Process Design
Process Management
Job/Performer
Level
Job Goals
Job Design
Job Management
Table 1. The Nine Performance Variables. Rummler, G. A. & Brache, A. P. (1995). Improving performance; How to manage the white space on the organization chart (2 nd ed.)
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
The Nine Performance Variables
The 3 Performance Needs
The 3 Levels of
Performance
Goals
Design
Management
Organization Level
Organization Goals
Organization Design
Organization
Management
Process Level
Process Goals
Process Design
Process Management
Job/Performer
Level
Job Goals
Job Design
Job Management
Table 1. The Nine Performance Variables. Rummler, G. A. & Brache, A. P. (1995). Improving performance; How to manage the white space on the organization chart (2 nd ed.)
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
The Nine Performance Variables
The 3 Performance Needs
The 3 Levels of
Performance
Goals
Design
Management
Organization Level
Organization Goals
Organization Design
Organization
Management
Process Level
Process Goals
Process Design
Process Management
Job/Performer
Level
Job Goals
Job Design
Job Management
Table 1. The Nine Performance Variables. Rummler, G. A. & Brache, A. P. (1995). Improving performance; How to manage the white space on the organization chart (2 nd ed.)
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
The Nine Boxes Model
Goals
Organization
Process
Performer
Design
Management
Strategy, Operating
Plans, & Metrics
Organization
Structure & Overall
Business Model
Performance Review
Practices &
Management Culture
Customer & Business
Requirements
Process Design,
Systems Design, &
Workspace Design
Process Ownership,
Process Management,
& Continuous
Improvement
Job Specifications,
Performance Metrics,
& Individual
Development Plans
Job Roles And
Responsibilities, Skill
Requirements,
Procedures, Tools, &
Training
Performance
Feedback,
Consequences,
Coaching, & Support
Table 2. The Nine Boxes Model. Rummler-Brache Group (n.d.). Improving business processes, strategies and capabilities. Retrieved November 26, 2008, from
http://www.rummler-brache.com/the-nine-boxes-model
The Nine Boxes Model
Goals
Organization
Process
Performer
Design
Management
Strategy, Operating
Plans, & Metrics
Organization
Structure & Overall
Business Model
Performance Review
Practices &
Management Culture
Customer & Business
Requirements
Process Design,
Systems Design, &
Workspace Design
Process Ownership,
Process Management,
& Continuous
Improvement
Job Specifications,
Performance Metrics,
& Individual
Development Plans
Job Roles And
Responsibilities, Skill
Requirements,
Procedures, Tools, &
Training
Performance
Feedback,
Consequences,
Coaching, & Support
Table 2. The Nine Boxes Model. Rummler-Brache Group (n.d.). Improving business processes, strategies and capabilities. Retrieved November 26, 2008, from
http://www.rummler-brache.com/the-nine-boxes-model
The Nine Boxes Model
Goals
Organization
Process
Performer
Design
Management
Strategy, Operating
Plans, & Metrics
Organization
Structure & Overall
Business Model
Performance Review
Practices &
Management Culture
Customer & Business
Requirements
Process Design,
Systems Design, &
Workspace Design
Process Ownership,
Process Management,
& Continuous
Improvement
Job Specifications,
Performance Metrics,
& Individual
Development Plans
Job Roles And
Responsibilities, Skill
Requirements,
Procedures, Tools, &
Training
Performance
Feedback,
Consequences,
Coaching, & Support
Table 2. The Nine Boxes Model. Rummler-Brache Group (n.d.). Improving business processes, strategies and capabilities. Retrieved November 26, 2008, from
http://www.rummler-brache.com/the-nine-boxes-model
The 4 Levels of Performance
Level
Work
Environment
Workplace
Work Process
Worker
Performance
Unit of Analysis (System)
Intervention Tools (Design &
Technology)
Business
Performance
• Business Performance System (Condition,
Input, Process, Output, Feedback, &
Consequence)
• System Variables: Brand Value, Product Or
Service Positioning, Market Strategy, Vision
& Mission, & So On
• Business Design: Vision Design, Innovation
Design, Mergers, & Acquisitions
• Business Technology: Market Opportunity
Analysis, Future Research & Simulation, &
Positioning & Promotion Strategy
Organization
Performance
• Organization Performance System
(Condition, Input, Process, Output,
Feedback, & Consequence)
• System Variables: Organizational
Structure, Culture, & Ergonomics
• Organization Design: Culture Change,
Workplace Design, & Restructuring
• Organizational Technology: Organizational
Development, Financial Management, &
Communities of Practice
Process
Performance
• Process Performance System (Condition,
Input, Process, Output, Feedback, &
Consequence)
• System Variables: Communication, Supply
Chain, & Production
• Process Design: Electronic Performance
Support Systems, Reengineering, &
Outsourcing
• Process Technology: Process Mapping,
Knowledge Management, & Financial
Accounting
Human
Performance
• Human Performance System (Condition,
Input, Process, Output, Feedback, &
Consequence)
• System Variables: Skills, Knowledge,
Competency, Motivation, & Leadership
• Leadership Design: Mental Model, Capacity
Building, & Incentive System
• Leadership Technology: Training, Job Aid,
Performance Appraisal, Leadership
Development, Career Consulting, & Mentoring
Table 3. The Four Levels of Performance Framework. Jang, H. Y. (2008). Reconsidering human performance technology [Electronic version]. Performance improvement, 47(6),
