Scientific Writing
Petri Nokelainen
[email protected]
University of Tampere, Finland
What is scientific writing?
•
Scientific writing is a process that produces a
standard form written report describing original
research results for an informed audience.
The format of a scientific paper has been
developed over centuries in the interplay with
scientists, journal editors, scientific ethics, and
printing and publishing services.
•
–
Title, Abstract, Introduction, Theoretical background,
Methods, Results, Conclusions, Summary, Discussion,
References, Appendixes
What is scientific writing?
•
•
Research results in any scientific work should be
original, that is, produced by the author(s) and no
one else.
Scientific paper is written for a reader:
”If the reader is to grasp what the writer means, the writer must
understand what the reader needs” (Gopen & Swan, 1990).
•
While writing a scientific report, thoughts and
arguments are re-arranged and re-considered – the
aim is not simply to describe the research process
and its outcomes.
What is scientific writing?
•
•
It is essential to connect the findings of current
study to existing research body and explain if the
two are (or are not) in parallel.
Research paper should clearly describe the
findings and explain what they mean in practice why this study produced such outcomes?
Publishing decision
• Is the report worth publishing?
– Are the results original and do they contribute to the
existing knowledge?
– Are the results ready for publication?
• Do conclusions make sense? Is there enough power (in statistical
sense)?
• What is the target audience for the publication?
– Initial results: Oral presentation or poster in conference,
article in conference proceedings.
– Final results: Article in periodical (journal), chapter in
book, dissertation (thesis).
Organizing the writing process
• Starting the process
– Create a working title and initial version of the abstract.
– Working title describes exactly what the study is about:
• Motivation in Learning (book title)
• Role of Motivation in the Moral and Religious Judgment of
Mathematically Gifted Adolescents (article or dissertation title)
– Working abstract describes the context, hypotheses and
conclusions.
• The impact (or importance) of the results and practical
recommendations are added later.
– Depending on the publication forum, also possible
keywords should be decided at this point.
• Some journals require the use of provided lists.
Organizing the writing process
• Abstract: In this paper we investigate whether the level of motivation
among mathematically gifted adolescents is related to their moral and
religious judgment. The sample consists of first-year students (N = 20) at a
Finnish private and independent boarding school specializing in
mathematics. We formulated the following research questions: (RQ1) Is
the level of motivation related to moral judgment? (RQ2) Is the level of
motivation related to religious judgment? (RQ3) Does motivation play a
moderating role between moral and religious judgment? The results
showed that intrinsic goal orientation was related to moral judgment, fear
of failure was related to religious judgment , and intrinsic goal orientation
played a moderating role between moral and religious judgment.
• Keywords: motivation, moral judgment, religious judgment, gifted,
adolescents
Organizing the writing process
• Starting the process
– Decide the structure of the manuscript.
– In most cases the structure is given (by your department
or the journal).
• Read sample dissertations (good examples!) or published articles
from the journal that you have selected.
• Read carefully the guidelines for authors: word count limit (are
the references included?), headings in the structure (may
differ!), reference style to be used, etc.
Organizing the writing process
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
Title
Author(s) name(s) and affiliation(s)
Abstract and keywords
Introduction / Goals or aims of the study (periodicals: research
questions)
Theoretical framework / literature review (periodicals: research
questions)
Research questions (dissertation)
Method
7.1 Sample, participants
7.2 Measures / instruments
7.3 Procedure
7.4 Statistical analyses
Results
Conclusion(s) and/or Summary
Discussion
Acknowledgements / credits
References
Appendix(es)
Organizing the writing process
• Starting the process
– Create the structure (headings) in your word processing
software.
– Place the key points (alongside with availabe text) into
the structure.
• Some researchers use concept mapping, placing the whole
article on ”a map” that shows its findings related to the existing
research body.
• Some sort of ’argumentation chain’ or ’script’ should be
composed at this point: what you are going to state in the end
and how did you get there?
• At this point the work load should be divided if there are
multiple authors.
