Mindfulness: A Well-Being
Intervention in the Workplace
Dr Nadine Mellor, CPsychol
www.hsl.gov.uk
www.hsl.gov.uk
AnAn
Agency
of theof
Health
and Safety
Executive
Agency
the Health
and
Safety
Executive
Outline
• Science of Mindfulness
• Practical exercises
• Case studies in the workplace
• Q&A
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Wellbeing
• It is the combination of feeling good
and functioning effectively.
• It includes the experience of negative
emotions and managing them
successfully.
(Huppert, 2005, 2011)
Director of Cambrige University
Wellbeing Centre
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Wellbeing
Five components (Seligman, 2011)
– Positive emotions
– Engagement
– Relationships
– Meaning
– Accomplishment
Role of Mindfulness in enhancing well-being as
it increases positive emotions.
(Huppert, 2011)
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5 Ways to Wellbeing
Evidence from
the 2008
Mental Capital
and Wellbeing
Project
Mindfulness
summarised
into 5 key
messages
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www.neweconomics.org/projects/five-ways-well-being
What is Mindfulness?
Mindfulness is non-evaluative and
sustained moment-to-moment
awareness of thoughts, physical
sensations, and affective states.
(Grossman et al., 2004)
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What is Mindfulness?
An attribute of consciousness, i.e. a
state of being attentive to and aware
of what is taking place in the present
moment.
(Brown & Ryan, 2003)
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How is Mindfulness measured?
Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), Brown et al, 2003.
1. I could be experiencing some emotion and not be conscious
of it until some time later.
2. I break or spill things because of carelessness, not paying
attention or thinking of something else.
3. I find it difficult to stay focused on what’s happening in the present
4. I tend to walk quickly without paying attention to what I
experience along the way.
5. I tend not to notice feelings of physical tension or discomfort
until they really grab my attention.
6. I rush through activities without being really attentive to them.
7. I find myself preoccupied with the future or the past.
8. I get so focused on the goal I want to achieve that I lose
touch with what I am doing right now to get there.
9. I snack without being aware that I’m eating.
etc…
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Key Mindfulness Interventions
• Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, MBSR by
Kabat-Zinn (1982)
• Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy, MBCT
by Segal, Williams & Teasdale, (2002)
• Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, ACT
by Hayes et al., (1999), Bond and Flaxman
• Other adaptations
- However requirements for suitable trainers –
(See Bangor University website)
First UK conference on Mindfulness in the
workplace February 2012!
First time presented at the DOP conference 2012
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What is the evidence?
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Evidence
Mindfulness increases
•Positive mental states
•Self-regulated behaviours
•Heightened self-knowledge
(Brown et al 2003)
Self-awareness enhances
•self understanding which allows choices
in alignment with values and intrinsic
motivations.
(Lyubomirsky et al 2005)
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Changes in the Brain
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Changes in the Brain
Random Control Trial - Massachusetts Medical school
• Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction 22.6 h + 27 min/
day homework practice average
•
•
•
N=16 ‘healthy’ participants vs 17 Control (14/14 analysed)
MRI scan: Increase in grey matter density in left
hippocampus, cortex, cerebellum etc, brain
regions involved in learning and memory,
emotion regulation, self referential
processing and perspective taking.
Self-reports: Increased on Acting with
awareness; Observing, Non judging.
Hotzel et al., (2011). Neuroimaging
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Evidence on Health (mental & physical)
•
•
•
•
Meta-analysis ( 64 studies of which 20 high
quality from 1995-2001) MBSR intervention (PrePost) (N=1605) (10 RCT)
Clinical sample: chronic pain, cancer diagnoses,
fibromyalgia, coronary artery disease, anxiety,
depression, obesity, binge eating and stress.
Students and inmates sample: stress.
MBSR positive effects on a broad range of clinical
and non clinical problems: Medium strength effect
size d = 0.54
Grossman et al (2004) Journal of Psychosomatic Research
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Evidence on Relapses
• Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy
•
(MBCT) halves the likelihood of depressive
relapse in the year following the treatment
for people who had more than 3 or more
episodes (e.g. Ma & Teasdale, 2004; Segal
et al., 2007)
MBCT (3rd wave of Behaviour Therapy) is
one of NHS approved treatments for
depression
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Stress Reduction at Work
Random Control Trial
• 8-week MBSR training for health care employees
• From 51 interested, 18 selected for Training and 20
Control but 10 T and 18 C due to drop out.
• Positive changes on all 5 scales:
• Satisfaction with life
• Burnout scale
Perceived stress
• Brief symptom inventory
Self compassion
Shapiro et al. (2005). Int. Journal of Stress Management , 12 (2), 164-176.
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Quality of Working Life
Quasi Experiment in a US - Southwest University
• Sample: 21 participants and 30 control group
• Intervention: MBSR training over 5 weeks ( 4 sessions x 3
hours + 1 day on 5thweek).
• Improvements in 4 domains out of 5:
 Physical (energy & less fatigue; less pain & discomfort,
sleep & rest)
 Psychological (bodily image, negative/positive feelings,
self esteem, thinking, learning, memory & concentration)
 Social relations
 Spirituality/personal beliefs
 Overall QoL & General health (not significantly
different from control group)
Jacobs, B. & Nagel, L. (2003). Int. Journal Self Help & Self Care
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Many applications
• Health (preventative depression; lifestyles; etc )
• Wellbeing (resilience, stress reduction)
• Cognitive skills (attention, focus, memory)
• Self-regulation of emotions
• Interpersonal skills (communication,
assertiveness)
• Leadership (decision-making, perspective)
• Team development (awareness of others’
needs)
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“Mindfulness is not the answer
for all life’s problems. Rather it is
that all life’s problems can be
seen more clearly through the
lens of a clear mind”.
(Kabat-Zinn p25-26, 1991)
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Let’s try!
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Case Studies
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Case Study HSL
• Introduced Mindfulness topic to 90 HSL
staff to call for volunteers for training – 30
• Designed 8 week pilot training – 12 staff
across all units of the lab + control group
• Evaluated by Sheffield University
• Some staff comments after 4 weeks
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Comments from HSL Staff
Mindfulness practice has enabled my mind
to be calmer and therefore meant I can
organise my priorities better and this has
improved the quality of my work.
I feel that when life gets busy or stressful I
have got some control on how I deal with
this. I am generally calmer and sleeping
better.
Able to enjoy the current moment without
distraction and feel greater fulfillment at
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Comments from HSL Staff
I was pleased to realise I felt happy and
confident about giving a last minute
presentation instead of feeling stressed and
a bit fearful.
I did spend so much time trying to
unsuccessfully to multitask which caused me
quite a lot of stress. No one can multitask
you just do small parts of several activities
serially. I now am much more successful at
focusing on one thing without worrying about
all the others I have to do.
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HSL Training Offer
• Introductory day (9 July 2012)
• 8 week training (2 hours/week
+ 20 min home practice)
• Distance learning options
(Group or Individual)
• Bespoke training for
particular groups, line
managers, Board members.
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Thank you
Contact: Nadine.mellor@hsl.gov.uk
http://www.hsl.gov.uk/hslshop/health-and-safety-trainingcourses.aspx
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Mindfulness: a Well-Being Intervention in the Workplace