29. DOI: 10.1002/pfi.20006.
The 4 Levels of Performance
Level
Work
Environment
Workplace
Work Process
Worker
Performance
Unit of Analysis (System)
Intervention Tools (Design &
Technology)
Business
Performance
• Business Performance System (Condition,
Input, Process, Output, Feedback, &
Consequence)
• System Variables: Brand Value, Product Or
Service Positioning, Market Strategy, Vision
& Mission, & So On
• Business Design: Vision Design, Innovation
Design, Mergers, & Acquisitions
• Business Technology: Market Opportunity
Analysis, Future Research & Simulation, &
Positioning & Promotion Strategy
Organization
Performance
• Organization Performance System
(Condition, Input, Process, Output,
Feedback, & Consequence)
• System Variables: Organizational
Structure, Culture, & Ergonomics
• Organization Design: Culture Change,
Workplace Design, & Restructuring
• Organizational Technology: Organizational
Development, Financial Management, &
Communities of Practice
Process
Performance
• Process Performance System (Condition,
Input, Process, Output, Feedback, &
Consequence)
• System Variables: Communication, Supply
Chain, & Production
• Process Design: Electronic Performance
Support Systems, Reengineering, &
Outsourcing
• Process Technology: Process Mapping,
Knowledge Management, & Financial
Accounting
Human
Performance
• Human Performance System (Condition,
Input, Process, Output, Feedback, &
Consequence)
• System Variables: Skills, Knowledge,
Competency, Motivation, & Leadership
• Leadership Design: Mental Model, Capacity
Building, & Incentive System
• Leadership Technology: Training, Job Aid,
Performance Appraisal, Leadership
Development, Career Consulting, & Mentoring
Table 3. The Four Levels of Performance Framework. Jang, H. Y. (2008). Reconsidering human performance technology [Electronic version]. Performance improvement, 47(6),
29. DOI: 10.1002/pfi.20006.
The 4 Levels of Performance
Level
Work
Environment
Workplace
Work Process
Worker
Performance
Unit of Analysis (System)
Intervention Tools (Design &
Technology)
Business
Performance
• Business Performance System (Condition,
Input, Process, Output, Feedback, &
Consequence)
• System Variables: Brand Value, Product Or
Service Positioning, Market Strategy, Vision
& Mission, & So On
• Business Design: Vision Design, Innovation
Design, Mergers, & Acquisitions
• Business Technology: Market Opportunity
Analysis, Future Research & Simulation, &
Positioning & Promotion Strategy
Organization
Performance
• Organization Performance System
(Condition, Input, Process, Output,
Feedback, & Consequence)
• System Variables: Organizational
Structure, Culture, & Ergonomics
• Organization Design: Culture Change,
Workplace Design, & Restructuring
• Organizational Technology: Organizational
Development, Financial Management, &
Communities of Practice
Process
Performance
• Process Performance System (Condition,
Input, Process, Output, Feedback, &
Consequence)
• System Variables: Communication, Supply
Chain, & Production
• Process Design: Electronic Performance
Support Systems, Reengineering, &
Outsourcing
• Process Technology: Process Mapping,
Knowledge Management, & Financial
Accounting
Human
Performance
• Human Performance System (Condition,
Input, Process, Output, Feedback, &
Consequence)
• System Variables: Skills, Knowledge,
Competency, Motivation, & Leadership
• Leadership Design: Mental Model, Capacity
Building, & Incentive System
• Leadership Technology: Training, Job Aid,
Performance Appraisal, Leadership
Development, Career Consulting, & Mentoring
Table 3. The Four Levels of Performance Framework. Jang, H. Y. (2008). Reconsidering human performance technology [Electronic version]. Performance improvement, 47(6),