Organizing the writing process
• Starting the process
– Check once again the related latest journal publications
and read them to be inspired (hopefully) in the writing
process.
• My strategy is to download journal articles as PFD’s, save them
on the current paper’s work folder (”refs” subfolder), print them
out, read and make annotations .
– Prepare the tables and figures and place them into the
structure.
• Sometimes the length of manuscript is limited to certain number
of pages.
• Be sure to follow the style of the selected publication.
Practices of scientific writing
•
Ethics in publishing
–
Conflict of Interest
–
“Authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential
conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other
relationships with other people or organizations within three
years of beginning the submitted work that could
inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their
work.” (Elsevier, 2010.)
Practices of scientific writing
•
Ethics in publishing
–
Authorship of the Paper
–
–
–
Authorship should be limited to those who have made a
significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or
interpretation of the reported study.
Where there are others who have participated in certain
substantive aspects of the research project, they should be
acknowledged or listed as contributors.
The corresponding author should ensure that all appropriate
co-authors and no inappropriate co-authors are included on the
paper, and that all co-authors have seen and approved the final
version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for
publication. (Elsevier, 2010.)
Practices of scientific writing
•
Ethics in publishing
–
Submission declaration
•
•
Authors are not permitted to publish the same research in more
than one journal or primary publication.
Submitting the same manuscript to more than one journal
concurrently constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is
unacceptable.
–
“Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been
published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a
published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration
for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors
and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was
carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere
including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other
language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.” (Elsevier,
2010.)
Practices of scientific writing
•
Ethics in publishing
–
Copyright
•
–
Usually the first author need to sign a publishing agreement and
submit it back to the journal.
Role of the funding source
•
Authors should explicitly acknowledge funding sources:
–
Authors “are requested to identify who provided financial support for the
conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly
describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection,
analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the
decision to submit the paper for publication. If the funding source(s) had
no such involvement then this should be stated.” (Elsevier, 2010.)
Practices of scientific writing
•
Ethics in publishing
–
Originality and Plagiarism
•
•
•
The authors should ensure that they have written entirely
original works, and if the authors have used the work and/or
words of others, that this has been appropriately cited or
quoted.
Plagiarism takes many forms, from ‘passing off’ another’s paper
as the author’s own paper, to copying or paraphrasing
substantial parts of another’s paper (without attribution), to
claiming results from research conducted by others.
Plagiarism in all its forms constitutes unethical publishing
behavior and is unacceptable. (Elsevier, 2010.)
Practices of scientific writing
•
Ethics in publishing
–
Fabrication
•
•
Sometimes researchers need to publish but there are no results
or even no study - this is called fabrication (faking the results).
Perhaps the most famous example is the so called ’Sokal affair’
(a.k.a ’Sokal hoax’).
–
–
Alan Sokal (physics professor at New York University) submitted in 1996 an
article titled “Transgressing the Boundaries: Towards a Transformative
Hermeneutics of Quantum Gravity” to Social Text, an academic journal of
postmodern cultural studies. The submission was an experiment to test the
magazine's intellectual rigor. Central idea of the article was that quantum
gravity is a social and linguistic construct. The article was published in the
journal’s Spring/Summer 1996 "Science Wars" issue. After that, Sokal
revealed his plot in Lingua Franca and the debate around his action started
(for details, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sokal_affair).
More recent case is the ’Bodganov Affair’ (for details, see
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bogdanov_Affair).
Practices of scientific writing
•
Ethics in publishing
–
Acknowledgement of Sources
•
•
•
•
Proper acknowledgment of the work of others must always be
given.
Authors should cite publications that have been influential in
determining the nature of the reported work.
Information obtained privately, as in conversation,
correspondence, or discussion with third parties, must not be
used or reported without explicit, written permission from the
source.
Information obtained in the course of confidential services, such
as refereeing manuscripts or grant applications, must not be
used without the explicit written permission of the author of the
work involved in these services. (Elsevier, 2010.)
Practices of scientific writing
•
Ethics in publishing
–
Language
•
•
•
•
•
American or British English is accepted, but not a mixture of
both.
