Brain & Behavior
Psychology One
Fall 2002 - OLD
Hinsdale South H.S.
ANNOUNCEMENTS
- Keep reading Unit III on Brain pg 94-110
- The entire outline through 121
- Outline Due MONDAY
- TEST MAKEUPS BY MONDAY!
WHY STUDY THE BRAIN IN
PSYCHOLOGY?
 WHAT HAPPENS TO CUTLER’S BRAIN
WHEN HE IS SACKED?
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Fact:
Men’s brains are not fully developed until
age 22 while girls develop sooner. Why?
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See packet (Men’s vs. Women’s Brains)
Figure 2.7 The functional divisions of the human nervous system
Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers
Single Neuron (see packet for
diagram)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Dendrites
Cell Body (Soma)
Nucleus
Axon
Glial Cells
Nodes of Ranvier
Covering = Myelin
Sheath
8. Terminal (Axon) Buttons
9. Terminal Branch
The Neuron
What is it?
 Cells of nerve tissues where messages travel to and from
the brain
Where are they found?
 Everywhere in your body! You have millions of them!
What type of communication happens here?
 Electrical
Action Potential
 Chemical
Parts of the Neuron
Nodes of Ranvier
Axon
Myelin Sheath
Terminal Branch
Cell Body
Nucleus
Axon
Terminals
or
Terminal
Buttons
Synapse
Dendrites
Neuron Parts
Nucleus  Brain (converts chemical messages to electrical
messages)
Cell Body  Houses the nucleus, vesicles that carry
neurotransmitters to the axon terminal are
produced here.
Myelin Sheath  Fatty, insulation, which protects the axon and
speeds impulses (Glial Cells help repair)
Nodes of Ranvier –
 Breaks in the meylin sheath where depolarization
occurs;
Neuron Parts
Axon –
 Fibers that carries electrical impulses Away from the cell
body.
 Electrical impulses travel down the axon as depolarization
happens at each Nodes of Ranvier. Depolarization
happens multiple times along the axon.
 As the action potential moves, vesicles are carried closer to
the axon terminal.
Dendrites –
 Fibers that receive neurotransmitters (chemical
communicators) from other neurons
 At the cell body, the chemical message is downloaded and
is translated into an electrical impulse which then travels
down the axon.
 Receive messages like a Post Office
Neuron Hand Model
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Fingers = Dendrites
Palm = Cell Body
Dot = Nucleus
Arm = Axon
Skin = Myelin Sheath
Elbow = Terminal Button
ALONG THE AXON:
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Action Potential – A brief electrical
charge that travels down the axon like a
domino effect, one triggers the next.
Happens very quickly.
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Resting Potential – When the axon is
waiting to be fired. Sodium on outside and
Potassium on the inside. (SALTY
BANANA)
ALONG THE AXON
DepolarizationAs the AP moves down the axon, this is the
process of the positively charged sodium particles
to move inside the axon and the negatively
charged potassium particles move outside the
axon. This occurs at the nodes of ranvier.
Refractory PeriodAfter depolarization or the firing of an action
potential, the sodium returns to the outside of the
axon and the potassium returns to the inside.
Depolarization
Figure 2.3 Action potential
Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers
The Synapse
Definition:
 The space between the
axon terminal and the
next dendrite.
 Sends chemical
messages called,
neurotransmitters, to
the next neuron.
 Vesicles are balloon Neurotransmitter
like structures that
Docking
carry neurotransmitters
Site
to the synaptic gap.
Action
Potential
Axon Terminal
Vesicles
Synapse
Dendrite
Things to Remember About a Neuron Firing!
1. All or none response – a neuron either fires or
does not. There is no partial firing.
2. Threshold – to get a neuron to fire, there is a
threshold of neurotransmitters that must be met in
order for a neuron to fire.
3. Lock and Key – There are certain receptor
sites for specific neurotransmitters.
Figure 2.4 How neurons communicate
Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers
A. Axon
B. Dendrites
B.
E. Terminal branches
C. Neurotransmitters
D. Sodium ions
Chemical messengers called neurotransmitters enter receptor sites on the
dendrites and cell body. This causes the cell membrane to open up and
sodium ions to flow in. When there is enough of a positive charge, the
neuron reaches threshold, and the first section of the axon opens up and
sodium ions flow in. This exchange of sodium ions happens down the
length of the axon. When the signal reaches the terminal branches at the
end of the axon, neurotransmitters flow out into the empty space called the
synapse.
Why do we not have one big neuron running through out our
body?
Can we slow and speed up our impulses? Give an example.
Will your leg or arm itch first and why?
