5-1 PRINCIPLES OF MARKETING Eighth Edition Philip Kotler and Gary Armstrong Chapter 5 Consumer Markets and Consumer Buyer Behavior Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall Consumer Buying Behavior • Consumer Buying Behavior refers to the buying behavior of final consumers (individuals & households) who buy goods and services for personal consumption. • Study consumer behavior to answer: “How do consumers respond to marketing efforts the company might use?” Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall 5-2 Model of Consumer Behavior Product Price Marketing and Other Stimuli 5-3 Economic Technological Place Political Promotion Cultural Buyer’s Decision Process Product Choice Brand Choice Buyer’s Black Box Buyer’s Response Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior Purchase Timing Purchase Amount Dealer Choice Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall Characteristics Affecting Consumer Behavior Culture Social Personal Psychological Buyer Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall 5-4 Factors Affecting Consumer Behavior: Culture • Most basic cause of a person's wants and behavior. • Values • Perceptions Subculture Social Class • Groups of people with shared value systems based on common life experiences. • People within a social class tend to exhibit similar buying behavior. • Hispanic Consumers • Occupation • African American Consumers • Income • Asian American Consumers • Education • Mature Consumers • Wealth Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall 5-5 Factors Affecting Consumer Behavior: Social 5-6 Groups •Membership •Reference Family •Husband, wife, kids •Influencer, buyer, user Roles and Status Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall Social Factors Factors Affecting Consumer Behavior: Personal 5-7 Personal Influences Age and Family Life Cycle Stage Occupation Economic Situation Personality & Self-Concept Lifestyle Identification Activities Opinions Interests Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall VALS 2 5-8 Actualizers Principle Oriented Status Oriented Abundant Resources Action Oriented Fulfilleds (Innovator) Achievers Experiencers Believers Strivers Makers Strugglers Minimal Resources Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall 5-9 VALS – According to SRI Int’l Innovator. These consumers are on the leading edge of change, have the highest incomes, and such high self-esteem and abundant resources that they can induldge in any or all self-orientations. They are located above the rectangle. Image is important to them as an expression of taste, independence, and character. Their consumer choices are directed toward the "finer things in life." Thinkers. These consumers are the high-resource group of those who are motivated by ideals. They are mature, responsible, welleducated professionals. Their leisure activities center on their homes, but they are well informed about what goes on in the world and are open to new ideas and social change. They have high incomes but are practical consumers and rational decision makers. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall 5-10 Vals..ctd.. Believers. These consumers are the low-resource group of those who are motivated by ideals. They are conservative and predictable consumers who favor American products and established brands. Their lives are centered on family, church, community, and the nation. They have modest incomes. Achievers. These consumers are the high-resource group of those who are motivated by achievement. They are successful workoriented people who get their satisfaction from their jobs and families. They are politically conservative and respect authority and the status quo. They favor established products and services that show off their success to their peers. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall 5-11 Vals..ctd.. Strivers. These consumers are the low-resource group of those who are motivated by achievements. They have values very similar to achievers but have fewer economic, social, and psychological resources. Style is extremely important to them as they strive to emulate people they admire. Experiencers. These consumers are the high-resource group of those who are motivated by self-expression. They are the youngest of all the segments, with a median age of 25. They have a lot of energy, which they pour to physical exercise and social activities. They are avid consumers, spending heavily on clothing, fast-foods, music, and other youthful favorites, with particular emphasis on new products and services. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall 5-12 Vals..ctd.. Makers. These consumers are the low-resource group of those who are motivated by self-expression. They are practical people who value self-sufficiency. They are focused on the familiarfamily, work, and physical recreation-and have little interest in the broader world. As consumers, they appreciate practical and functional products. Survivors. These consumers have the lowest incomes. They have too few resources to be included in any consumer selforientation and are thus located below the rectangle. They are the oldest of all the segments, with a median age of 61. Within their limited means, they tend to be brand-loyal consumers. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall Factors Affecting Consumer Behavior: Psychological Motivation Beliefs and Attitudes Psychological Factors Learning Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall Perception 5-13 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self Actualization (Self-development) Esteem Needs (self-esteem, status) Social Needs (sense of belonging, love) Safety Needs (security, protection) Physiological Needs (hunger, thirst) Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall 5-14 Types of Buying Decisions 5-15 High Involvement Low Involvement Significant differences between brands Complex Buying Behavior VarietySeeking Behavior Few differences between brands DissonanceReducing Buying Behavior Habitual Buying Behavior Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall The Buyer Decision Process Need Recognition Information Search Evaluation of Alternatives Purchase Decision Postpurchase Behavior Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall 5-16 The Buyer Decision Process 5-17 Step 1. Need Recognition Need Recognition Difference between an actual state and a desired state Internal Stimuli External Stimuli • Hunger • TV advertising • Thirst • Magazine ad • A person’s normal needs • Radio slogan •Stimuli in the environment Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall The Buyer Decision Process 5-18 Step 2. Information Search Personal Sources •Family, friends, neighbors •Most influential source of information Commercial Sources •Advertising, salespeople •Receives most information from these sources Public Sources Experiential Sources Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall •Mass Media •Consumer-rating groups •Handling the product •Examining the product •Using the product The Buyer Decision Process 5-19 Step 3. Evaluation of Alternatives Product Attributes Evaluation of Quality, Price, & Features Degree of Importance Which attributes matter most to me? Brand Beliefs What do I believe about each available brand? Total Product Satisfaction Based on what I’m looking for, how satisfied would I be with each product? Evaluation Procedures Choosing a product (and brand) based on one or more attributes. Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall The Buyer Decision Process Step 4. Purchase Decision Purchase Intention Desire to buy the most preferred brand Attitudes of others Unexpected situational factors Purchase Decision Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall 5-20 The Buyer Decision Process Step 5. Postpurchase Behavior Consumer’s Expectations of Product’s Performance Product’s Perceived Performance Dissatisfied Customer Satisfied Customer! Cognitive Dissonance Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall 5-21 Stages in the Adoption Process Awareness Interest Evaluation Trial Adoption Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall 5-22 Early Majority Innovators Percentage of Adopters Adoption of Innovations Early Adopters 34% Late Majority Laggards 34% 16% 13.5% 2.5% 5-23 Time of Adoption Late Early Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall Influences on the Rate of Adoption of New Products Communicability Relative Advantage Can results be easily observed or described to others? Is the innovation superior to existing products? Divisibility Product Characteristics Can the innovation be used on a trial basis? Complexity Is the innovation difficult to understand or use? Copyright 1999 Prentice Hall 5-24 Compatibility Does the innovation fit the values and experience of the target market?