The term "gender" refers to culture and should be used when
referring to men and women as social groups.
The term "sex" refers to biology and should be used when
biological distinctions are emphasized.
A person in a clinical study should be called a "patient," not a
"case."
Avoid equating people with their conditions, for example, do
not say "schizophrenics," say "people diagnosed with
schizophrenia." (Owl Editing, 2009.)
Practices of scientific writing
•
Ethics in publishing
–
Language
•
•
•
•
Use the term "sexual orientation," not "sexual preference."
The phrase "gay men and lesbians" is currently preferred to the
term "homosexuals.“
In racial references, respect current usage. Currently, both the
terms "Black" and "African American" are widely accepted,
while "Negro" and "Afro-American" are not.
Do not contrast one group of people with another group called
"normal" people: Write "we compared people with autism to
people without autism" not "we contrasted autistics to
normals." (Owl Editing, 2009.)
Practices of scientific writing
•
Ethics in publishing
–
Language
• Do not use pejorative terms like "stroke victim" or "stroke
sufferers." Use a more neutral terminology such as "people who
have had a stroke."
• Avoid the terms "challenged" and "special" unless the population
referred to prefers this terminology (for example, Special
Olympics). As a rule, use the phrase "people with _______"
• In referring to age, be specific about age ranges; avoid openended definitions like "under 16" or "over 65."
• Avoid the term elderly. Older person is preferred.
• Boy and Girl are acceptable referring to high school and younger.
For persons 18 and older use men and women.
(Owl Editing, 2009.)
The writing process
• Text production phase
– First version is usually written quite fast, idea is to get the
logic behind the paper documented.
– This does naturally apply only for specific parts of the
manuscript, for example, ”Introduction”, ”Discussion” or
the first section of the theoretical framework.
• I tend to take long sessions with all the relevant references next
to me. I order the printouts in logical order and then start writing
through the structure and add ”in text” references along the
way. At this point I do not create reference list, that is the last
phase.
The writing process
• Text production phase
– Try to think what kind of questions a colleague might ask
from you during the writing – your goal is to ”sell” your
arguments to him by being convincing.
• Use of scientific ’jargon’ is not a bad thing as long as it follows
the general conventions and helps making more sense of your
arguments!
– Your goal is to use your own findings and evidence, and
also let ’others’ speak (also those who do not agree with
you) as objectively as possible by using references.
• Argumentation towards others works may be critical, but it
should always be constructive.
The writing process
• Text production phase
– Scientific text is transparent, readers should be able to
tell the difference between your original and other
researchers thoughts (by using references appropriately).
– Other scholars thoughts and opinions should be
honoured in references – do not fit your words into
others mouths (even if it is sometimes quite tempting)!
The writing process
• Text production phase
– There are practically two ways of making references:
quotation and citation.
– When making a quotation, use inverted commas and
indicate the exact page where the quotation is taken from:
• “Longitudinal designs are desperately needed in order to
disentangle the precursors of bystander behaviors (such as
defending the victims) from their consequences, to disentangle
selection from socialization effects in studies of peer clusters, to
understand the mechanisms of those effects (e.g., what are the
basis for selection; how peer-group socialization effects unfold),
and to elaborate how classroom environments contribute to
changes in bullying-related attitudes and behaviors over time”
(Salmivalli, 2010, p. 118).
The writing process
• Text production phase
– When making a citation, you use your own words to tell
what other researcher thinks about a certain issue:
• According to Salmivalli (2010), there is a desperate need for
longitudinal studies on group engagement in bullying.
• Salmivalli (2010) states that longitudinal studies of group
engagement in bullying are needed in order to have more
precise understanding of the nature and mechanisms of
bystanders behavior and socialization effects. According to
her, longitudinal designs also allow the elaboration of
classroom environments contribution to changes in bullyingrelated attitudes and behaviors over time.
The writing process
• Text production phase
– Quotation does not turn into citation by only changing
few words!
– Citations are more recommended than quotations as
they allow natural flow of the text (as you are using your
own way of saying things).