Basic Reflex - SIM
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Touch something hot
Skin receptors pick it up, sends it to sensory
neuron that carries it to the spinal cord
The interneuron in the spinal cord translates it
into an action.
Motor neuron carries message to finger to
move it away from the flame.
DOES NOT GO TO BRAIN FIRST!!
Figure 2.9 A simple reflex
Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers
FACTORS that effect Neurotransmitters
 AGONISTS
– mimics a neurotransmitter or stops
reuptake
– speeds up reuptake or stops
production of neurotransmitter.
 ANTAGONISTS
– (speeds up or continues
communication) agonist
 Excitatory
 Inhibitory
– (slows down or stops, antagonist
Table 2.1
Myers: Psychology, Eighth Edition
Copyright © 2007 by Worth Publishers
Announcements / Review
Review!
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What is the difference between agonist and antagonist?
Neurotransmitters associated with Schizophrenia,
Alzheimers, Depression?
REUPTAKE, Depolarization, Neuron Parts
Thalamus, Sensory Cortex, Left hemisphere
Phineas Gage?
Huntington’s Disease?
Broca’s and Wernicke’s Areas
General Region of Parts
QUIZ THURS ON NEURON AND BRAIN
EC? BRAIN DAMAGE GAME THURS!
The Brain
What is the outer
most part of the
brain called? There
are three names for
it!
The lobes are specific
areas
contained with in what
part?
Lobes of the Brain
Occipital Lobe – (visual cortex
located within)
Primary Somatosensory
Cortex
Parietal
Primary Motor
Cortex
Vision
Occipital
Parietal Lobe –
 Body Sensations
Frontal Lobe –
 Working memory,
Personality
Temporal Lobe – (auditory

cortex located within)

Hearing
Temporal
Frontal
Sensory and Motor Corex
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Sensory Cortex –
is located in the
Parietal Lobe,
controls body
sensations such as
temperature,
pressure and pain.
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Motor Cortex – is
located in the
Frontal Lobe, Top
controls your toes,
bottom controls
your head. Facial
movement control
takes up a lot of
motor cortex.
Parts of the Brain
CerebellumCorpus Callosum
 Posture & Balance &
Coordination of Thinking
Cerebral Cortex –
 Contains 4 lobes, aka
forebrain & cerebrum
Corpus Callosum –
 Divides 2 hemispheres
Cerebellum
Pituitary Gland
Hindbrain
 Master gland of
endocrine system
Forebrain
Cerebral
Cortex
Thalamus
Hypothalamus
Pituitary
Gland
Spinal
Cord
Midbrain
What part of the brain would this
rat’s car be hooked up to?
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While this contraption
looks similar to a doggy
wheelchair or a pair of
prosthetic legs for your
favorite pet, it’s actually
much more sophisticated.
This rat is hooked up to a
prototype of a thoughtguided robot wheelchair.
http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/
discoblog/2010/10/05/its-a-ratits-a-toy-car-its-ratcar/
Hemispheres of the Brain
Left
 Verbal: speaking, understanding
language, reading, writing
 Mathematical
 Analytical: analyzing separate
pieces that make up a whole
Right
 Nonverbal: simple sentences &
words
 Spatial: art, geometry, facial
recognition
 Holistic: combining parts that
make up a whole
Other Areas Within LOBES
Angular Gyrus – In the parietal lobe,
involved in a number of processes related
to language, mathematics and cognition.
 Gyrus – Ridges in the brain, more surface
area for memory storage.
 Broca’s Area– Left, Frontal Lobe,
Production of Speech
 Wernicke’s Area – Left, Temporal Lobe,
Comprehension of Speech
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The Endocrine System - Hormones
Pituitary Gland – Master
Gland, HGH
 Thyroid – Metabolism
 Adrenal gland –
Adrenaline /
Noradrenaline (epinephrine and

norepinephrine)
Pancreas – Insulin
 Testes – Testosterone
 Ovaries – Progesterone
and Estrogen
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LIMBIC SYSTEM
– controls emotions, contains four parts (midbrain),
connected to frontal lobe! (PHINEAS GAGE)
Thalamus - The brain’s sensory switchboard,
located on top of the brainstem or midbrain
Hypothalamus- Controls maintenance
activities like drinking, eating, sexual
arousal. (midbrain)
Amygdala = anger and fear (mid brain)
Hippocampus = memory creation (mid brain)
HINDBRAIN / BRAIN STEM
Old brain, most animals have this portion
Medulla – helps circulate spinal fluid, regulates
autonomic functions.
Pons – respiratory functions.