29. DOI: 10.1002/pfi.20006.
The 4 Levels of Performance
Level
Work
Environment
Workplace
Work Process
Worker
Performance
Unit of Analysis (System)
Intervention Tools (Design &
Technology)
Business
Performance
• Business Performance System (Condition,
Input, Process, Output, Feedback, &
Consequence)
• System Variables: Brand Value, Product Or
Service Positioning, Market Strategy, Vision
& Mission, & So On
• Business Design: Vision Design, Innovation
Design, Mergers, & Acquisitions
• Business Technology: Market Opportunity
Analysis, Future Research & Simulation, &
Positioning & Promotion Strategy
Organization
Performance
• Organization Performance System
(Condition, Input, Process, Output,
Feedback, & Consequence)
• System Variables: Organizational
Structure, Culture, & Ergonomics
• Organization Design: Culture Change,
Workplace Design, & Restructuring
• Organizational Technology: Organizational
Development, Financial Management, &
Communities of Practice
Process
Performance
• Process Performance System (Condition,
Input, Process, Output, Feedback, &
Consequence)
• System Variables: Communication, Supply
Chain, & Production
• Process Design: Electronic Performance
Support Systems, Reengineering, &
Outsourcing
• Process Technology: Process Mapping,
Knowledge Management, & Financial
Accounting
Human
Performance
• Human Performance System (Condition,
Input, Process, Output, Feedback, &
Consequence)
• System Variables: Skills, Knowledge,
Competency, Motivation, & Leadership
• Leadership Design: Mental Model, Capacity
Building, & Incentive System
• Leadership Technology: Training, Job Aid,
Performance Appraisal, Leadership
Development, Career Consulting, & Mentoring
Table 3. The Four Levels of Performance Framework. Jang, H. Y. (2008). Reconsidering human performance technology [Electronic version]. Performance improvement, 47(6),
29. DOI: 10.1002/pfi.20006.
The Organizational Scan
Condition
Process
Outcomes
Strategy, Structure
Mission, strategy
External business drivers
Functional grouping
Budget/decision authority
Systems
Degree of centralization
Consistency of operations
Flexibility
Organizational Results
Satisfaction of investors
Satisfaction of societal
stakeholders
Measures of success
Goal alignment with mission
People Level
Climate Practices
Company values, individual
values
Management/leadership
practices
Team norms
Ethics, integrity
Performance Requirements
Skills, knowledge
Job aids/references
Selection
Conference
Motivation, Feedback
Satisfaction of employees
Frequency, timing, form
Rewards and recognition
Expectations
Work Level
Environment, Resources
Physical environment
Tools, materials, information
Support personnel/services
Accessibility of resources
Workload, demands
Methods
Allocation of functions
Processes, procedures
Work flow
Duplication/gaps
Products, Services
Satisfaction of customers
Productivity levels
Standards/criteria
Quality of product delivery
Organization Level
Table 4. Organizational Scan. Tosti, D., & Jackson, S. D. (1997). The organizational scan. Performance Improvement, 36(10), 22-26.
The Organizational Scan
Condition
Process
Outcomes
Strategy, Structure
Mission, strategy
External business drivers
Functional grouping
Budget/decision authority
Systems
Degree of centralization
Consistency of operations
Flexibility
Organizational Results
Satisfaction of investors
Satisfaction of societal
stakeholders
Measures of success
Goal alignment with mission
People Level
Climate Practices
Company values, individual
values
Management/leadership
practices
Team norms
Ethics, integrity
Performance Requirements
Skills, knowledge
Job aids/references
Selection
Conference
Motivation, Feedback
Satisfaction of employees
Frequency, timing, form
Rewards and recognition
Expectations
Work Level
Environment, Resources
Physical environment
Tools, materials, information
Support personnel/services
Accessibility of resources
Workload, demands
Methods
Allocation of functions
Processes, procedures
Work flow
Duplication/gaps
Products, Services
Satisfaction of customers
Productivity levels
Standards/criteria
Quality of product delivery
Organization Level
Table 4. Organizational Scan. Tosti, D., & Jackson, S. D. (1997). The organizational scan. Performance Improvement, 36(10), 22-26.