The writing process
• Text production phase
– After the first writing session(s) there should be a break
so that you can take some distance to the text that was
produced.
• I try to have at least half a day break to be able to examine the
text critically and correct mistakes. After the break it is also
easier to see if the text flows naturally from one argument to the
next. At this point I look at the coherence of the text, am I
staying in the third person etc.
The writing process
• Text production phase
– Table and figure headings should be informative.
– Text should contain references to every table and figure
in the manuscript!
The writing process
• Text production phase
– Footnotes are not usually recommended.
– Scientific text needs not to be dull, but it should be
grammatically correct following general rules and
conventions.
– Use of references (alongside with the reference list) and
discussion usually reveal the experience of the writer(s).
• I try to be very careful with the reference list – if there are many
mistakes in simple tasks are there even more in more complex
parts of the manuscript?
– If possible, communicate with other researchers before
submitting the manuscript.
APA -style
•
APA –style
–
–
American Psychology Association (APA, 2001).
De facto standard in social sciences.
•
–
Also Harvard style is in wide use.
An example of reference in APA –style:
•
The hypothetical dilemmas can also be seen as being too
abstract and removed from the daily experiences of most
people (Straughan, 1975).
– Straughan, R. (1975). Hypothetical moral situations. Journal
of Moral Education, 4(3), 183-189.
APA -style
•
APA –style
–
An example of citation and quotation.
Sanders et al.
(1995) has
already been in
the text, so we
use ”et al.” in
following
references.
Thoma et al.
(1999) has more
than three
authors and thus
it is referred in a
short form in all
occasions.
This finding is against Sanders et al. (1995) conclusion that DIT
is simply another way of measuring verbal ability, but in
parallel with finding that ”DIT scores describe a latent
variable that is distinct from verbal ability” (Thoma et al.,
1999, p. 325).
» Sanders, C. E., Lubinski, D., & Benbow, C. P. (1995). Does
the Defining Issues Test measure psychological
phenomena distinct from verbal ability? An examination
of Lykken's query. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 69(3), 498-504.
» Thoma, S. J., Rest, J., Narváez, D., & Derryberry, P.
(1999). Does Moral Judgment Development Reduce to
Political Attitudes or Verbal Ability: Evicence Using the
Defining Issues Test. Review of Educational Psychology,
11, 325-342.
APA -style
•
APA –style
–
An example of periodical in reference list:
Bar-On, R., Tranel, D., Denburg, N. L., & Bechara, A. (2003).
Exploring the neurological substrate of emotional and social
intelligence. Brain, 126(3), 1790-1800.
Journal name
Volume
Pages
Issue
APA -style
•
APA –style
–
An example of book chapter or proceedings:
Boekaerts, M., & Niemivirta, M. (2000). Self-regulation in
learning: finding a balance between learning and egoprotective goals. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M.
Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of Self-regulation (pp. 417-450).
San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
APA -style
•
APA –style
–
An example of book chapter or proceedings:
Article title
Editors
Name of publ.
Pages
Publication place
Publisher
Boekaerts, M., & Niemivirta, M. (2000). Self-regulation in
learning: finding a balance between learning and egoprotective goals. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, & M.
Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of Self-regulation (pp. 417-450).
San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
CA refers to California, only
used with US states.
p. Reference to a single page
pp. Several pages
APA -style
•
APA –style
–
Book
Wellington, J. (2003). Getting Published. A guide for lecturers and
researchers. London: RoutledgeFalmer.
–
Oral presentation:
Nokelainen, P., & Ruohotie, P. (2009, April). Characteristics that
Typify Successful Finnish World Skills Competition Participants.
Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American
Educational Research Association, San Diego, CA, USA.
APA -style
•
APA –style
–
Online resource:
EQ Symposium (2004). About Reuven BarOn’s Involvement in
Emotional Intelligence. Retrieved April 13, 2007, from
http://www.cgrowth.com/rb_biolrg.html
APA -style
•
Second hand references are allowed but not
recommended.