Reticular formation – arousal.
Cerebellum – posture, movement and coordination
of thinking.
Disorders of the Brain:
Prosapagnosia = facial blindness
Aphasia = interference with speech, what 2 parts?
Blind Sight = failure to consciously see change but
can subconsciously notice visual change.
Huntington’s Disease = decay of brain, late onset
Synestheisa = Crossing of Senses – See Colors for
Sounds you hear. Taste Words.
THINGS THAT HELP OUR BRAIN:
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Plasticity – Rewiring the brain after an
injury
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Neural Networks – More synaptic
connections = Better Memory
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Long Term Potentiation – Memory =
Quicker and more efficient neural firing.
WAYS TO STUDY THE BRAIN
Lesions – tiny areas of destruction
EEG – measures electrical signals / waves
CT – takes slice images of object
MRI – helps look at soft and hard surfaces
like X-ray
PET – radioactive injection, brain glows with
active parts (red active, blue not active)
LOBOTOMY
Which gives the best view of the brain?
Who is Phineas Gage?
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Rail Road Worker
Accident
Survived!
Showed us the
amazing capabilities
of the brain!
See AP Edition Review Brain PPT
For practice questions
Practice Questions….
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You are a pathologist in a large Northwestern city. You are conducting an autopsy on an
83-year-old male who was found dead in his home with no
obvious cause of death. During the autopsy you discover the individual suffered two
strokes. Based on the functional information below provided by
the next-of-kin, where were the two areas that suffered from the cerebral vascular
accidents?
failure to do certain specific movements
massive overeating
disrupted circadian rhythms
increased susceptibility to stress
poor muscle tone
discontinued secretion of gluccocorticoids
inability to adjust heart rate
unrestricted water loss in kidneys
loss of control to react to body temperature changes
failure of the respiratory system
inability to do locomotion
Practice Questions…..
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At 1:30 am you (a trauma surgeon) are called for emergency surgery on a 17 year old
Caucasian female that was shot in the head during a drive-by
shooting. After a tedious surgery, the patient remarkably remains alive and doing
reasonably well. The bullet traveled completely through the skull
leaving a path of destroyed tissue behind it. You have decided to speak with the parents
about what noticeable changes will occur in their daughter
due to the destruction of neural tissue. Based on the information below, determine the
approximate path the bullet traveled (i.e., what structures
were damaged – keep in mind that it is possible for fragmenting and ricocheting of the
bullet resulting in somewhat unlikely combinations of areas
effected).
limb apraxia
inability to control the muscular movements of the left shoulder, arm, forearm, and hand
slow, laborious, nonfluent speech
inability to sound out words and write them phonetically
pure alexia
difficulty finding appropriate words when speaking
inability to use or recall nouns in speech and communication
inability for sensory input to be recognized verbally
poor word repetition
decreased sex drive
Practice Questions…….
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Mr. Livingston is a 39 year-old African-American male who has been brought into your
neurology clinic by his wife. She has become increasingly
alarmed regarding her husband’s health over the past four months. Upon completion of a
CT scan, it is determined that Mr. Livingston’s condition is
the result of the presence of two tumors that have developed within his brain. Using the
patient history information listed below and the
information from class and your textbook, determine where these two tumors are
probably located.
muscle weakness
vastly increased appetite (gained 25 lbs in the last three months)
inappropriate body temperature fluctuations
jerky movements
decreased sexual desire
poor balance when walking and standing
increased frequency of urination
inability to throw objects
inappropriate sleep patterns (seems to fall asleep randomly during day and night)
uncontrolled aggressiveness (rather violent, “short fuse”)
exaggerated efforts to coordinate movements in a task
Practice Questions Answers
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Exercise 1: The two tumors are located in the hypothalamus and
the cerebellum.
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Exercise 2: The damaged structures include: the right (primary
motor cortex), the corpus callosum, Broca’s Area (left frontal
lobe), and the left temporal gyrus.
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Exercise 3: The stroke regions were the hypothalamus and the
reticular formation.
Portable Brain Model
Limbic System –
 Emotions, personality
 Fight or Flight Response
Cerebellum –
 Body movement
Spinal Cord –
 Receives & sends messages
Cerebral Cortex –
 Left & Right Hemispheres
Neuron Demonstrations
Be sure to take notes on these to better your understanding!
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Hershey Kiss Student Axon
Neurotransmitters are
represented by kisses.
Dark Kisses = Inhibitory
Signal = Slow Down
Red Kisses = Excitatory
Signal = Speed Up
Spray of water = release of
neurotransmitters from
vessicles.
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