Evidence-Based Home Visiting Models
Model Fact Sheets
Fact Sheet: Early Head Start
PROGRAM SPECIFICS
EHS PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS:
• CHILD SCREENING: All children receive developmental &
sensory screening inc. cognitive, behavioral, vision, hearing
& a dental exam. Children are referred for necessary care
Population & age served
Curriculum
Data
System/Tech
requirements
• MEDICAL HOME: All children must receive medical &
dental visits and all families are linked to a medical home
Low-income pregnant
women and families with
children birth to age 3; at
least 10% of enrollment
must be available to
children with disabilities
(eligible for Part C)
No specific required
curriculum. Program
must select an inhome, group-based
curriculum.
No specific
infrastructure
or data system
requirements
• MATERNAL CARE: Pregnant women are screened for PPD
and are referred for prenatal and postpartum care
• ON-GOING ASSESSMENTS: Continual developmental and
health/risk assessments for children and pregnant women
• SOCIO-ECONOMIC SUPPORT: Assistance with issues such
as food, housing, utilities, & referrals
HOME VISIT LOGISTICS:
• PARENTING SKILLS: Family literacy & parent training skills
• Home Visitors: Paraprofessional Home Visitors
• Caseload per Home Visitor: 12 Families
Early Head Start Average Costs:
• Onset, Duration, Frequency of Visits: 1 home visit per family per
week for a minimum of 90 minutes, prenatally through age 3
• No information is available
• Group socialization activities: minimum 2 per month
Maternal
Health
Child
Health
Evidence-based
outcomes
Improved maternal
and newborn health
MIEC Benchmarks
Child
Development &
School Readiness
Positive
Parenting
YES
YES
Improvement in
School Readiness
& Achievement
Child
Maltreatment
Family
Economic Self
Sufficiency
Linkages &
Referrals
Juvenile Delinquency,
Family Violence,
Crime
Improvements in
the coordination
and referrals for
other community
resources and
supports
Reduction in Crime or
Domestic Violence
YES
Prevention of
child injuries,
abuse, neglect,
maltreatment,
and reduction of
emergency dept.
visits
Improvements
in family
economic selfsufficiency
Fact Sheet: Family Check Up
Theoretical model:
PROGRAM SPECIFICS
•The Family Check-Up (FCU) model is the
cornerstone of a more general intervention
framework referred to as an Ecological Approach
to Family Intervention and Treatment (EcoFIT). FCU
is designed to address a range of needs of families
from prevention to treatment for children ranging
in age from 2 to 17 years old. In contrast to
traditional clinical models, FCU utilizes a health
maintenance model involving regular periodic
contact between client and provider to prevent
problems proactively.
Population & age served
Curriculum
Data
System/Technology
Requirements
Families with children from
2-17 years old, with risk
factors including
socioeconomic, academic
failure, depression and risk for
early substance abuse
Everyday
Parenting
High-speed internet
to upload digital
images of
intervention
sessions for
supervision
HOME VISIT LOGISTICS:
• Home Visitors: a parent consultant who has been trained in the
program model and has an advanced degree in psychology or a
related field
• Caseload per Home Visitor: not specified
Family Check Up Average Costs: no information
available
Maternal
Health
Evidence-based
outcomes
MIEC Benchmarks
Child
Health
• Onset, Duration, Frequency of Visits: 3 initial home visits,
followed by Everyday Parenting curriculum and annual “checkups”
Child
Development &
School Readiness
Positive
Parenting
YES
YES
YES
Improved maternal
and newborn health
Improvement in
School Readiness
& Achievement
Child
Maltreatment
Family
Economic Self
Sufficiency
Linkages &
Referrals
Juvenile Delinquency,
Family Violence,
Crime
Prevention of
child injuries,
abuse, neglect,
maltreatment,
and reduction of
emergency dept.
visits
Improvements
in family
economic selfsufficiency
Improvements in
the coordination
and referrals for
other community
resources and
supports
Reduction in Crime or
Domestic Violence
Fact Sheet: Healthy Families America
HFA PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS:
PROGRAM SPECIFICS
•PROMOTE FAMILY WELLNESS :Help families access
primary care and track immunizations
Population & age served
Curriculum
Data
System/Technology
Requirements
Varies, typically first time
parents/ children at risk for
abuse/neglect
HFA does
not require
a specific
curriculum.