APA -style
–
In the 1980’s, Karnes and Brown (1981) made an initial
investigation on moral development and the gifted using
Rest’s DIT. Their sample included 233 gifted students (9 –
15 years in age) who were selected for a gifted program.
(Tirri, Nokelainen & Mahkonen, 2009.)
–
–
Karnes, F., & Brown, K. (1981). Moral development and the
gifted: An initial investigation. Roper Review, 3, 8-10.
Tirri, K., Nokelainen, P., & Mahkonen, M. (2009). How Morality
and Religiosity Relate to Intelligence: A Case Study of
Mathematically Gifted Adolescents. Journal of Empirical
Theology, 22, 70-87.
APA -style
–
In the 1980’s, Karnes and Brown (1981) made an initial
investigation on moral development and the gifted using
Rest’s DIT. Their sample included 233 gifted students (9 –
15 years in age) who were selected for a gifted program.
(Tirri, Nokelainen & Mahkonen, 2009.)
A dot inside
parenthesis indicates
that Karnes & Brown
(1981) is a second
hand reference (it is
not included in the
reference list).
APA -style
–
In the 1980’s, Karnes and Brown (1981) made an initial
investigation on moral development and the gifted using
Rest’s DIT. Their sample included 233 gifted students (9 –
15 years in age) who were selected for a gifted program
(Tirri, Nokelainen & Mahkonen, 2009).
If the position of the
dot is moved outside
the parenthesis, Karnes
and Brown becomes
first hand reference.
APA -style
–
According to Tirri, Nokelainen and Mahkonen (2009),
Karnes and Brown (1981) made an initial investigation on
moral development and the gifted using Rest’s DIT. Their
sample included 233 gifted students (9 – 15 years in age)
who were selected for a gifted program.
This is a better way to
indicate a second hand
reference. Only first
hand references are
placed in the reference
list.
Test your APA knowledge: What is WRONG with the following reference list?
Cohen, J. (1988) Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Second Edition.
Hillsdale, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham R. L. & Black, W. C. (1995). Multivariate data analysis.
Fourth edition. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
Howell, David (1997). Statistical Methods for Psychology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth
Publishing Company.
Nokelainen, P., & Tirri, H. (2007). The Essential Benefits of Using Bayesian Modeling in
Professional Growth Research. In S. Saari & T. Varis (Eds.), Professional Growth, 413423). Hämeenlinna, FI: RCVE.
Kerlinger, F. 1986. Foundations of Behavioral Research. Third Edition. New York: CBS College
Publishing.
Tirri, K., and Nokelainen, P. (2008). Identification of multiple intelligences with the Multiple
Intelligence Profiling Questionnaire III. Psychology Science Quarterly, 50(2), 206-221.
Test your APA knowledge: Corrected list
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Second edition.
Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham R. L., & Black, W. C. (1995). Multivariate data analysis.
Fourth edition. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
Howell, D. (1997). Statistical Methods for Psychology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing
Company.
Kerlinger, F. (1986). Foundations of Behavioral Research. Third edition. New York: CBS
College Publishing.
Nokelainen, P., & Tirri, H. (2007). The Essential Benefits of Using Bayesian Modeling in
Professional Growth Research. In S. Saari, & T. Varis (Eds.), Professional Growth (pp.
413-423). Hämeenlinna: RCVE.
Tirri, K., & Nokelainen, P. (2008). Identification of multiple intelligences with the Multiple
Intelligence Profiling Questionnaire III. Psychology Science Quarterly, 50(2), 206-221.
Structure of a scientific report
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
Title
Author(s) name(s) and affiliation(s)
Abstract and keywords
Introduction / Goals or aims of the study (periodicals: research
questions)
Theoretical framework / literature review (periodicals: research
questions)
Research questions (dissertation)
Method
7.1 Sample, participants
7.2 Measures / instruments
7.3 Procedure
7.4 Statistical analyses
Results
Conclusion(s) and/or Summary
Discussion
Acknowledgements / credits
References
Appendix(es)
Writing scientific reports
• 1. Introduction
• School leadership is currently one of the most widely studied and
published areas in social sciences. However, leadership as a social
process, affecting both end products and personnel emotions, is
seldom studied (Nokelainen & Ruohotie, 2006). In this sense one
interesting direction to look at is Emotional Intelligence (EI)
research that has recently become one of the most important
constructs in modern psychological research. EI refers to “the
competence to identify, express and understand emotions,
assimilate emotions in thought, and regulate both positive and
negative emotions in one and others” (Matthews, Zeidner &
Roberts, 2002, p. 123).