The Organizational Scan
Condition
Process
Outcomes
Strategy, Structure
Mission, strategy
External business drivers
Functional grouping
Budget/decision authority
Systems
Degree of centralization
Consistency of operations
Flexibility
Organizational Results
Satisfaction of investors
Satisfaction of societal
stakeholders
Measures of success
Goal alignment with mission
People Level
Climate Practices
Company values, individual
values
Management/leadership
practices
Team norms
Ethics, integrity
Performance Requirements
Skills, knowledge
Job aids/references
Selection
Conference
Motivation, Feedback
Satisfaction of employees
Frequency, timing, form
Rewards and recognition
Expectations
Work Level
Environment, Resources
Physical environment
Tools, materials, information
Support personnel/services
Accessibility of resources
Workload, demands
Methods
Allocation of functions
Processes, procedures
Work flow
Duplication/gaps
Products, Services
Satisfaction of customers
Productivity levels
Standards/criteria
Quality of product delivery
Organization Level
Table 4. Organizational Scan. Tosti, D., & Jackson, S. D. (1997). The organizational scan. Performance Improvement, 36(10), 22-26.
Summary
“One sign of a vibrant and healthy
discipline is the ability to tap into new
developments, innovate, and also capture
insights from other fields. . .The last
decade has seen a tremendous expansion
in the number of performance consultants
as well as new ways in which the
performance field has evolved”
Joe Willmore
Summary
• Key principles of HPT
– Focus on results
– Take systems
viewpoint
– Add value
– Establish partnerships
Focus
on
Results
Take
Systems
Viewpoint
Establish
Partnerships
Add
Value
• HPT dynamics
– Systematic process
– Systems approach
Summary
• Key principles of HPT
– Focus on results
– Take systems
viewpoint
– Add value
– Establish partnerships
Focus
on
Results
Take
Systems
Viewpoint
Establish
Partnerships
Add
Value
• HPT dynamics
– Systematic process
– Systems approach
Summary
• Key principles of HPT
– Focus on results
– Take systems
viewpoint
– Add value
– Establish partnerships
Focus
on
Results
Take
Systems
Viewpoint
Establish
Partnerships
Add
Value
• HPT dynamics
– Systematic process
– Systems approach
Summary
• Key principles of HPT
– Focus on results
– Take systems
viewpoint
– Add value
– Establish partnerships
Focus
on
Results
Take
Systems
Viewpoint
Establish
Partnerships
Add
Value
• HPT dynamics
– Systematic process
– Systems approach
Summary
• Key principles of HPT
– Focus on results
– Take systems
viewpoint
– Add value
– Establish partnerships
Focus
on
Results
Take
Systems
Viewpoint
Establish
Partnerships
Add
Value
• HPT dynamics
– Systematic process
– Systems approach
Summary
• Key principles of HPT
– Focus on results
– Take systems
viewpoint
– Add value
– Establish partnerships
Focus
on
Results
Take
Systems
Viewpoint
Establish
Partnerships
Add
Value
• HPT dynamics
– Systematic process
– Systems approach
Summary
• Key principles of HPT
– Focus on results
– Take systems
viewpoint
– Add value
– Establish partnerships
Focus
on
Results
Take
Systems
Viewpoint
Establish
Partnerships
Add
Value
• HPT dynamics
– Systematic process
– Systems approach
Summary
• Key principles of HPT
– Focus on results
– Take systems
viewpoint
– Add value
– Establish partnerships
Focus
on
Results
Take
Systems
Viewpoint
Establish
Partnerships
Add
Value
• HPT dynamics
– Systematic process
– Systems approach
References
Addison, R. M., & Haig, C. (2006). The
performance architect’s essential guide to the
performance technology landscape. In J. A.
Pershing (Ed.). Handbook of human
performance technology: Principles, practices,
and potential (3rd ed.). San Francisco: Pfeiffer.
Jang, H. Y. (2008). Reconsidering human
performance technology [Electronic version].
Performance improvement, 47(6), 26. DOI:
10.1002/pfi.20006.
References
Rummler, G. A., & Brache, A. P. (1995).
Improving performance; How to manage
the white space on the organization chart
(2nd ed.) San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Rummler-Brache Group (n.d.). Improving
business processes, strategies and
capabilities. Retrieved November 26,
2008, from http://www.rummlerbrache.com/the-nine-boxes-model
References
Tosti, D., & Jackson, S. D. (1997). The
organizational scan. Performance
Improvement, 36(10), 22-26.
Willmore, J. (2008). The evolution of human
performance improvement. In Biech (Ed.),
Handbook for Workplace Learning
Professionals (pp. 33-46). ASTD Press.
Questions?