Online database
•CHILD SCREENING: All children receive developmental
screening
•ON-GOING ASSESSMENTS: Continual developmental and
health/risk assessments for children
•FAMILY GOAL SETTING: Family centered approach focused
on dyad and family’s goals; create a family plan. Inclusive of
fathers
•SOCIO-ECONOMIC SUPPORT: Assistance, referrals, and
connections to community resources around issues such as
food, housing, utilities, job training
HOME VISIT LOGISTICS:
• Home Visitors: Paraprofessional Home Visitors
•PARENTING SKILLS: Promotes positive parenting
• Caseload per Home Visitor: 15 Families
Healthy Families America Average COSTS:
• According to a survey conducted in 2004 of HFA programs in 15
states, the average cost of HFA per family per year is $3,348, with
a range of $1,950 to $5,768.
Maternal
Health
Evidence-based
outcomes
Child
Health
Child
Development &
School Readiness
Positive
Parenting
Child
Maltreatment
Family
Economic Self
Sufficiency
Linkages &
Referrals
Juvenile Delinquency,
Family Violence,
Crime
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
Prevention of
child injuries,
abuse, neglect,
maltreatment,
and reduction of
emergency dept.
visits
Improvements
in family
economic selfsufficiency
Improvements in
the coordination
and referrals for
other community
resources and
supports
Reduction in Crime or
Domestic Violence
Improved maternal
and newborn health
MIEC Benchmarks
• Onset, Duration, Frequency of Visits: Biweekly visits for prenatal
participants, changing to weekly for 6 months postpartum, and
tapering to biweekly. Visits typically 1 hour. Services continue
until child is 3-5 years old.
Improvement in
School Readiness
& Achievement
Fact Sheet: Healthy Steps
HEALTHY STEPS PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS:
PROGRAM SPECIFICS
• PARENT-PROVIDER RELATIONSHP BUILDING: Services
provided by a pediatric or family practice. Relationship
building to address and developmental and emotional
needs of young children.
Population & age served
• WELL CHILD & FAMILY CHECK-UP: Well child visits with
clinician and home visitor & regular family check-ups
Children birth to age 3
Curriculum
Data
System/Technology
Requirements
Strategies
for Change
Unknown
• CHILD HEALTH SCREENINGS: All children receive health
& developmental screenings
• PARENT EDUCATION: Help parents learn about early
child health and development
• FAMILY SUPPORT: Linkages and referrals to community
resources
HOME VISIT LOGISTICS:
HEALTHY STEPS COSTS:
• Home Visitors: Professional Home Visitors (bachelor’s degree with
advanced training)
• START-UP COSTS: $10,000-$15,000 (3 staffaverage)
• Caseload per Home Visitor: 150-300
• Onset, Duration, Frequency of Visits: different levels of intensity
ranging from 2 visits between birth and 12 months (low intensity)
to 5 visits between birth and 30 months (high intensity)
• AVERAGE ANNUAL AGENCY COST: $29,000 $82,600 per year per 100/200 families ($290-$413
per family)
Maternal
Health
Evidence-based
outcomes
Child
Health
Child
Development &
School Readiness
Positive
Parenting
YES
YES
YES
Improved maternal
and newborn health
MIEC Benchmarks
Improvement in
School Readiness
& Achievement
Child
Maltreatment
Family
Economic Self
Sufficiency
Linkages &
Referrals
Juvenile Delinquency,
Family Violence,
Crime
Prevention of
child injuries,
abuse, neglect,
maltreatment,
and reduction of
emergency dept.
visits
Improvements
in family
economic selfsufficiency
Improvements in
the coordination
and referrals for
other community
resources and
supports
Reduction in Crime or
Domestic Violence
Fact Sheet: Home Instruction Program for Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY)
PROGRAM SPECIFICS
Theoretical Model:
HIPPY is a home-based, family-focused program
model that helps parents support the
development of their preschool children. HIPPY
believes that parents are crucial to the early
education of children. The HIPPY program supports
parents who may not feel confident in fostering
school readiness for their children and is designed
to remove barriers to participation in education. It
is delivered by home visitors who are members of
the participating communities and parents in the
program.
Population & age served
Curriculum
Data
System/Technology
Requirements
Parents who have doubts
about or lack confidence in
their ability to instruct their
children and prepare them for
school.