Writing scientific reports
• 2. Theoretical Framework
• The theory as formulated by Salovey and Mayer (1990; Mayer &
Salovey, 1997) framed EI within a model of intelligence.
Goleman’s model formulates EI in terms of a theory of
performance (1998b). Goleman argues (2001) that an EI-based
theory of performance has direct applicability to the domain of
work and organizational effectiveness, particularly predicting
excellence in jobs of all kinds, from sales to leadership. Goleman,
Boyatzis and McKee further state (2002, p. 38) that EI
characteristics are not innate talents, but learned abilities.
Writing scientific reports
• 2. Theoretical Framework
• Theoretical framework is summarized in Figure 1. Figure
represents self-regulation (Zimmerman, 1998, 2000) as a system
concept (Boekaerts & Niemivirta, 2000) managing leadership
behavior through interactive processes between motivation,
volition, emotion, attention, metacognition and action control
systems. As Markku Hannula (2006) points out, self-regulation
should be seen to be much more than mere metacognition.
Figure 1. Self-regulation as a system concept managing leadership competence
through interactive processes between different control systems. (Adapted from
Zimmerman, 2000, p. 15-16.)
Writing scientific reports
• 2. Theoretical Framework
• Daniel Goleman popularized the term emotional intelligence and
claimed that EI was “as powerful and at times more powerful than
IQ” in predicting life success (1995, p. 34). He aimed to show in his
studies that emotional and social factors are important (1995,
1998a), but his “views on EI often went far beyond the evidence
available” (Brackett et al., 2004). A recent study showed that most
popular EI and ability measures are only related at r < .22, i.e.
about five per cent of common variance (Brackett & Mayer, 2003).
Brackett, M. A., Lopes, P., Ivcevic, Z., Pizarro, D., Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (2004).
Integrating emotion and cognition: The role of emotional intelligence. In D. Dai, & R. J.
Sternberg (Eds.), Motivation, emotion, and cognition: Integrating perspectives on
intellectual functioning (pp. 175-194). Mahawah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Writing scientific reports
• 3. Method
• 3.1 Sample
• The non-probability sample consists of 124 Finnish teachers from
four comprehensive (n = 84) and two upper secondary (n = 40)
schools. All the schools were located in Helsinki, capital of Finland
(about 560 000 inhabitants, 9.3% of total population 5 223 442).
Each respondent was personally invited to complete a paper and
pencil version of the questionnaire. Participants were asked to
evaluate their attitude towards the statements measuring
emotional leadership.
Writing scientific reports
• 3. Method
• 3.1 Sample
• The respondents’ age was classified into four categories: (1) 21 to
30 years old (n = 18, 14.5%); (2) 31 to 40 years old (n = 25, 20.2%);
(3) 41 to 50 years old (n = 34, 27.4%); (4) over 50 years old (n = 39,
31.5%). Seventy per cent of the respondents were females (n = 87,
70.2%), the rest were males (n = 29, 23.4%).
Writing scientific reports
• 3. Method
• 3.2 Instrument
• Emotional Leadership Questionnaire operationalises Goleman and
his colleagues (2002) four domains of emotional intelligence
characteristics with 51 items: (1) self-awareness, (2) selfmanagement, (3) social awareness and (4) relationship
management. Table 1 depicts four EL domains and the eighteen
associated characteristics (see Appendix for item level details).
