Chapter 10
Emotion
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• Chapter 10 Outline
• Negative emotions are better understood than are
positive ones. Positive psychology is a new field,
and eventually we may understand positive
emotions.
• Emotions as Response Patterns
• Communication of Emotions
• Feelings of Emotions
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• Emotions as Response Patterns
• Fear
• Medial nucleus
• A group of subnuclei of the __________that receives
sensory input, including information about the
________________________________pheromones,
and relays it to the medial basal forebrain and
hypothalamus.
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• Emotions as Response Patterns
• Fear
• ________________ (CE)
• The region of the amygdala that receives information
from the basolateral division and sends projections to
a wide variety of regions in the brain; involved in
emotional responses. The ___________________for
expressing emotions induced by ________stimuli.
• ________________ (LA)
• A nucleus of the amygdala that receives sensory
information from the neocortex, thalamus, and
hippocampus and sends projections to the ventral
striatum, the dorsomedial nucleus of the thalamus,
and the central nucleus.
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Major connections of the
__________
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• Emotions as Response Patterns
• Fear
• If the ______________ is damaged subjects show little
fear, they act tame, they show low levels of stress
hormones, do not develop ulcers, or stress induced
diseases.
• Conditioned emotional response
• A classically conditioned response that occurs when a
neutral stimulus is followed by an aversive stimulus.
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Brain regions
and responses
activated by
the central
nucleus of the
amygdala.
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Procedure to develop conditioned emotional response in rats.
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• Emotions as Response Patterns
• Research with humans
• Patients who experienced surgical stimulation of the
amygdala reported ___________________.
• Lesions of the amygdala have been reported to decrease
human emotional responses, and interfere with the
relationship between _______________________.
• Subjects are able to recognize happy or sad music, but
not ____________ music.
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Increase amygdala
activity when
subjects read
threatening words.
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• Emotions as Response Patterns
• Anger, aggression, and impulse control
• Aggressive behaviors are species-typical, and serve useful
functions much of the time.
• Almost all species of animals engage in aggressive
behaviors, which involve threatening gestures or actual
attack directed toward another animal. Aggression is
___________________________________________.
• Aggressive behaviors are species-typical and involve
patterns of movements organized by neural circuits
programmed by an animal’s ______.
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• Emotions as Response Patterns
• Research with laboratory animals
• Overwhelming evidence suggests that the activity of
___________________synapses inhibits aggression.
• Destruction of serotonergic axons in the forebrain
_____________________.
• High levels of 5-HIAA indicate ___________levels of
serotonergic activity.
• Low 5-HIAA levels are associated with dangerous
unprovoked _________________________.
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Alive or dead male monkeys
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• Emotions as Response Patterns
• Research with humans
• Research suggest that serotonergic neurons play an
____________________ human aggression.
• Depressed rates of serotonin release are associated with
aggression and other forms of antisocial behavior
including assault, arson, murder, and child beatings.
• Studies have found that fluoxetine (Prozac), a serotonin
___________, decreased irritability and aggressiveness.
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• Emotions as Response Patterns
• Role of the Prefrontal Cortex
• Orbitofrontal cortex
• The region of the prefrontal cortex at the base of the
anterior frontal lobes.
• Ventromedial prefrontal cortex
• The region of the prefrontal cortex at the base of the
anterior frontal lobes, adjacent to the midline.
• This region is involved in assessing our emotional states,
and _______________________of different courses of
action. It helps us avoid _________________________.
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Major divisions of ventral prefrontal
cortex:
a) orbitofrontal,
b) ventromedial.
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Phineas Gage
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• Phineas Gage was unable to carry out plans, and his
actions were irresponsible and thoughtless. Before
injury he was serious, industrious and energetic.
• Subjects with a history of impulsive violence exhibit a
•
deficit in serotonergic innervation in the prefrontal
cortex.
Subjects with a history of antisocial behavior have
decreased volume of the prefrontal cortex.
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• The expression of emotion
• Emotional expression is useful because it
communicates how we feel, and it communicates what
we are likely to do.
• Paul Ekman studies cross-cultural facial expressions
to emotions.
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Experienced Emotion
Izard (1977) has isolated 10 emotions. And most of
them are present in infancy, excluding contempt,
shame and guilt.
Tom McCarthy/ Rainbow
Patrick Donehue/ Photo Researchers, Inc.
Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works
Nancy Brown/ The Image Bank
Marc Grimberg/ The Image Bank
Michael Newman/ PhotoEdit
Lew Merrim/ Photo Researchers, Inc.
Revision
2006
Happy
Sad
anger
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disgust
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How Well do People Identify Emotions?
Revision
2006
• Communication of Emotions
• Laterality of emotional recognition
• Many studies have found that the _____hemisphere
plays a more important role than the _____
hemisphere in comprehension of emotion.
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Comprehension of semantic meaning of words is
bilateral (more on the left), but the comprehension of
emotion by tone of voice activates just the right
prefrontal context.
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• Communication of Emotions
• Role of imitation in recognition of emotional expressions
• There appears to be a possible link between
somatosensation and emotional recognition.
• Damage to the somatosensory cortex (especially on
the right side) appears to impair the ability to
recognize and identify facial expressions of emotion.
• When we see a facial expression we______________
___________________________________________
and this provides cues for its recognition. Right side
lesions to the somatosensory cortex impair recognition
of emotional expression.
• Subjects with facial paralysis (Moebius syndrome)
_________________________________________.
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• Disgust – an emotion provoked by something that
smells bad or tastes bad.
• Damage to the insular cortex and basal ganglia impair the
ability of subjects to recognize facial expressions of
_______.
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Disgust may
have its origin
in
_____________
_______.
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• Expression of emotions
• It is not easy to express emotions that are not ________.
• Method acting is a system that instructs actors to image a
situation that would lead them to experience the desired
emotion.
• Duchenne showed contractions of muscles around the ____
expressed by true smiles are involuntary, and cannot be
contracted at will.
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Dr. Duchenne electrically
stimulating muscles in the
face of a volunteer. A true
smile involves muscles
around the eyes.
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• Communication of Emotions
• Neural basis of communication of emotions
• _______________________
• Difficulty moving the facial muscles voluntarily; caused
by damage to the face region of the primary motor
cortex. Patients can express genuine emotions, but
cannot _________________________.
• ________________________
• Lack of movement of facial muscles in response to
emotions in people who have no difficulty moving
these muscles voluntarily, caused by damage to the
insular prefrontal cortex.
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Volitional facial paresis
Emotional facial paresis
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• The right hemisphere is more
_________________________________________.
• Right hemisphere lesions impair expression of
____________________________________. Left
hemisphere lesions only impair
__________________________________________.
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Class Experiment
•
•
•
In this experiment a computer has been used to
split the human face into two images.
One image is composed of the left-side and a
mirror image of the left half of the face.
The second image is composed of the right-side
and the mirror image of the right half of the face.
• Vote for the most expressive side!
Which side has a bigger smile?
• Vote! Which
side displays
more
emotion?
– 1. Left
– 2. Right
Left
Right
Bigger Smile? More Familiar?
• Vote! Which
side displays
more emotion?
– 1. Left
– 2. Right
L
R
Bigger Smile? More Familiar?
• Vote! Which
side displays
more emotion?
– 1. Left
– 2. Right
L
R
Bigger Smile? More Familiar?
• Vote! Which
side displays
more emotion?
– 1. Left
– 2. Right
L
R
1 neutral, 2 fear, 3 anger, 4 happiness, 5 sadness, 6 disgust,
7 surprise. This subject with amygdala lesions can
produce these posed emotions, but cannot recognize the
______________.
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• Feelings of Emotions
• James-Lange Theory
• A theory of emotion that suggests that behaviors
and physiological responses are directly elicited by
situations and that feelings of emotions are produced
by ____________________________________
The stimulus produces the physiological response,
and the physiological response induces the emotion.
Our emotional feelings are based on what we find our
_______________.
We tend to imitate the expressions of other people, and
our imitation may produce _____________.
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The infant models the
face posed by the adult.
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The Expressive Component
Nonverbal Communication
• Electrodes placed on
•
•
the face record activity
in various muscles.
_________emotions
increase activity in
_______.
_________emotions
increase activity in
forehead and brow
areas.
The Facial EMG
Electromyograph (EMG)
Revision 2006 PSB
The Expressive Component
Sensory Feedback
• Facial-Feedback Hypothesis
• The hypothesis that changes in facial expression
can produce corresponding changes in emotion
• Zajonc, et al. had subjects repeat vowel sounds.
• Making some sounds - “ah” and “e” - caused smiling
and ____________mood.
• Making other sounds - “u” and “ü” - caused frowning
and ___________ mood.
Revision
2006
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