Series for
3-yearolds, 4year-olds,
& 5-yearolds
Online data
management
program
HOME VISIT LOGISTICS:
• Home Visitors: recruited from local community and have a child
of HIPPY-age, or have access to a practice child they can engage in
the HIPPY curriculum
• Caseload per Home Visitor: 25 children per full-time HV
• Onset, Duration, Frequency of Visits: this is a 2 or 3 year program
for 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds, providing bi-weekly visits
HIPPY Average Costs: $1,250 per child per year
Maternal
Health
Child
Health
Evidence-based
outcomes
Improved maternal
and newborn health
MIEC Benchmarks
Child
Development &
School Readiness
Positive
Parenting
YES
YES
Improvement in
School Readiness
& Achievement
Child
Maltreatment
Family
Economic Self
Sufficiency
Linkages &
Referrals
Juvenile Delinquency,
Family Violence,
Crime
Prevention of
child injuries,
abuse, neglect,
maltreatment,
and reduction of
emergency dept.
visits
Improvements
in family
economic selfsufficiency
Improvements in
the coordination
and referrals for
other community
resources and
supports
Reduction in Crime or
Domestic Violence
Fact Sheet: Nurse-Family Partnership
Theoretical Model
PROGRAM SPECIFICS
NFP is shaped by human attachment, human ecology, and
self-efficacy theories. The nurse home visitors use
principles of motivational interviewing to promote lowincome, first-time mothers’ health during pregnancy,
care of their child, and own personal growth and
development. Nurse home visitors guide parents to
reinforce the model’s goals.
Population & age served
Curriculum
Data
System/Technology
Requirements
First-time, low-income
mothers and their children,
from pregnancy until 2years-old
NFP visitby-visit
guidelines
Web-based data
system
HOME VISIT LOGISTICS:
• Home Visitors: registered professional nurses with baccalaureate
degree in nursing
Nurse-Family Partnership Average Costs:
• $4,500 per family per year (with a range of $2,914
to $6,463). The driving factor of cost is local nurse
salaries.
Evidence-based
outcomes
• Onset, Duration, Frequency of Visits: biweekly in prenatal period,
then weekly for first 6 weeks, biweekly until 20 months, then
monthly until 24 months; typically 75 mins.
Maternal
Health
Child
Health
Child
Development &
School Readiness
Positive
Parenting
Child
Maltreatment
Family
Economic Self
Sufficiency
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
Prevention of
child injuries,
abuse, neglect,
maltreatment,
and reduction of
emergency dept.
visits
Improvements
in family
economic selfsufficiency
Improved maternal
and newborn health
MIEC Benchmarks
• Caseload per Home Visitor: no more than 25 clients
Improvement in
School Readiness
& Achievement
Linkages &
Referrals
Juvenile Delinquency,
Family Violence,
Crime
YES
Improvements in
the coordination
and referrals for
other community
resources and
supports
Reduction in Crime or
Domestic Violence
Fact Sheet: Parents as Teachers
PAT PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTS:
PROGRAM SPECIFICS
• PARENT EDUCATION/ SCHOOL READINESS: Help parents
learn about early child development and prepare their
children for educational success
Population & age served
• CHILD SCREENING: All children receive health, vision,
hearing & developmental screening
Parents and pregnant
women to Kindergarten
(programs define eligibility)
• SOCIO-ECONOMIC SUPPORT: Linkages and referrals to
community resources
Curriculum
Data
System/Technology
Requirements
PAT Born to
Learn
curriculum
Web-based data
management
system
• PARENTING SKILLS: Promotes positive parenting skills
Parents As Teachers AVERAGE COSTS:
HOME VISIT LOGISTICS:
$1,400-$1,500 per family per year
• Home Visitors: Paraprofessional Home Visitors
• Caseload per Home Visitor: Site specific; recommend no more than
48 visits per month
• Onset, Duration, Frequency of Visits: At least one visit a month,
visits can be weekly or biweekly; visits last 50-60 minutes; each
program determines length of service (minimum 2 years)
Maternal
Health
Child
Health
Evidence-based
outcomes
Improved maternal
and newborn health
MIEC Benchmarks
Child
Development &
School Readiness
Positive
Parenting
YES
YES
Improvement in
School Readiness
& Achievement
Child
Maltreatment
Family
Economic Self
Sufficiency
Linkages &
Referrals
Juvenile Delinquency,
Family Violence,
Crime
Prevention of
child injuries,
abuse, neglect,
maltreatment,
and reduction of
emergency dept.
visits
Improvements
in family
economic selfsufficiency
Improvements in
the coordination
and referrals for
other community
resources and
supports
Reduction in Crime or
Domestic Violence
More Model Information
• For additional information on all Evidence-Based Home Visiting Models
visit the US Dept of Health and Human Services (HHS) Home Visiting
Evidence of Effectiveness website: http://homvee.acf.hhs.gov/Default.aspx
• Early Head Start: http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/ohs/
• Family Check Up: http://www.uoregon.edu/~cfc/educa-training.htm
• Healthy Families America: www.healthyfamiliesamerica.org
• Healthy Steps: http://www.healthysteps.org
• Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY):
www.hippyusa.org
• Nurse-Family Partnership: http://www.nursefamilypartnership.org
• Parents as Teachers: www.parentsasteachers.org
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Evidence-Based Home Visiting Models