Writing scientific reports
• 4. Results
• Next, we examine with descriptive statistics how subordinates’
evaluated their superior’s emotional leadership. Table 1 shows
that the school principals had quite strong self-awareness (M = 3.7
– 3.8, SD = 0.8 – 1.0). This finding is natural, as especially selfconfidence is an important characteristic of a good leader. On the
other hand, we suspect that this result is partly a self-fulfilling
prophecy as teachers expect to see those atypical Finnish
mentality characteristics strongly present in their leaders.
Writing scientific reports
• 4. Results
Figure 2. Comparison of disagreement (SD) between the three age
groups on the IRSSQ dimensions.
Figure 2. Comparison of disagreement (SD) between the three age
groups on the IRSSQ dimensions.
Figure 3. Bayesian network of Finnish school principals Emotional
Leadership competencies.
Figure 3. Bayesian network of Finnish school principals Emotional
Leadership competencies.
1. Encouraging leadership
Figure 9. A box-plot showing differences in
encouraging leadership between the nine
departments
Writing scientific reports
• 5. Conclusions
• In this paper, we presented a 51 item self-rating Likert-scale
Emotional Leadership Questionnaire (ELQ) that operationalises
Goleman’s and his colleagues (2002) four domains of emotional
intelligence. Our goal in this paper was to study with an empirical
sample the construct validity of the four-domain model (Goleman
et al., 2002) of EL. The non-probability sample consisted of 124
Finnish school teachers from six different capital area schools.
Writing scientific reports
• 6. Discussion
• We asked teacher’s to evaluate their superiors according to our
fixed, person-related questions. In the next version of the ELQ, we
will add an additional scale measuring the importance of each
question in a five-point Likert scale. This allows us to compare
personal level EL factors to other measures, for example, the
Multiple Intelligences Profiling Questionnaire (MIPQ), an
operationalization of Howard Gardner’s’ MI theory (Tirri, K.,
Komulainen & Tirri, H., 2002).
Writing scientific reports
• References (APA style, http://www.apa.org)
• Bar-On, R., Tranel, D., Denburg, N. L., & Bechara, A. (2003). Exploring the
neurological substrate of emotional and social intelligence. Brain, 126(3), 17901800.
• Boekaerts, M., & Niemivirta, M. (2000). Self-regulation in learning: finding a
balance between learning and ego-protective goals. In M. Boekaerts, P. R.
Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of Self-regulation (pp. 417-450). San
Diego, CA: Academic Press.
• Carmines, E. G., & Zeller, R. A. (1979). Reliability and Validity. Beverly Hills, CA:
Sage Publications.
• EQ Symposium (2004). About Reuven BarOn’s Involvement in Emotional
Intelligence. Retrieved April 13, 2007, from
http://www.cgrowth.com/rb_biolrg.html
Writing scientific reports
• Other reference styles in various social science
periodicals: Journal of Econometrics
• ‘Smith (1992) reported that...’
• ‘This problem has been studied previously (e.g., Smith et al., 1969) …’
• For monographs
Hawawini, G. and I. Swary, 1990, Mergers and acquisitions in the U.S. banking
industry: Evidence from the capital market North-Holland, Amsterdam.
• For contributions to collective works
Brunner, K. and A.H. Meltzer, 1990, Money supply, in: B.M. Friedman and F.H.
Hahn, (Eds.), Handbook of monetary economics, Vol. 1. North-Holland,
Amsterdam, pp. 357-396.
• For periodicals
Griffiths, W. and G. Judge, 1992, Testing and estimating location vectors when
the error covariance matrix is unknown. Journal of Econometrics 54, 121-138.
Writing scientific reports
• Other reference styles in various social science
periodicals: Journal of Empirical Theology
•
•
•
•
•
Contributors are requested to limit their references to a maximum of 20. The JET uses
the author-date method, i.e. the author’s name and year of publication are inserted,
between brackets, in the text at the appropriate point, e.g. (Jones 1966). The complete
references should be listed alphabetically at the end of the paper, under author’s name
followed by the date of the work in parentheses. Names of journals should be in italics,
followed by volume number, part number in parentheses and page numbers, e.g.:
Brown, D. (1985). “Struggle till daybreak: On the Nature of Authority in Theology” in The
Journal of Religion, 65(1), 15-32.
Titles of books should be cursive. The title should be followed by publisher name and
place, e.g.:
Peterson, D. (1952). Handbook of Pastoral Theology. London: Row Peterson.
Footnotes should be kept to the essential minimum.
Writing scientific reports
• Other reference styles in various social science
periodicals: Journal of Economic Behavior &
Organization
•
All citations in the text should refer to:
- Single Author: the Author's name (without initials, unless there is ambiguity) and the
year of publication;
- Two Authors: both Authors' names and the year of publication;
- Three or more Authors: first Author's name followed by "et al." and the year of
publication. Examples: "as demonstrated in Allan (1996a, 1996b, 1999) and Allan and
Jones (1995). Lee et al. (2000) have recently shown“
•
Reference to a journal publication:
-Griffiths, W., Judge, G., 1992. Testing and estimating location vectors when the error
covariance matrix is unknown. Journal of Econometrics 54, 121-138 (note that journal
names are not to be abbreviated).
Writing scientific reports
• Other reference styles in various social science
periodicals: Journal of Economic Behavior &
Organization
•
Reference to a book:
-Maddala, G.S., 1983. Limited Dependent and Qualitative Variables in Econometrics.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
-Reinganum, J., 1989. The timing of innovation: research development and diffusion. In:
Schmalansee, R., Willig, R. (Eds.). Handbook of Industrial Organization, Vol. I.
Amsterdam: North-Holland, 849-908.
Web references :
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last
accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a
source publication, etc.), should also be given.
References
American Educational Research Association (2006). Standards for reporting on
empirical social science research in AERA publications. Retrieved September
15, 2009, from
http://www.aera.net/publications/Default.aspx?menu_id=32&id=1850
American Educational Research Association (2009). Standards for reporting on
humanities-oriented research in AERA publications. Educational Researcher,
38(6), 481-486.
American Psychological Association (2001). The Publication Manual of the
American Psychological Association. 5th edition. Washington, DC: American
Psychological Association.
Elsevier (2010). Publishing Ethics Resource Kit. Retrieved 25 October, 2010
from: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/editorshome.editors/Introduction
Gopen, G., & Swan, J. (1990). The Science of Scientific Writing. American
Scientist, 78(6). Retrieved 25 October, 2010 from:
http://www.americanscientist.org/issues/feature/the-science-of-scientificwriting/1
References
OECD (2002). Frascati Manual 2002: Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys
on Research and Experimental Development. Paris: OECD.
Owl Editing (2009). APA Style Guide, Part 1. Retrieved 25 October, 2010 from:
http://www.owled.com/apa1.html
Salmivalli, C. (2010). Bullying and the peer group: A review. Aggression and
Violent Behavior, 15, 112–120.
de Vaus, D. A. (2004). Research Design in Social Research. Third edition.
London: Sage.
Wellington, J. (2003). Getting Published. A guide for lecturers and researchers.
London: RoutledgeFalmer.
Internet sources
Scientific writing guides
• Some thoughts on writing a scientific paper or thesis
http://www.gly.uga.edu/railsback/writing1.html
• Writing Scientific Manuscripts
http://www.jyi.org/resources/320/Guide%20to%20Science%20Writing.pdf
• Scientific Writing Booklet
http://www.biochem.arizona.edu/marc/Sci-Writing.pdf
Internet sources
Scientific search engines
• Scirus
http://www.scirus.com/srsapp
• Scholar Google
http://scholar.google.fi
Internet sources
Scientific styles
– APA
• APA (homepage)
http://www.apastyle.org
• Capital Community College (how to create a paper )
http://webster.commnet.edu/apa
• Ohio State University (examples of references)
http://library.osu.edu/sites/guides/apagd.php
Internet sources
Scientific styles
– Harvard
• University of Western Australia
http://www.library.uwa.edu.au/help/guides/harvard_citation_style
• Monash University (examples)
http://www.lib.monash.edu.au/tutorials/citing/harvard.html